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Newspaper Page Text
AN ITA MAN BAKEBI IN OAK-ST.
BREAD FOK NEW-YORK. BAKERIES OP HIGH AND LOW DEGREE THAT BUPPLT MA. KINDS. BOW FOREION rui.MS OP Tlir, sTUT OF L-PB WERE INTKi'M ''i:l> INTO TH 13 CITY ?YSTRHATtZED WORK IN THI BIU BAKB8HOPS. To inpply the Inhabitanti of New-Tork wltb thelr dally bread, ple, cake ard crackers about n,:;?Mi bakcrlci ar.- kept busy, and the varloui procenei of baklng are carried on al all boun of the da) and night In all parti of the greal rity. it is natural that tbe bread trade should have grown with tbe development ..f the clty, but thc lncrease in populatloi la only partly re sponalUe for the growing bread bualneaa, The foreignera who came to New-Tork in the lifti-s end aome yeara later had ideai as t.. bread wblch they cultlvated In thelr new bomes, and tho Bchwarzbrod of the Germane, tbe flat, large loaves of the itaiians an.l th- coarse graham bread nf th- Bcandinaviani were baked in tbe homea >>f tb- new cltlsena However changed their Hurr,.unditiKs may hav been. When thi forelgn worklngmen reached th-ir homes after a day's labor they found in the bread on thelr tables a glimpae of bome and a rem'nder ..f thelr earller daya "Store bread" was used only in emergenciea >.r l.y familles where tb.- art of bak? lng wjus unknown. Bcattered thickiy through the City were bakesh.'ps wh-r- people who had i no large ovens brouprht th-ir bread t.? be baked, and these places were beaieged l.y customera OO the last days of the week. I'-ople <>f all na- j ti..n. flocked to these bak.-shop.s and carried ; away "twist.s" iprinkled with nimv s?>1, Mg loaves of rye bread flavored with caraway s.-eds, milk bread through which n.islna had been lib erally scattcred, ordlnary Whlte bread and all aort.. of cak(.s and kuchen untll llie atreets near by wer.- fragTMt witb the bakeshop fumes. I-ut the baker waa not alow to see that he could make more money by furnlshlng the par tlcular bread direct than by baklng It for hls customera, and so, after ? wblle, thi housewlfi ceaaed t.. baki the bread <<( her -ountry, be cause she could buy it ready rnado for only a iittle more-than it. would coat ber to make it at lmme. Th>T- are now riundr-ds of bak-ri-- In the erowded dlitrict where the Poles and Russlani get thelr Barchea on Prlday evening, baked In the aame way as ln their homea In the Itallan quartera Large, Sat elght-pound loaves of bread ar- baked every night, whlcb resemble in every reapeel thi loaves which a few yeara ago could be baked only at bome. The bakerlei where th.-se necessary arti,|-s of fcod are produced ar.-, for th ? most part, in .. llars. They aro dingy, , lamp-(1 and uninvltlng, although fre quent Inapectlon l.y tb ? Health Department keepa them falriy clean. The work usually be glni iat,- in th.- afternoon, ,.and eontlnuei througbout the night, so that the customera may have their bread early in the mornlnK. The mixiiiK vati, the tables on wblch th.- bread li ahaped aml the ov-tis are all In one room, and toward mornlng the temperature becomea bo hiph that the men w >rk almost naked. Toward the .nd of the week extra work in thc way of fancy bread and caki is done in these bakertes, although tbal branch "f the buainess is carried on t.? a greater estent ln the upper Kast Slde bakeri. s, wher- kucheti play.; a more importanl part than with the people of the low-r Kast Blde. When th.- bread aml rolls have been sent out for dlstributlon to the customera and sracked ou tln- sb-lv.s and the counter.s of the store thc ku. hen baken come, and bef. re noon jrreat llat tlns of many kinds of Qt nuan cakes <are made. whlcb become the chief part of the St_nday breakfait of the German custi men, Some of these bak-ries also make the pecullar breads for whii.h there ls only a limlted demand, CUTTINO AND STAMPING DOUGII IN A GRACKEB BAKEUY. and have customers In other cltlea to whom thelr product ls shlpped rcgularly. One of these apeclallles ls a baker of rumpcrnickel, who aaya that hls bread Is "aa good, as hard, as digestible and as gonulne as any that *... baked ln Ger many." He explained that by rights the black bread should bo called Bon pour Nickel. "It waa like this,"" he said. "When tho First Na polcon came to a llttle Bavartan town on hls triumphal march through Kurope ho mado his headquarters at the home of a peasant, who servcl hlm with the best he had in the house. Napolcon looked at the black bread which was plaeed before him and said with dlsgust: 'C'est bon pour Niek.