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CARLOS'8 SHAKY THRONE
Till: CRISIS IN Tin: PORTUGUESE GOV? ERNMENT AND ITS CAUSES. - CONTEST BETWEEN THE LI ?" T Ulf '" Ai I) TH1: BOYAL PARTY. THE DEGRADATION OF THR PEASANTS AND YHB REPUBLICANISM OP THR CITY IV ?PLE TWO ROYAL LADIES AT s'.' ir.l 9' POIN ." ? "v\"b' n the prln? Ipal m wspai > rs .?f a m ?narehl- ; cal country begin lo hold up the sovereign to ; public obloquy as .1 "manifest coward." as a I "rldii i.i' us and usi ' ? In li ." ai d as "an h cap- i able fool." and loudly demand thai hi should taki his departun at I make waj for the estab Uabmenl ? f i Republic, "the only form ? I % >v- ; ernmenl consistent with human dignity, com mon-.S'-'is?? and mod? rn progress," thi n a n \- lu- i tlon may be regard? d as I mm ln< nt, and the > ver thro-.v >.f the thrtmc Is al hand. This Is the state of affairs in Portugal, which Is "f so-:h cxtremi gravity that King Humbert has considered It necessary hurriedly to dispatch two Italian ?r.'ti i clads to i,i. i "t. f, r t]).. purj ose "f affi rdlng r? f u?:" and m.ans if escape ;?> his favorite sister. the Dowager Que? n Pia, as \ ell as to his nephew and niece, th.- reigning King and Queen, when, the en ?-. n Is Hi,ally toi n ft i --i their fi - ble pi asp and they are driven Into thai path of < .ii- .\hi h has been trodden by the feel ??f bo many royal ; tgi . ? n ':? : 11 a i --- nlr.ete nth century. For th.- last few pesws the ib-turban e- In Cuba ha\- had the effect of concentrating the atten? tion of th.- American people to such an extenl upon Spain that little er no note has V? n taken of the march of events in the neighboring king? dom >.f Portugal, and while much has been heard of the likelihood of republics being proclaimed , at Madrid, at Christiania, at Athen:; and at Brus? sels, few teem t" i"- aware that the knell of the JBraganaa dynasty ?. now h< big tolled a: Lisbon Few win regret King ?'arlos, either at home or abroad. For in the ?y s of the ?Legitimists and if the old-fashioned courts of Europe, which regard th?- law of heredity and primogeniture as the chief principle and foundation of the mon? archical systi in. he is n thing more than a usurper, the rightful sovereign being I>uke Miguel of Hragar./.a, who stands in precisely the same position toward the throne of Portugal as Don Carlos occupies toward that of Spain. For in th.? same way that the crown of the latter ought by right to have gone at the death of King Ferdinand to his brother, Don C'arb-s the senior, Instead of to His Majesty's daughter Isabella. so too should the cmwn of Portugal bave passed, on the abdication of King Pedro IV, to his brother Dom Miguel, Inatead <>f t.. his daughter, who became Qu<< n under the name of Maria delta (?loria. I ?on Carlos In Spain and Dom Migu?-1 in Por? tugal both resisted to the utmost this usurpation of the rights whlcb they indubitably possessed under th" laws of legitimacy, and found their principal adherents anx.r.g those whose political creed was "in- of clericalism and reaction, the two countries being Involved in civil war at the ran-.?-, time, and from causes "f an almost Identi? cal nature, in each c.se the struggle resulted in the defeat of the Legitimists and in the victory of the young Queens. D n Carlos as wi 11 as Dorn Mil '" l being ? xlled from the peninsula and com pell? ! t" S'.-k refuge in Austria, where in course of time they both died, Miguel bequeathing his, rights t?. th?- Portuguese throne to his son, the pr?s? nt Duke of Braganza, an ? (Roer of the Aus 11 i- n i avail y, ? hile the claims ? t Don < 'cr!?->s are now vested in th" person <-f his grandson, who bears the same name as himself, and who is r? * oi :? d to be ?'ii th'- ??-. ? i f making another . ff?>rt to secure possession of Ihe crown of his grand unclc King Ferdinand. ir this tit < t" and? nt history is r. c;ii.-d her", ?t is with the objecl of demonstrating how little support King Carl? s of Portugal can exi eel from th? ? ? ho In oth? r m< nan hical i ountrie. constl >? ; me principal bulwark i f the throne, namely, . -, ; ry and the orlstocr y, both of v. hieb, of course, le-?k to the I uke of Braganza, wh se suce .-s would, they are convinced, result in a restoration of old-time power, pr?rogative? and Influence to the Church and lo 'he nobility, whl< h was d prived "f all ???' It?, hereditary privileges under the r.