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WIRE CABLE TOBOGGANS.
AERIAL TRAMWAYS THAT CARRY ALL KINDS OF FREIGHT. PAHTH-nia.\lU.Y gUmtO ?? Mut'NTAlNul'? OOUM TWM PUS ?ANANAS. laOOWOOD, PROVI S IONS. WATliK AND COrNTI.l--.SS ??????? TUINUS CARRITO ??- AND DOWN STSnsF ORAMBB, Few t*?Miple who have seen the automati.' cash carrier:? in large mercantile establishments have sny idea of the extent to which heavy freight Is transported through the air by a sotnewhal sim? ilar system. On mountain sides whose irregu? lar shapes and steep grades wt uld make the construction of a surface road very costly, to say nothing of tho operation of such a line, wire rope tramways are employed to carry -told or silver ore, coal ?ird other minerals from the mine either to Ihe stamp mill or to some con? necting transportation line. On the Island of Trinidad hundreds of tons of asphalt travel In this manner from the loading station (over the great pitch lake) out to the pier, a mile away, where it is shipped to foreign countries At llaracoa, Cuba, there is such a line fully two and one-half miles lung, for tho conveyance of bananas. Wheat Is carried from elevator to mill WIRK KORE TRAMWAY FOR CONVEYING ORE AT GOLD KING MINI?', GLADSTONF., COL In Minneapolis, wood pulp fiorii one factory to | another in Montreal, logwood from the moun? tains t> s ses pori In Haytl, sil by th?? same method, in some Instances, ss si the paper nulls | of the Bttsojuehaana Water Power and Paper Company, al Coaoa'lngo, ? ? . the shipments are mad?? at s considerable elevation over a broad river, and rteraslonall) th?? bulk of the train. will traverei an upgrade. Instead of coming downhill or moving horlaontally. Then- ar.? two general systems of wire-rope tramways. In on.? then? is but a single cable, whb-h is endless and which passes around great sh?aves tir pulleys at th?? terminal stations. Tin buckets or cases In which men handlae Is car rled ar?? susp<-ml?-d from this cable and attached to it by certain forms of ?rip. And there sie lugs or knots In the calle at certain intervals, to ki-ep the ?p? from allpplng. Then there Is a two-rope system. In th?? latter the upper, b?*avi?-r cable ia stationary, and serves as a track for th?? rollers of the moving pendant car. while the lower rope, which Is a lighter on??, is employ???! to do the hauling. This Is mo??, d either by a steam engine or by tin- weight of the cars the.nselves goin? downhill, and the ear? are attached thereto by som?? sort of a ?lip. What is known as th?? Bleichert system, invent? ed by Adolf lll'-iihert and now ?*!?-ally in favor, beliiniis to this latter ? lass. ?11 rope tramways ar?? doubl??, however. Th?re must be a return lln?? as well as a main lln?? Consequently, th?? Hliibhert ayatem employs two "track cablea," side by side thr?-e or four feet apart, and an end? lea*) haulinii l-hpe, which runs lw?? or Ihr??? feet below the track. Th?? supports for lh?? cables are usually lattice tOWelS, of steel OT Wood Their height depends on circumstances. Hut as th?*y art? usually erect? ed on some of th?? mmor ?d?valions al?n?: th?? slope, they may noi be higher than twenty-five or llfly feet Th.? chasms and ravines which in tervet:??. however, are often hundreds ?>f feel deep. Tin placing of these towers Is a task call? ing for ?real skill. Wln-n a bn>? of ibis sort is bald out in mountainous rechina care must be taken to avoid snow-slides as far as possible. The distane.? between supports depends upon the contour of th?? country and the weight ?