-l.' Nickel waa the name of bla horse. From that time the black bread beeame known In that region as B..n pour Nickel, and the words were Ilnally run into one as Pumper Utcket, aml that's what It Is called to-day." These small bakerles which are seattered In all parts of New-York where there Is a large for? elgn popuiatlon use from one to six barrols of flour a day. Then thero ls a better class, where tiie accommodatlons are less cramped and where from six to flfteen barrels of flour are made into bread and rolls every night. Many of the ment, for hotels and reatauranta, atcamers and for evening dellvery, and when the ordlnary worklngman goes home to hls family the bakef who belongs to the night gang goes on dity, The bakers of N-w-Vork are mostlg .oreign, ers; they earn good WSgCS, and a aober, good man has llttle difflculty in Ilndlng iteadj work, They have a number of unloni and other or ganlzations, but most of th. large, w ll-rejju. lated bakeries are non-unlon -StabllabnMalQ and for the purpose of keeptog th.-se plaets __Up. plled wlth help an employment bureau ls niain talned, where many good m.n have been alded in lOCUrlng work. A walk tliroush one r.f the large l,,ik. ri. s when the work ll at Its belght at night il InteresttM enough to n-pay ono for the 1, aa of ili p -\ hich it entails. One of these mode. eom erni has oa the top floor of the large bulldlng wblch it o-cu. ples a seri-s ,f ti-rs where the Sour ls slfted and mlxed. Thero every bit of f-.r. Ign mattlf ls taken from the flour, and ur.til ine ? Naminej what t* mains after th<- ll-ur has | ne through he can form no idea of how much th- re |_ to take out of the cleanest and best Sour. Aft-r th. purified flour of various kinds has been mixed ICIXING MACHINE IN A KODEL BAKI.I'T. latter class have dough-mixing machines, and those wbo work there throutrh the hours when the average man sleeps breathe air that is less beated and less Impure than thelr brethren ln the llttle shops, although the attite of a haker? or rather his lack of attlre? in the best of shops gives hlm the appcarance of an athlete stripped for tralnlng. There are about twenty bakertes ln New-Tork where twenty barrels of flour or more aro used every day, but most of these work day and night. During the day stock is made for ship it goes on tlny elevat rs to large Wns, where I few hours' supply is always kept. Prom th- bina the flour goes to the mix'.ng-rootn. and there men In white wooll-n shirts and duck tr-.usera mlx it wlth the various ingredients whlcb go to make the sponge. In thei hUgl inovabli troughs the mass is allowed to "_>-t f r a eer? taln tlme. In some bak-ries the maaa b_ then turned over to brawny m-n, who kn-ad and rr.aul it while they puff with th- ezertion, In the perf.-ctly equipped istabllihmentl the kneading is done by iiku hin-ry. Whlle it is Id the kn.-a.ling machlne other Ingn llenti are added, and then the mass la put m tr-uglu. where it remains from one to two hours for "raising," and when in Its ambition it overstepi the limits one of the white athletea quicklj* takos up the apongy mass anl forcea ;t back Into the trough. When the time '??.r taking lt out conies two brawny, Bour-covered mengri-p the douizh and carry it to a table, arbeie lt il cut up into small pie-.-s ,f c.-rtaiti B'elght, ac corditig to the size of loaf that is I 1 be prodM-4 Then it is t brown into a largi ia ihi table, wblch leadl by means ..:' a ite to thi lower floor, where the bak-r r. ? ? Ivei it. In the lower apartm-t,t th. r- ire Dg, whlte, flour-.ov-r.-d tables, at each ..f which stand. A group of eight or ten bak.rs. ., Bgat* Ing costumea They catch the d i I oBBt fn.m above, or aa the carr:--rs bring .1 '" th-m, and with knocks atul twists at d turna mould the ahapol.-ss mass into plecei ->f unlform ihapUM range them in trays. These at.- then carrisial the ovetis which enclrcll the room, and come forth brown, yellow anl lomet-mei i;.,ik white bread. Notlees to the workmen ai- posted " Ihi B*\ to the effect that a pln found on th- perm ot an employe will subjc t him to Immedlatl -_?" charge, and that no person will be lilowii ta carry tObaOOO into the bakery in any '? rm. An el.-vator takea the warm, fragrant havea to the d.-hvery department on tbe Btreet noo. where aa the nigh: advances th- ioaded b.-.ket-. trays. boxes aml hampers flil the ipace, l.-.iving only narnnv passag-ways for the shipi ing clerka and delivery men. At mldnight the wagons which tak- bread t dlstat.t polnta recelve thelr flrst load, anl from then untll 4 or 5 o'elock the stnam ?'? \*tm8m wagor.3 contlnues from the bak. ry gati I I-1^ tru.ks tak. the br >ad and rolls for the Iittle Btore... smallcr wagOCI come for nearby cstab lishmcnts. and then come the route WSgOBI from which the regular -ustom.-rs are lupplled. The various batcbes which came through the iiiixiaf room only a ahort time befora ksavi In the.h--.pi of rolls and brcaul of all deecriptlons, rr..m tha old-fashioned ' home-made'' to tl..- latesl Krench. Those who recelve and consunie tt at tbttt breakfasts have only a falnt Idea of the wors that has boen done to produee ouc da>'_ ?upP?. of the bicad of N'.w-Toik.