-i;;n of the late King. NO HOPE FROM THE MIDDLE CLASSES [? lually !' p* '? -' ?re the pr< sp cts "f as. Ist ence from th" middle and lower classes. All :..?? political lif" and vigor "f Portugal, the Intelli? gence, th.- -nllghtt-nment, ti.-- Industry and the . . merce "f th' nation are centred In the prln ? ipsj < Uli a and towns, th ? rural dlrtrictf of small account, politically speaking. For, ? -.? lo:.- i?. tl-. ' fact that the railroads, few in numb, r, *?>..?,, b( n I Ulli f r th?- 1 ."'i: if the url i ; pu latii n and v. Ith - :t any n f- n nee to t; ?? uuire ,... : de> i lopmi nt of agricultun , the i i antry have n main. <i u aff? ? b : by progress being ste< ped, ? n the ci niia:>. In the c, ranee <?!' ihr ? nlui ;o and utt? r jy ,. Hfferent to i vi rything i zc pi to the b< hi sts of tli ir ?a i Bts and the exactloi s of the tax col Mel r. It is Immaterial to them who ? executive power al Lisbon. Perhaps Ihey do not even know. They cannot read or write, the fates! official retnrna Issued by the Portugu? ?? Government showing tha! no less tl in 82 per cent of the inhabitants of the kingdom, thai Is to say. ov? r f? ur .illlons of Ihe total population "f live millions, are entirely illiterate, and as such Asbarred from the polls. Ridiculous th .ugh It --say appear under the circumstances, the edu- , ?jntlonal test constitutes one of the quallfli nions j Bm the exercise of the electoral franchise. Jui t at j the present mom if, hov? ver, the i -': inntry are seething with discontent, due to the excessive and ever-increasing taxation to which they are ubjectcd, and they will cheerfully wel ? me and submit to any chai ge i ." rulers, n?*> mat) r what it is. thai will tend to alleviate the crushing burden of Imp . t.-- with which Ihey are at prcs ? nt lit. raiiy ov -rwhelmi d. Th. i.:! an population Is republican to the v( ry core. T!r ? . ! amber i of c mm? r< e, the indu I : ullds, thi :. i lati. ns ol n Ii e-gr and win.- d. all rs, the banking cl. six. the I ? ' mi II .1 ,: I .?ins. ;!;.- faculties, and student* of thi vari. ?- - ?it: i ?. ? -ri: lea and i '?' nay, even the very oflU rs and B??ldlera of thi ? ... particularly thi Bcientlfii branches of the latter, ar.- near!? all <,<:'.>? pr ?'? .. - . foci of the ? ? n archy and acknowledg. i republicana, ?ho arc firmly convinced thai Portugal will never re? cover h. r f. . mi ;? i r' ip rity aid her i ?? among th. n '.h, ? of the world ?intil shi adopts a form of f ?vcrnment that en i I i a le .? l.'irht Ing Influ? i... upon the lif?- .ft'.. han the ! ?pli rabl? rule of the house of Bra** n i Aa for i!.?- urba . lai or ? ' ment, it .. aim i l wl ill) So. . ills!. Until : lly nellhi r tl e King n r hia Mir; later? -? ? : tibie lo gather sufllci nt ? urage ?r .-on.!, -'i ??? ::h energy t<*? ?'? a! . Ith thla ? m .in Ion ol a : ? Thej dfd ti .1 dai ? ; i i ? ?? ? i'..' ;,. : ;.:... Garcia, who i . ne ? ? '?'?? republl < ;.?? i hi fs, I -. . hi - ; lai i ...- ,?: if r of mili? tary engineering ;.t the army nchool at Lisbon, which la ?' ? Portuguese counterpaii of Wesl &.ING GARLOS OF PORTUGAL. Point, Nor has the King made any attempt yet t-? i 'move from the roster of ti e army the name ? f Latino Coclho, who, In addition to bis corn mis- Ion o general f ' ' 111? ry, Is pn tl lent of ?h" Ptati Pol ' ? hule F :. '1 at Lisbon and member of the Nut lona 1 Academy of Sciences. Tel he la the second of the triumvirate which direct the d >tlny of thi republican cause in Portugal. True, thi King n one occasion caused the summary arr< ?t al a pu Ing of Man o? i Arriaga the c?*lebrated and popular lawyer 1 ren >w m d is t1.. : > si - i iquent < ;-at..r of the Ian 1 of Ca? .' ? n i, v. ho I tl third f the <? lum .irai But after ?ink ?? i had Ik ? n detain 1 foi a r upie of ?i:, y? oi ' ?ird a nan-of-wa r '.. Ing al i ?? li >r In the Tnru' ? > K i ?? gol f :?'.-.t and had him ne! al lib rty. .' II Ihi pi I in Ipal n. wi of Llsl ? . i " rto and ? f the other t ?-a: vli il I) pu! '. an, v) Ing with on nnothi r In th< it d< i ? of the King In I ict, Ihe lattei mis ez . ? pi am ng th .: . I: thai I* to Fay, the bureaueiuis of Hi ivl a portion of the admli Isl i ation. M \'i' i'l R9 AT A CRISIS Now, h? ?ever, matters have reached s crisis. The kingdom, with a national deb! of nearly, .- i.fiij '?.?i??? and onlj WO.OlKJ.O HJ rev? nut on lo, ' r, is bai :rupt, thi In ? ir; ei , ->, and the ' Govi rnm i .ithout a v< ? of fin inclal credit ? I, rt, ? ithi r abroad or ?it home, r-ith n i further mean i I* i nd tl National banks so depli ted of th -Ir bull?' n r< -? i .