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MOSQUITOES AND MALARIA.
ABE THE FORMER THE CHIEF VEHICLES ? ?K THE LATTIMI'.' \ \?:?: TRAITS OF A NEWLY DISCOVERED PARASITE ? STARTMNQ T11EORT Th? extraordinary prevalence and pernicious :: tlvlty of tn.? mosquito In this ? art of the country during the last few weeks calls atten? tion ? ' a theory which has been wldel) discussed I .. m? di? al . \?. rts ibroad for more than a year. l; may be said, certainly with a show of truth? fulness, that thla destroyer of human bapptni has enough sins to answer for already without the addition of any further counts t?> the indict? ment, especially if these bitter cannot be fully established. That, however, is a question of ethics which need not lie dlacusaed in this con nectlon. The mosquito will be given a chance t.? stai?? ii. r side of th.? case before judgment is rend red. it is "her" side, because the natural ? di lai?? that only femai,? mosquitoes do the bi ng How tii?? male mosquito geta Ins living ? .? are n"t told. Not long after Lavorati discovered (?is be did a*, .ut Bevente? n y? ars ago) that there is a para s.t? p. ullar to malarial diseases, lu? found that this microscopic creature ex! ted not only in the blood . f fever and ami?? pati? nts but also in the stomachs of mosquitoes. Up to date ibis par tlcular form <?f lif?? has not been found in any other animal or inse?-t. Laveran was thus led t ? impeci that th? mosquito was an agent in the <;.-: n.lnatlon ?f malaria! poison. For more t.i..?: a decade, however, th?? medical profession ?..... disinclined t?. accept the parasitic theory of ?. laria. In the mean timi?, naturally, the m? ?? ?; ? was Ignored. Hut within the last two v?,.: such convincing evidence lia.?? been pre? sented by Independent Investigators that th?? tirsi part of Lav? ran's announcement is ???? crall) ? ?nsidered altoKether correct, it is now l: ? ? l ?. ther? fore, t" consider the other part of ii Low fat. if at all, is th? mosqult ? responsi ?? i??! ih?? distribution of malarial parasites a:o? ng human ubji ? is? If the question wen pul it: th? opposite fash Ion It might i"? answered easily Th?? mosquito tir?. ? hei Li l ? 'W a far enough Into a man's hand to suck blood She drinks hei till, if she '. not nterruptcd. Of whatever microbes, para sltei ? Inanimate poison that fluid contains, she i sure to take a sample, If she gets mor.? than : :,? likes, "f if she has an attack "f chills and fever a week or two later in consequence, <>f ? ? irsi . that is her own lookout. Sim does not paj for what she takes, and cannot justly blame her vieti,;. Th?? mosquito la credited with let tini sevcrelj alone people who indulge freely in alcoholic beverages la the int. risi of public morality, perhaps that fact oughl to be con? cealed Nevertheless, ii reveals th.? possession ?>f certain powers ??;' discernment. Ani if a mosquito knows enough not to touch an "old : iak." it is ? fair presumption that she has in telllg nee en lugh to abstain from bloi d Imbued with inalai ?a! poison if it disagrees with her live But thai is no) ih>? point Th?? real problem is. bow do th? parasites get back again into human l?l.!? This matter was discussed at consldi rabie I? ngth In an address given last year by Dr. Patrick Manson, physician to the Seamii s Hospital in London and lecturer in two other hospitals in that city. Dr. Manson says that a few ?lays after gorging herself with blood the mosquito lays lor eggs in the water and tli. i: dies. The parasites that ar?? left in her body ? ventually become free, and then may b?? drunk with tie? water, if the pond where? th?! mosquito ?li. a should dry up. and the parasites are 'left m the sediment, they may be blown about with Ihe ?lust, and thus be breathed ?nto th human system In corroboratlon of one part ??: this theory Dr. Donald Loss, of India, groui l op some "malarlalised mosquitoes" in water ga> ? small quantity "f th?? latter to a healthy native, who. eleven days later, ?1. v? loped ? ?'.?. r and agu? , G. might 1.bjecti I that, while tins is a natu? ral and possible way of communicating disease tu a huiean subject, it Is not the only one, and, in fact, it might seem to be the least probable of a number of ways. Dr. Manson, in antici? p?t:??!, "f that argument, goes int.? th?? life his t >r> an ? nature of the parasite very fully. p0r different malarial diseases there ar?? different species ?>f th?? parasite. Some an more readily detected than others, ?m they all behave in about the same manner. If. at the very begin? ning of a malarial attack, especially during a ?hill, th?? blood ??? examined, it will be found that ih?!?" ar?? minute clumps "f cells, like a ? roscoplc mulberry or hunch of grapes, each ? 