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T o vii;\v Till 7 . I'CLIPSE.
THE NAVAL OBSERVATORY'S PARTIES IN
NORTH CAROLINA AND GEORGIA.
X GIANT CAMERA TO PHOTOGRAPH THE
CORONM-DU'FKXXTrES IN ASCERTAIN
ISO ITS COMPOSITION.
Washington. May s.— The total eclipse of the
sun. scheduled for the morning of May 2*. is re
garded a.s an astronomical event of the first im
portance by Uncle Sam's exports at the Wash
ington Naval Observatory. Many weeks have
been spent in preparing for the phenomenon.
Sky charts and United States maps have been
carefully studied, with the result that the chief
astronomers have decided to equip two expe
ditions one for Pinehuretj Moore County. N. C,
aTsd another for Barneaville, Pike County, Ga.
To the North Carolina Lion Professor A. N.
STdnner will pilot a corps of twelve astronomers,
and a. like body will accompany Professor Milton
Updegrafl Into Georgia. There ate two reasons
why the Washington Lrgasera have selected
these distant points for viewing the coming
edlpse: Tim, thej desire to set up their in
struments in the very centre of the path of
totality; second, a careful examination of the
weather charts indicated that they were much
more likely to escape cloudy skies at this sea
son of the year in Georgia and North Carolina
tba.n In Virginia, along the coast, from which
the phenomenon may also be observed in the
event of a clear atmosphere.
Several tons of special apparatus have already
been shipped to the places selected as head
quart'is, and Professor Skinner has pone to
Pinehurst to superintend the erection of one of
the largest cameras ever constructed. This
Riant camera, by th way. does not have the
appearance .if a photographic apparatus at aIL
Then- is a wooden scaffolding, in form like a
pyramid, and forty feet high. Rising from the
ground to the top of this at an angle that will
cause ih<- upper end to point directly at the
Fpot i:i the heavens where the great luminary
is to !/>• eclipsed is a framework of iron, carry
ing in its interior a gigantic can . tube, in
the upper end of this tube, which will project
nearly fifty feet into the air, win be inserted
fjve-lm-h lenses, or objective glasses. The lower
end of the canvas tube will pass into a large
light-tight shed, which will be the box and
plate holder, of the titanic camera. in this the
astronomers will expose the Immense plates
which are to receive the age of the sun
whejj shut out of view by the moon.
With this enormous picture making machine
the Naval Observatory experts will secure neg
ativ. s from which will be printed images of the
fan in eclipse i\'. inches in diameter. But the
plates win also shew the mysterious corona, or
bal) of the f\in. which will be three times as
large as the image of ■ ';•• sun itself.
Professor Skinner and his assistants are more
ir.ter'-.-ted in this curious halo, or atmosphere,
of the earth's illuminator than the average
politi. iar. is in th. returns of the Presidential
.. I- ■:.•!. There is nothing more confusing 01
eonij'.ex in connection with the .--»! system
than tiie sun's corona. During every eclipse of
the last half century the attention of astron
omers has been concentrated upon this halo. it
L- only within comparatively recent years that
the corona has been discovered to be an actual
I>art .-i the sun. It is surmised that it is a
gase-iiis vapor, or atmosphere, which, from its
ppr-uiiar constituents, is visible as a halo about
the mass of the orb.
T).- :■ . of the corona, however, varies
: :.: ;•!. A ■■■■ infes which are made of It
.a • ■! it takes the form of a halo of light
. the su::; at other periods it is a general
■ frequently ;t is ieen as a long
■ ding from opposite sides. Photo-
Lakea during the total eclipse at K^7S
it ■ it t distance of one
lies on each .- ide of th.- sun. Owing
luminous "f the sun
.. Impossible "> übserve this feature
times when the disk u:t-s hidden by
:• • ': • ■ U ! lv< been made to
>..u-t ■ h Lrai ter of the constit
rona, howe%'er, astronomers are
• ; • •■ ■ ■■ definitely upon them.