- that specie pay? ments havi Ions been . m pended by order of the ? Crown, i. now compelled to create fresh taxes ' in order to pr vi?le the nee. BSary fut"! ? for cirry ?in?; on th?- administration. These taxes hav been enacted by the Legislature, In which th ? "a! In. t. thanks to dishoi ? st manipulation of th ballot-box?*? and the abstention of by far th : irger part of the electors, has :? majority. I'u this majority in Parliament is very far fr?>n 1 r.-pr? ? ntlng the id-r.s of the majority of the peo pie, win. have assumed so threatening an attl lude toward the G ivernm. nl in connection witl its finan? la! pro ramme that, i? nd< r? ?I d< snerat? . the peril ivhich mena, b both Its existence ani ' thai of the mot : h Ihe Cabin, t has at lengtl ' l>egun a policy of terrorism and <>f despotism ? which can only b. c mi n d to that by whlcl the third Napoleon Inaugurated his reign In I'::)!.??, in 1S.M 11 ; ? are I.eine searched and I??? pi? ar.- h? lng arrested on >v< ry side, and only a spark la required t" sel In flames the revolution ?.\ i i ti will drive th present administration out , ?r oflice, and Kim: .l?.s from his throne. Tet, as monarchs go i ow ad r? ?. I 'o? Cari * can r. it be Jes? ritx*d as a had King. He Is certainly n . fo I, while phy-i.--i.ly. at any ra'e, he is no .'. i'd, whatevi r he may be politically. He has lierited, liowever, from his father not only the latter'fl excessive corpulency, but also Ids ex? traordinary Indolence and apathy In connection 1 with his duties of I'll? rsblp. The late Kin-r I.uis was the mosi easy-going and good-natured of ,-erelgns, s?. much bo, Indeed, tnat his readl n. s*. i.? forgive and forgel goaded his Italian ; wife, Queen Pia, to outbursts of passion and anger that have passed Into the domains of his _ i tory: as, for ln?tanc?, when In 1*?7') the disrep? utable old Duke of Saldanba, after having been caught making use of his official position to con? spire agalnsl the crown, had b en pardoned by the Kir.g on account of his previous services, Queen Pia strod" up to him in the council cham? ber, her eyes flashing with fury, and exclaimed: "Would to Heaven, Duke, thai I had been King, for you should ha\e been shot within twenty four hours." One '-an Imagine the French consort of the prei n! King speaking in precisely the same mann rashei mother-ln-Iaw. A daughter of tha C uni of Paris, and a ulster, therefore, of" the Duki of Orleans, Qu?*en Marie Am?lie ?.s every I li as mi : rful and as energel ?? as her bus ! a id': in Ih r, Qui :. PI I, and this Vi ry similar. ity ? f hara l< r ha i brought tin ; wo ladles Into Buch frequent conflicts thai their quarrels have . onu Ibu i li '!? m ralis? the King and to i .'',.? n still further his position. Pia was at the oui I of the present reign determined to wield Ihe same Influence over her eldest run, King Carlos, as she had exercised over his father, a project which, of course, was resisted by her daughter-in-law. Matten at one mo? ment reached sucha pitch thai Queen Pta was pul liciy cli irg-d with plotting a o tup d'? tat for the purpose of removing the King from the throne, and appointing h?-r second son, the Duke of Oporto, as Regent in his stead, pending the tain? ?ity ?-f the little Crown Prince, now only t> n years old. Then, too, there have been all sorts of troubles between tin. two ladies iu couuectiou with money I matten; for, whereas Qu<en Marl" Arn<*Me ta rk-h, and has Inherited all the economical pro pensities for which the house of Orleans la so unenvlably famed. Quern Pia Is frightfully ex? travagant, and Invariably short of cash, being compelled to make frequ. nt appeals to the purse Of her son, the King, and of h*?r brother, King Humbert of Italy. Ind.??!. It Is not so long ago that several of her servants, on being charged In the Lisbon courts with the theft of some of her bric-?-brac and Jewelry, w. re able t<> plead as an excuse that their wages had r> malned 'in paid for m?re than two y.-ars. Finally, it is Im? possible to deny that Queen Pia, in spit.? of her being a grandmother, is flighty in the extreme, win!?