1th a .lark ?pot in it. They ar?? Inclosed in a thin shell "f haemoglobin. Later In the course of th?? disease some of these escape fen: the shell, and are floating around sepi rately. Each r olojl". though, is a distended red corpuscle !: which there are on.? or more parasites Th?? latter undergo Borne change ot form, bui rarelj ?? :ap? m m the confines "f th.? corpuscle If ?.?..? does, a burly, ravenous phagocyte poun< s ori it and .h ws it up. l'ha:? ..vi?- by the way, .?.' certain ? "Ils in lh? blood w hii h ar?? en dited ? :'. .at ng miir lies and other pernicious things, and thus performing a wonderfully beneficent function. unless a little blood be taken rialti ..ut of th.? verna, therefore, iti som,. ?. waj as ih- mosquito takes it. l?r Man-.? thinks thai tii.? parasites would never hav.? a chance t.. reach other human subje? is t?. y do not im imi th.? excretions nor int?, ih.? m tesiinal canal. They do nul travel the roUK a by which most microbes pass from ?.ne pet ?n t? another. Bo long as thcj hav.? a human domicile, their only hope "f safety is in lying low and staying Insule of s corpuscle, in fact, belonging as ihey do to the "passiv. " class of parasites, they ?.? not (according t.? Dr. M in? s. .m exert themselves especially while they are in th?? human body. After they "..?! into a m equit?, on tl.ther hand, this Investigator believes lhal they be have very differently. To i.?? sin?-?, he has not carried his researches far enough to prove ihe ? ilnt He hi ? ? s to do s ? ? ventually. Al pres? ent he reas ins fr ?m analogy. Thi re Is an ?thei para: it,?, called th? filarla sometimes found in human blood. It is supposi d to be lb? cans ? "f the disease known sa elephantiasis Dr. Man Wah T.'-N'ish Is under na form "f restraint, excepting ili?? traditional honor, an?! it will be ab , ..bit? ly ..? his own motion that he will go from , Kansas city to his death next Saturday nii;ht. ? Murderers condemned under Indian laws In the , Territory are never imprisoned, but ar?? trusted j t?. he or. hand ?>n '??? date of the execution, and ? it is raid that but ? ne man has. ver failed to keep ! his appointment. PETROLEl M ? FOR UOSQl I TO ES. Mil?: CRUDE OIL BREMA TO BR EFFICACIOUS FOR DRIVING AWAY T*ME PESTS Untesi nppearanrea ar- de?reptlve ami no faith ?an be put In successful trial experimenta, a way has !.? discovered t?i eut short the itins qulto's career. Just what is to be don?? with this THE LAKE 1??????('??.\?: (?.?'G.. son says that this creature has be? p tak? p from a person by a mosquito, in tbe regular course >?f business, snd, wh ? thus transplanted, haa developed powers of Inning and locomotl m whi? h enabled it to work Its way from ti??? mos? quito's stomach to some other part nf Its body more favorable t. repose and multiplication Dr. Manson bellev??* that the malaria parasite d?.. .-? the san:?? thing. Interesting as are these conjectures, the) of fer little or no splsnation of the painful md alarming eft* "'?? v. hi? h have attended mosquito bites In this country within the last few weeks, The swelling produced In many of these cases suggests the possibility that the mosquito has bodily conveyed a small amount of distinctly poisonous matt? r un its proboscii from a person, animal or putrid matter on which it may have been f.lim: previously. Indeed, this s"?-ms t?i be the most plausible theory that one can bit upon Th?? mosquito Itself, if free from outside contamination, would be incapable of doing so much harm, especially to healthy ?.pie. The subject needs, and deserves, a laborious Investi? gation by American physicians. Whatever be th?? real cans? of the effects in question, and however defective Dr. Manson's theory regard? ing the relations of the mosquito to malaria may prove, the abolition ??f the breeding-places of that Insect, by the drainage ?