I • ■ try interest attaches
■- to be made on May 28.
r work will \m done by '■ -
5 experts. The corona and other
f the sun will tx most carefully
Photographs will also be taken
• the halo, as well as other parts
losphere. Other members of the
if the various
I • i;-e, with the aid of powerful
N■ • • ■ tory experts • i^
1 • h d.ita, .. Ided to what
known, will aid materially in 1.--
U disputed points regarding the
Besij«"fs the itures already mentioned, at
tention will be .■l. to the red prominences and
the fcierra, or chromosphere. The red prom
inence have the appearance ••! jets or fountains
of fiiiTTje, rising sometimes to a height of IGO.OOO
miles, a.nd assuming the most beautiful and
Thf phenomenon of the sierra is a border of
dark nl, which ran be seen on the eastern side
of the lolai disk just after the totality has be
gun, and on the item aide just before the
totality (eases. This appearance has given rise
to the discovery that a continuous red envelope
■Bnounds the sun to a depth of. three or four
XKW-VOKK TRIBUNE ELLUSTRATED SUPPLEMENT.
thousand miles. Tho name of chromosphere has !
recently supplanted that of sierra.
Tho phenomenon of May 2S wi n be visible as a
partial or total eclipse throughout the whole of
North America, rxcept in tne extreme western
part of Alaska, and may also hr» viewed in part
of South America, the whole of Europe, the
northern and centra] portions of Africa, and the
northwestern part of Asia. The path of the total
eclipse will begin at 8:06 a. m. in the Pacific
Ocean, at a point southwest of rap.- St. Lucas,
and move in a northeasterly direction. The disk
of the sun will be completely obscured for a
brief |> riod, at no point longer than two min
utes, in New-Orleans. Mobile. Raleigh, Norfolk :
and Virginls Beach, Va. In New-York. Wash-
Ington, Boston, Chicago. Cincinnati, St. L,ouis j
and other cities may be witnessed the pbe
! n Of a partial eclipse. The sun will be
about .-even eighths obscured in New-York, the
eclipse beginning at 7:.">3 a. m. an 1 1 oding at
10 28 a. m.
Professor Skinner has computed that the
totality at Pinehurst will take place at s;;d
.'!. m.. ;;nd will last about one minute and thirty
BC-conds. during which time the giant camera
will be kept in rapid operation. Bven in the
path >f totality, where the entire visage of the
sun will be hidden, the effect will not resemble
that of night, but rather a d< ep twilight, in
which it will be possible to read coarse type.
This partial light is due to the fact that the
FUAMKWOUK OF GIANT CAMEKA, BUILT AT WASHINt ITnN NAVAI. OBSERVATORY.
T ..>• .i at Finehurst. N. C. on \iay is in phi lographlng the un in ecllj ■
brighter inner corona of the sun win be partly
visible as the mo m cvrs the disk.
The astronomers are hopeful that Nature will
not !■<■ so perverse as to present a clouded sky
or the morning >f tho 2Sth, for a large sum has
hi'ii expended in preparing the special instru
ments ai:d shipping them long distances :•■ be
s.i up for us. Wivii asked what he would do
in the event of the sun being obscured, Profes
sor Skinner replied that the only thing would be
to pack up the 1 araphernalia and return to
Washington, but added that the elaborate prep
arations would not come to naught, for next
year there is to be a better total eclipse, in
1901, wh--n the sun's face is obscured by the
Interposing moon, there will be many scientific
expeditions to the island of Sumatra, for on
that occasion the great luminary will he hidden
for six whole minutes, a great boon to the men
who spend their h\.-s in studying the heavenly
THE VERSAILLES ART COLLECTIONS.
Paris correspondence of The Pall Mall Gazette.
All those who arc Interested in art will learn
with satisfaction that M. Pierre de Nolhac i*
making steady progress with the arduous task
: set himself of reorganizing tin- Versailles
collections. The state of these collections until
Hi,- present conservator entered ••!'• his duties
was notorioiisly a monstrous scandal. Most of
i!i" pictures and other objects that were worth
:i:!.-mi: .n w< re hi Iden in garrets r relegatt d to
obscure corners in dark passages, while the rub
bish was scrupulously paraded. Pictures bear
ing wrong titles were attributed to artists who
never painted them, and in general the most
mspeakable confusion reigned supreme. In
tiiis pitiable plight the collections were practi
cally useless for the purpose of the student and
the serious lover "f art, and served at besl as a
dubious attraction to tout.sts compelled bj
str< ss f weath< r to take refuge in tin- palace.