>f the loads to be carri???!. Ordinarily Ihe towers are from 1G/0 to 200 feet apart. Occasionally, though. lh^ Intervals are much greater. The Conowlngo line, just ? ef erred t?>, t*onsists ?>f two spans, each 1,700 foet long. The middle support of this tramway Is a t??wer on an Island in th?? Sus.iuehanna River. Hut these figures at.' stir paassed out In Colora?!?>. Th?* Silver Lake Mln IiiK Company lias a sinul?* spun in Its lin?? which is 'J.LttO feel (nearly half a mil.? in leiiglh. The track cable? ar?? blocked up at th.? very ends of a cr.iss-timber on th.? tops of lb?? sup? porting towers, so that the cars will swing en? tirely clear of the struclur?? as they go by. To keep the hauling cables from Bagging to., much and getting afoul of something, they, too, are supported at the towers by means of bro.-nl. spool-shaped pulleys, pia? ed several foel belo* the track. The Trenton (N. J.i Iron Company, which con? trols th?? BlfHcberi system In this country, has Introduced two Importnnt Improvements on th?? original plan. On?? relates to th?? construction of th?? track cable The latter is composed prin? cipally of steel wire of the best ?piality; but in each of the gap? between the outer strands is Inserted a curiously furrowed rod, which aervea a diiu'ile purpose. It lilis up the vacant space so as to uiiikf th?? surface of the cable smooth, thus reducing Ihe friction between it and the rar rollers that travel iver It. Thu? Ihe life if ihe rabie Is enormousl) prolonged. Thl? rilling ulsu locks the ???r ? together, so ihii if one should b) any a? ? Idenl break no end ? (?uld ? M api sil? k oui and make mischief It unir' lie down in Its groove anugly if broken, as if continu us The Trenton Iron Works (which are operated i.y Cooper, Hewltl ? Co., nt Ne? V?.ik I'Hyi have ;i spei lai form .?f I .? ked coll" ? able ol th-lr own, It represents the Intesi sdvsnci . m this d( part men I ?.?f Ihe ai t The track cable la made in different sises,1 from a dlanwter ??f seven-elghthi of an Inch lo an Inch and ii half, and In section? between Nili and 1.200 feel long. Th?se .?r?? ? ??ini.. ?. d n??l l?y spili Ing, bul bj m?*an? of s special tubular coupler, which la only slightly larger than the cable, ??nd Which "fT.-is no embari assnent la the reliera which carrj ibe cara Another encellen! feature of the tramways I constructed by ('?>?>(> r, Hewltl A Co la Ibe "Webbee compression grip," ? devi..? perma? nently attached t?> each car, and employed in hitching th?? lutter t?? the running cable In aome Bystems II has been ?aeensed ne? esstar** lo pul button? '?r lug ??? this G???? t<> k?-?-p the ?rips from slipping In consequence, the ?rear all romes at rertaln placea. The ne? grip -renders such appliance? needle??, and distributes ihe wear uniformly, of ? ours??, under such circum? stances the ira? Mon rope lasts ?rery much kmger, Tb?? Webber grip bold?, it is said, on Ibe steep ??st grades, Wir?? pipe tramways ere used Ota all sorts of slopes from one to forty-five degrees Beytmd tb?? latter angle the operation would ?????>??,!??>? hoisting more than it wo'ild hauling. The great majority of thus?? lines have rath? ? Ughi gmdea; Inni is. somewhere between len and twenty degrees*. Kven these, though, would lie .?in of ih?? questi ?? ?m steam and electrl?? rail ways wiihoiit a ?pecial form ??f rails and engine The im?? which ?arries ore from Ihe Oold Kin? min??, in ('.la.lsi?ii<?. Col . down I ? the stami. mill fall? 1..V.I I ?el in a uiataJiee of ?,???) fccL or about one foot in three. There Is a similar line at Cornucopia, (?re., which falla 2j000 feet in a distance of ."