>f th?? Jersey marshes, would meet with universal approval REPRIEVED TO PLAY BASEBALL. | Kansas ?'by correspondence ?if Th.? Cincinnati Enquirer Next Saturila) afternoon two teams of full blooded Choctaw Indians from th?? ?reservation | In Indian Territory will play a Kam?? of regula ? tion Indian ball, which is a cross betwei ? tennis pest in c? rtain suburbs of New-York in ai? ? coveting a pretty wide tract of country bus long t.? actively debated, for an Intelligent band of New-Jersey, Btaten Inland or I.ong isl? and mosquitoes <.??? do more to hold down real ? tal values in a locality than any other known force it has been proposed down -it Trenton, In fact, to fill in the Newark and Jersey City mradowa al great expense, firstly, t.. make new lands for manufacturing sites, of course but quite as much to kill ofl and ? ?xti rmlnate ib.s plagues. All such projects, however, have been m? r?? talk as yet. It has remained for a Siai.il Islander t<> make the first practical I I toward mosquito extermination, and his tests hav?? met considerabl? succ Tbe nun is Captain vV. B. Rockwi 1. of Mil land Beach, and iiis method ia unique, it con? sists of scattering crude petroleum over the marshes directly back of the strip of sand that forms this resort, by spraying and throwing th? liquid from dippers The -il. he found, would spread Itself over th- waters of tb- marshes for a great distance, ami comparatively nub? ?ni would suffire. Not only this, bul it would con? tinue to float on the water for som.? time, kep ing ?m throwing ?>?T the fume : that are de idly to mosquito !?f'?. it is in meadows near tin? sea, of course, that mosquiteraraortswarn and in??-?), and this sug gested to rapiniti Rockwell th?? project of cov? ering, a? It were, the marshes with oil Th. id? a ??f killing mosquitoes with petndeum is n?it absolutely new. Th?? Government scientists at Washington have known about it for som.? time, and several successful eX| ? I nn. ntS are OB record. But until Captain Rockwell tried it down at Midland Reach thla had never been tried upon a large seal?, ami when th- authorities Til!?: D! IDUS DUN Al THE BOATHOU8H ?K III!; LAKH llnl'.Vl'i'ilNii CLUB. ami football, at l'ait m.oint i'ark. In this city. A.s soon as u,.? game is over ????? of the player?, Wah-Te-Nieh, will hasten to Tuskabomma, Ind. T., where he ? under si nteno t.? be sh??t for murder. Tlie faci that one of Ihe players was under sentence of death would probably not have 1.p known had It not been that the Ind? ians bad been engaged to play Inn? un August I, ami that it was found necessary to postpone th?? ??in.?? until next Saturday. Then it developed ? hai ..?..? .?? tb,? principal playera bad .another en? gagement ? ?r tha' 'lay; that <?n Saturday he was t.? ?.? shot ? ? murder. Application waa mad?? to tin? choctaw Governor f??r a postponement <>f th.? .??? utiin m order that Wah-Te-Nlsh mii?ht take part in the bail game here, and the request v.u.. ? ? ant. J. j heard it waa to be attempted they were ex ??eedinnly ?loubtful of Its sue? ess. A strip of marshland, three hundred by fifteen hundred feet In extent. Immediately adjoining the beach, was selected ior the experiment. Four barrels of crmle petr ?hum were brought over, u little over three being actually u?.?L The time of the test was a little over a fort? night ago. when the mosquitoes wore particu? larly virulent and plentiful around New-York, and th?? east ehore of Stolen Islam! was getting mor?? than its fair share. The petroleum waa scatti-i ed, as lias been said, by sprays ami dip pei?, nnd it ?rept of Itself ab ng the water <>f th?? entire marsh. Until Just now it has 1?><?? a little to?, ?arly to decide as t?. th?? practical efficacy of the method, but tb?? fact that ni mosquiCora hav? 1.? at the beach since th?? p? tr. b-urn was ap plled is good proof that then Is something in tb- theory and that i? can be worked on a iarg~ seal??. Within an hour or so after it was put ,,n th" marshlan?! the plague was appreciably abated, and within a short time all mosqultOOS had vanished Th?? experiment has attracted considerable at tention, ami it is likely ?hit petroleum will be tried at several places In N? vv-J.-i-s.-y ami ?.n .Stab ? Island. i?f cours??, th?? oil will hav- to be sprayed over the territory every few w?-?-ks, but ? t often enough, it is probable, to make its use a costly method. Crmle petroleum only nota something lik- il a barrel. There is a pungent Odor from the marsh Just after it is put OB, but not enough to be annoying. ?-? TUB PRICRLY Moss OF \LASRA. IT is WOIl! ;: THAN CHfOOKItg, BATS Mit. JUNKAlf. Prom The Kansas City Journal. Nothing ever happens anywhere In this old world of "Uts unless a Kansas man is mixed up in it in Borne important way. Just now the papers are till, ?i with a<rcounta of Junesu, the metropolla of Alaska, and this Is a town that was founded by and named after ? man who is now a resident "f Dod?xe City, Kan. Mr. II Juneau Is the man. and for many years he has been a resident of the Sunflower Stat . ai one time being ngaged In th lumber business at Wellington md later removing to l>? ?l?,'? City, which has since beer hia residence, with th?? ?x c? ptlon of '.h?