- Que? n Marie Am?lie Is > xeccdlngly domes tie and Imbued with a stroru, s'-nse of propriety. There an- many p. ople at Lisbon and clsewlure who are to this day convinced that it was the younger of these two roya! ladles who Instigated the arrest at night and summary deportation from th- kingdom of the popular Italian tenor Basslnl, who was being rendered conspicuous In th?? exinme by the tokens of admiration and even infatuation lavished upon him by the red haired (.?ueen I'ia. Had the two queens shown the pond sense tO pull together instead of apart, and combined their for.es to strengthen the throne of their son and husband, the crown might not to-day he so dangerously near falling to the ground, indeed, their quarrels, which have done so much to bring discredit upon the Court of Lb bon, are all the more t< be deplored, as they are each in her own particular way excellent women. Queen Pia, for instance, wears upon her breast a medal for the rescue of two children from drowning by plung? ing fully dressed into a gale-sw? pt sea, while Queen Marie Am?lie deserves immense credit for her Institution of hospitals and dispensaries at Lisbon, and especially for starting the treatment by antitoxin of dlpntheria, that terrible scourge of Portugal, she being the first t<> submit herself to inoculation with the serum in erd.-r to prove to the poor.-r ?lasses of the population that the remedy was attended by no danger. She Is, moreov? r, the only lady of royal birth who has the right to add the letters M. I>. t<? her name, having passe.] all her examinations and taken her degree as a full-fledged dor-tor of medicine. CARLOS*!! PERSONAL BRAVERY, King Carlos, too, Is a magnificent swimmer and, like his mother, has rescued a fellow-creat? ure from drowning; while on another occasion, when out driving on the outskirts of Li?hon, he Jump? d out of his carriage, felled with his stick to the ground, and then collared single-handed a burly highwayman, who w:>.s endeavoring to rob and knife a wayfarer. Moreover, until ?a few years ago. the King was renowned for Ills prow? ess as a "torr.ro," and any one who has had the opportunity of seeing him tackling an angry bull In the "corridas," which he was wont formerly to organise for th" entertainment of his friends and for the members of his court at Lisbon, will acquit him of any charges of cowardice that may be brought against him; that is to say, cow? ardice "f a physical chara? ter, since it is impos? sible to deny that he has lacked courage in deal? ing with the political situation. Only on one point have the two Querns been united, namdy. In the animosity which they have ?-ach of tln-m display, d toward that Ameri? can girl hailing from Boston who may be said for a time to have shared th. throne of Portugal, although she did not bear any sovereign title, but merely that of Countess. Queen Maria de la f?bula, whose accession to th.- throne led to the Miguel 1st and Legitimist civil wars in Portugal, die.l when h.-r children ?*ere still young, and P ?!- ling the minority of h.-r sons, h.-r husband, King Ferdinand, a prince of the house of flaxes. Coburg-Ootha, and a cousin, therefore, of Queen Vi? loria, oxer. Lsed monan hlcal sway as li< gent. Almost immediately on becoming a widower, he married a Hosten actress named Elise Hensler, whom h?? created Countess of i;,]?- and who now survives him. Bhe is a remarkably .lever woman, and lax royal husband . uring the period of h?r marriage was so blindly devoted to her that he may be said aim. t to hav.- ruled I'ur tiig.il through . m. Stepmother to the late King, and step-grand mother lo the present rui.-r, she still remains a conspicuous figure In Portuguese life, while the vast wealth and great landed possessions be? queathed to h< by Ferdinand render her a factor In politli s sufficiently powerful t,i be able to hold h' own against the two Qr., ?ns. Their quarrels with her constitute yet another dis? turbing element of the Portuguese court, and one is tempted ' believe that .f the losa of his throne will relieve him from further participa? tion in the merry war raging at Lisbon b> tween his French wife, his Italian mother and his American step-grandam, the outbreak ?f a rev lutlon and tin- Inauguration or a republic at Lisbon will h.- welcomed by no on more heartily than . ? fat, eas' gi ng, Indolent King ?'arlos. :x -Atta? 'ill:. GETTING Too NEAR II oil!'. Prom Answers. A Yorkshire Socialist, explaining t.. a friend the prim iples "f socialism. 11 marked that ?in ! ? ?-: .tu should be shai? d >? lually, "If you had two hones," Bald the friend, "would .von give m.- one?" "i ?f ? ourse." r oiled tie Socialist. "And if you had two cows, .?.nid you do the same .'" '( 'f course I should." "Well, supposing now," sail the friend slowly, "you had two pigs, would you give me one of them?" "Kb! ilia's gettln' ow.-r mar home," said tho other slyly; "ll.a luutWS I'vs got two pigs."