?.isn?, ,,r about one fo.it in two and a quarter. Mut the i-rade of different spans of a lim? is not always the same. The Granite Mountain Mining Company of Montana has a line which drops only 1.900 feet In a total length ?>f ?S.7.V?, but most of this fall occurs within a 2,000-fool section. it will ???? readily perceived 'hat on steep grades ilu weight ?f tin loaded can going down will mor.? than overbalance th?? ??empties" going up on the other track. Th?? difference, after all al? lowance for friction, often amount.-; to several horsepower. Then- is often something in the way of return freight?previsione for tin? miners, fuel or machinery. The Qrsnite Mountain Min? ing Company sends only two hundred tons of ore down dally, and has at bast on?? hundred t?>ns of bach freight. The tramway of the M?? cate Company, in Pern, has a very steep grade. It falls I.0G0 feet (marly 5.000) in a length of ID, 100, About .m?? hundred tons of ore are sent down each day, and ;? thousand gallons of water IT?? back in the mean time. Where such tram? ways are nearly level, or carry their heaviest loads uphill, of conree a steam engine or electric motor must be used to drive th?' traction rope. Some lines cross a "divide" and are partly up? hill ami part!? downhill. The three-snd-s-hslf mi!?? tramway Which has Just been sent to Ch!!? kiot Pass, to form a link m a longer trauspor talion rout.? for ???, duna and otti? r men ban? di ??. rise? 1?.IBS1 f,.,.| between Steep Camp and Ihe ummit. and then fills .'??? :? ? during Ihe h ri G??? lining poi II in of the Un??, h in. ii runs do ? ? ?.? ? "rati ? I.aU- :_' mai ... ? ?,. .,,,.,,? The loada seni uvei u?*h tramway? varj from ami to l..".i?i pound.-, exclusive f the car '.hai t.ik.-s ? hem in rare instances .? full tun haa lieen lineile.I in .1 single load The distance be? tween the ..us depends on clrcumatance h may lie as much as ?? thousand feet, or II ma) ?.nl> a hundred llul on ever) Riven lut?? it la hlghl) Important that the cars should lie spaced uniformi) It is customary, therefore, to have a gong ? truck automatical!) tu Indicate when a freah car should be gripped to the moving rope. Tins latter lask la performed b) hand llul si Ihe end of th?? route, whether going uphill or down, the cars ar. detached by a self-acting mechanism, and are often swlt? bed off t?? a side? track. The top.? ? uns slowly, us speed seldom ?x,.ling ihre. foui miles an hour. Kuht tuns an hour, ? ?'??*??? hundred ? ins In s work in?; day. is about the maximum capaclt) of ;ni) of th?? wu?? rope tramways now in servu*e. ?'Roli Mil 1 II ST I Roll CHIC it/O. Prom Th ? Cleveland Plain Dealer. ??.nvlable reputation which Cleveland holds in educational circles is enl.itt.-ed Many's Ihe time and oft that mir citisene have laughlngl) ,..,,,) ,,| ih? |.ih.it answers win.h scholars i,.?v. ajiven .n the s.hoois ..f other cities, com? piacenti) assuring, themeelvw thai nothing of thai ,,,?? would happen In Cleveland, llul an inciden) which oecurml In one of the high s, h?? ili ?re will noi deslgnste which one. as I'rin. i].ii Harris mlghl feel unduly compliment? ,,l a??? serve to advise us lhal sun.? Chicago children musi have lieen recenti) enrolled on ..u?? m h??'! Hat. n h.ipp. te .? im the Knallsh .lass Th?? rtuestlon ? ( tjVho a/as hint.? '" The scindai call?-d up*in .nos?? and gave th?? st.iiiim.; information that "Dante was ;i tlreek lO.ildeSS" "What were som?? ,t Dante's w?M-ka7" asked tl,?? ?. .i. bel "l'a.: a.lise laobL" QUEER OPTICAL ILLUSIONS. EXTRAORDINARY EXPERIENCE OF Tila OPPICBRfl AND CREW OP A FRENCH BARK OPF THE PHILIPPINES? Taris correspondence, Courrier dea Ktats Unis. "Sin???? th.? telegram algned by Messrs. s?