- lime pa.;:?, d :n Alaska. The ?old discoveries in th?? neighborhood of Juneau were made by George Juneau, a cousin of the Kansas man. in company with a man by the nani?? of llanis. Th.? lini- settlement that was then started w.u: called Harrisburg, but later- th?? mit:? rs changed its nani.? to Juneau, in honor of ih- Kansas man, who had ?on.? I her?? on the in? vitation of his cousin and establish? ?1 ? trading ie o This was in 1881,and the Kansas Juneau ? p nnd in Alaska until 188ft, when he re? lu: n-?l ... Sun :! ?v. .id-m. ? ? ? h- course of an interview with "The Dodge ?'ii? Republican" Mr. Juneau -ays: ? cannot s ??? the rea.-,? for advising travel Yukon River route, a distane? of 2..???? nil or rrr??. from .Inn??.hi ? ? the Klondike ??old fields, v. hen there is a shorter route, perhaps mor?? difficult, but practical, which is over the Chilki ' pasa a distance of four hundred miles from tl?.?? town ? f Juneau. TI??? passai,'?? over the Chilkool pass is novel, but has been performed many years. This pass is about a hundred nn.? ? rom Juneau. Indians, both men ami ? n. ar?? employed in making th?? ascent of the pass They carry roods on their backs from th- head of Linn Channel to th?? nearest point wh re you srrik?? th?? Yukon River, a distance of abo a seventy-five miles, ami charge $15 to $'in per hundred pounds Two weeks is required to make th- trip An Indian will carry a hundred pounds besidea bis own clothing ami provisions, weighing thirty pounds more. About two hun dr. d Indiana were at one time employed in carrying Roods over the ?.as.-, bm th- number engaged in th- traffic mual be greater now. Mill's and h?rnen are no rood in this mountain climbing; ani besides no grass grows in that country, and hay and feed shipped in th-r?? would b< ?rreal luxuries at enormous tirur-s. Only a moss grows there. The country la t >? rough for animal travel "The country is covered ith moss, a vin- that contains prickles as sharp as a porcupine, with aawlike edges, with th- edges reversed ?a? point Inr t?i you. They gel int.. th- flesh and Stick deep Thes- pricks with th.? back barb break as yon pull them out of your flesh, and a portion remains m th- flesh. Th.? unly way to get them out is t.? dig them out. Th.- pricks make a soi.? Th--;. infernal prlclca are about one an?! one-half I to two Inches long, and there is excruciating pain when you pull these barbed pri.-ks from your flesh. The chlgger ?s nowhere ?? compari? son to the m?iss prick. Ex rept where the water wears th.? eurface .<r the earth the country is covered with mosa That Isoneof the difficulties of travi. V\'h?r.? there Is no ice there 1?? moss and devil's ?dub. the latter a vine that wimls around anything it can clutch. Persons walking I.????..me entwined in ? network of moss nnd devil's club, and passi-,? is extremely difficult and tortuous." -?.?? LAKE Hot' l TCONG'8 dl \ I! Ms. Till: ?ul INTRT CLUB'S HOME AND SOME OF ITS LEADING MEMBKR8. Charmingly situated on the banks ?.f Lake Hopalrong, at an elevation thai secures for Its members the most healthful conditions, the Lake Hopatcong Country ciuh has come t?. be ?me ,.f the most successful un.J popular social organisations m New-jersey. Th- clubhouse, which was known som.? time ago as th.- Ifot-1 Bn slin, is one of the best ap? pointed and most luxuriously fitted in the Btate. Th.? Aceden I fishing grounds that th?; lake af? fords hav?? attracted to ih.? club a lar?.? number of w.u known anglers, whose convenience in th?i way ?>f special quarters for th.- Blacking ?.f rods and other accessories of tin-ir pastime has ?.a carefully studied. Til?? roads m the vicinity of the club are excellent f..r bicycling, and at the picturesque boat landing an electric launch is always In readimess fir th?? .'iijoy-ment of the members ami their families. The officers of Um dub are: Albert Tilt, New-York, presnient; Gov? ernor John W. ?iritis ami BL ?. C. Toung, Jer sey i'ity. vice-presidents; (temerai William C. Heppenhelmer, Jersey City, secretary, an?! (ten? ?ral Joseph W. Cong?l?>n, l'aterson, treasurer. Th- Board of Covernors consists of Howard 1*. Prothlngham, New-York; Lenite l>. Ward, New? ark; George it. ??ray. Newark; Chartes B. Tnurs ton, Jersey I'ity; Colonel John J. TofTey, Jersey City; Colonel Joseph I). Bcdte, Jersey city; Roh ert Dunlap, New-York; Charl.'s S. Reca, N'.'w York, and Arthur Kyl?\ l\tt?Tson. The club's membership list contains the names of many well known men, among whom may be mentioned Vice-President Hobart, Mayor Wurs? ter of Brooklyn, Oeorge It. ??.-hanln, Dover; Colonel IL A. Totter, East Orange; Colon. 1 Will