>k??iov an?! Kkidtovsky, announcing that ??n the night of October ."?. while they nere In the Usteyng district, they si.?, a balloon passing rapidly over th. village <?f Xakovleu anddiifttnatoward the forests in a south.-ast-rl,- diieetion, many persons have "alghted" Andr?e's balloon. Evi? dently it is a phantom airship that they have s?en. W'll-tneaning people have atlirnied that they saw Andr?e*? balloon H.-ating ??ver the White Sea. Others hav?? seen ?? soaring over ihe Stat.? of Iowa, in the l'nit?-d States. Others ?gain hav.? rfrn it at North Cape, sometimes rushing Slong In a tempest at th?? south of ihr Disco Island, In Oreenland, ?ir soaring over Ko t.'lly [aland, in North Sili.-ria: and funong thl latrai reports is the one that announced Its ap p.-arani1.? ove? the villa?;.? of Yukovleu. All this goes t?i show that we are in the presence of a new phenomenon produced by the extreme suggestibility of th.? throng. Bach in. dividual is. without knowing it, In a <? instant slate of expectation, and when an extraordinary affair, like tin? one with which we are dealing, la pr.nted t?? the mimi, th?? intensity of the Impression is su?'h that sui?i?esti.in becomes easy, and, once formulated, it Imposes itself immediately upon the mwd of th?? masses by contagion. The whole world followed with constant inter <st and emotion th?? preparations that were going mi at the Island of Danois; but few peo? ple knew that spot, and it may be said that nobody knew what was ?"???t on there. Never? theless everybody mad?? a picture in his own mind of th?? place and of what was taking place there. When this image became imj?res.s?'d upon th?? mitili its temi? my from th?? very first mo? ment was to transform Itself into a reality. ? his is s<? true that a ? aplain ?>n a long voyage, with a perfectly sound and well-balanced mind. affirmed last year that h?? saw Andr?Vs balloon in August, ????, northwest ?>f Newfoundland, and several of the men of his crew also fortified to th?? same thing with as much energy M honesty. And, as a matter of fait, Andr?e was obliged to ? ?sip?n?? his ascension until tins year. 11?? had not started in his balloon, and yet they saw him. Examples of collective hallucinations are very numerous. Lei us cite on? that certainly is not generally known, and of which a lieutenant m th?? ? rench Navy, M Leslonnat, was th?? victim. "In May, INKl." ?aid he, l waa on board th?; hark Carolin- We liai just left Hollo, in the Philippines, and wv were travelling toward the Suii'i.i Htrait. One morning we were movinj slowly, .?? ;ii?? rate of s bout four or ii??? knots, in a ver) Ughi wind, when the man ??? Ihe look ?ui sli?ui?d to m? thai be ?m a pirogue or shan.? ih?? ?larboard nuartcr. Everything that we Bee a! ? a. however Insignificant, ?? always lnte(catlnii Con? quently, I placed my? self In a position to see tl.hji <?: thai the man ?? ? ?rted Hut, on account of I he I???.? ??? - ills, 1 was n ' ?? I i? ko forward. 1???>??? lhere I .????.?, .a about two points to ?tarboard, tha pli ? gue, ihlcl ?? ?? ;:- If ?ho m a? aboul '?? ? r? ?s our ii??.?.. Wu?l?l''rl) ihe mate shouted: ?? ?- ? t :?. pirogue; it is .? yawl boat ' Then the ? tllor clin? down from the rigging and reported th.u he -1 landing In the boa! and iiii he \? ?? making signals. " h i? noi necessari to ???? aloft to se? that." r? ??????? the male, I . an ?? ?? him ?listm. tly bere.1 "After bavins otiserved the boat with at tentlon, ? ?aii b? plalnlj .??- iwsslble, and all th?* ? r ???. ?aw Just ??- l did, a man making ?ignala with something m his hand that we could n??t >.?: ? ? ?u'li.?.?. hut which evidenti) wa? a gaff or .m oar, si the end of whl? h was fixed a pie ?? Of ? loin "'I'dere was ? ? longer any doubt vVe had discovered an unfortunate shipwrecked man. whose vessel doubtlers ??...> lost u|??on the r??? ks ??f ih? ?bor?*? called, if my memory serves me coi ? tly, ih? Thousand Isles. I Immediately reported ??? ih?? captain, ??h?> ??>"?? his glasses and follow?*] m? to tbe forward <!? cfc He recog id/??'!, just a^ we did, a boat paint???! v\ hit??, and in ihe how there \?as a man dressed In ?? blue gansy, who was waving ?n "-?r. at the end "I ?vin? h *'os tr.-t? ?.?? a ?.??? of salii !????. i':,,: ??.?? levil i? lu? k).' sal 1 th aptaln ?for If we had had more wind yesterday ???? would have |?ossed him In Ihe night, and, ol , ..in ? ?\. ? nuld ii"l lia? ? ->??!? him ' "Hut as ih curreni w is drawing the boat aw i?. from us, h ? gave Ihe order lo the man at tn.? wtiee lo let the v??sse| fall off ?o as to gel the i.iat .? ?? .?? im ?larltoard In thia ?vay t ?.ill canil) reach Ii without the ?.islty ! ..f low? rinn a Imuii, which I? always a tedUxis, operation on lioard sailing vessel? The man. ???elm? ih.it w?? w -r?? coming for him, ceased "? 1 signal, and ?at down in the stern, and with his oar h ? ?t? i'< ?I the Im at toward us. We could I distinctly see Ihe boat's m.i^t was broken at alunit tin-??? or t"iir feel above the ? tiling thwart. When she ??.??- about ?ItW metres from us. the , captain, who wa? on ihe poop, ask. ?I tbe mate ; if everything was ready, and, on tli?? latter1? affirmative reply, he gave the ordei t?> head h.-r up a inn? i" ?tarboard Al this moment the emotion on hoard the vessel was intense The entire crew leaned over the rail. Then suddenly, ns ii we i'i had been aroused from a dream, , the man and the lioal nun?.I Into s block ?f pumice-stone on which wbre several branch??? ? of banana treea. After drifting alowl) along the aide of Ihe vessel liefore the stupefied sailors, ' ii vanish???! out of sight. The men were ?o utterly astonished that several of them could ? not help crying "in. 'But, by Jingo, there was | a man on it, sur??' W?? all saw him" ?if the sea had been rough, so thai we could I noi reach thai little floating island. ??.?? would certainly hav.? ?.? convinced that a fellow creature had been lefl to perish. "Nevertheless, our mind was free from all anUrtor pr.curati m Notwithstanding ih?? spontanei!) "f the thing thai had stari, ? it. th.? ?ugge?tion Wim none the less vivid. Its ln tensltj ??ai as strong In the mind ?>f th?? officer as il was m the mind ol euch sailor, ami this ?rara t?. prove thai In Ihe case ol a crowd the ; mental quali!) ??f ihe Individuals thai compose | ii is without .????? Importance " After that, what I? anyliody i?> think ?>f the I fantastic news glvei to us about AndrtVs bal ? ??? Remember tl.?? BUggeatlons ?>f the si.??.? ? ..f Paris, the signals seen al perfectly Inn.nt ? windows, an.l ihe furious cavalrj charges that \ ihe peasants ould see at ?unset In the sky. I \ 11 oin \HII DEL I ?. Prom The I'? ? r ? * i t ??? ?.? ?*r? s. IC?, ihr? ? -? ??. ui. is of an hour Min?? I oui ?red ih.ii turtle soup." snapped the angT) gueal at Ihe restaurant ?Vas. sab." said the waiter with an obttequlou? b????. "but de turtle d?me mak.? his '?trape, ?ah? au' d?-> had ?? chase him Ik?ui a mil?, sali."