Little by little M. Pierre d>- Nolhac is intro
ducing order into this chaos. He has just been
able to open four new or rather rearranged
rooms to th« public, nno of them in particular
is .if exceptional int. rest, both from an historic
and an artist;'- point of view. It contains the
historical paintings executed previous to the
reign of Louis XIII. Under the .1.1 conditions
Hi.' personages and scenes supposed to be repre
sented by these canvases had been determined
..n the most fantastic grounds*, as may well be
imagined when it is said that the authority for
the decision* arrived at was Louis Philippe, who,
for some unexplained reason, seized on this
opportunity to air what he fancied was his eru
dition. By dint of careful researches at the
Louvre, the National Library and Chantilly the
real subjects of the paintings have been estab
lished, with the result that Versailles now offers
* series of historical portraits and contempo
rary records ■■!' famous or characteristic scenes
■>: the very highest Interest. Englishmen will
make special note of a portrait of Mary Tudor
niece axe s. »iue excellent, specimens, too, of the
work of the Camellles of Lyons and of Clouel
and his school, lint this is not th.' place to at
tempt anything in the shape of a detailed notice,
and it will suffice to repeat that the Versailles
collections, as reorganised by if. de Nolhac, do
servr and will repay a visit.
AMERICAN EXPOSITION (lt>H)i;x.
BOMS IDVAMTAGBS OVBR THK BRITISH BXHIBTT.
London correspondence of The Birmingham Post.
America has in ono way scored off Germany.
She has annexed her great eagle— that Is to say,
from ono pojnt of view the American section
borrows all the prestige of tho magnificent
statuary, for h.-r section of decorative industry
lief right against the German, and in it the
bird Is encompassed with the Stars and Stripes.
All tho American dames are well advanced in
comparison with the others. The United States
Government has gone into the enterprise with
a keen eye to business, ft has taken a step
which must tell to its advantage. It has organ
i/'d a corps of fifty guides— most of them stu
dents, 1 beli.ve -who. dressed in a pretty blue
uniform, are, to uso thoir own words, "on the
spot to be courteous and useful to everybody,
to see that any one seeking for anything Ameri
can shall be able to find it without trouble; to do
their host for every American section." Those
guides have been admirably chosen; their bright.
Intelligent demeanor invites the visitor to seek
Then, officially, the American Government has
done a good deal In the way of arranging for
effective represi ntation of her natural resources.
In the section of mineralogy there is. for ex
ample, a sharp contrast between Great Britain
and America, which the visitor cannot miss. It
is accidental and it is entirely fallacious, for it
takes no account of tho British colonies, which
are to have a house 10 themselves; yet it in
evitably dwarfs Great Britain The mineral
wealth "f iiu oountij is represented by a little
i;is.- a case in the furnishing of which consid
. rable trouble has been taken, for ali the sam
ples of ore and of mineral products have been
especially procured by the Home Office inspec
tors yet quite a diminutive thmg. But America
has 1 score ■>:' cases prettily arranged in a capa
1 ii .us square, so that they make quite a complete
show of themselves. Every State in tho Union
was asked to send ■ samples of its minerals, and
Colorado leads the way with some splendid
masses of gold and silver. The specimens are
not models; they are real quartz. < >ne bit of
gold quartz -the finest shown — is so richly
veined that though it is not ,1 font square, its
value is set down at $IS,(H)y. The American
mud. s understand their business, they are full
of puff of the go-right-ahead energy of their
country, and for the moment it is impossible to
deny that if Great Britain and France had
shown a~ much activity as the Americans tho
Exposition to-day would not be the dreary, un
profitable, irritating and dirty place it is.
1 GREAT FIND OF ANCIENT FRESCOS.
Home correspondence .>f The London Post.
An important and interesting discovery of
frescos has just been made at Bosco Reale,
iii ar Naples, where for some time past excava
tions have been slowly going on in the grounds
of a villa < ailed Voua. belonging to the De
Prisco family. A huge peristyle and four large
chambers have been discovered, on the walls "f
which are some twenty frescos of large dimen
sions, rich coli ring, md <i| .1 design hitherto un
equalled in any br lUghl I > ii^lil in the Pompeii
Most of the figures are full sized and more
ear. fully executed thai any hitherto known.
One is probably a portrail of Epicurus, another
represents two young female figures reclining on
large cushions ;t .; banquet. A 'hird fr scu
represents a w man, richly clad, playing a lyre,
while a fourth Is an exquisitely design* i :■ pre
sentation of a gladiator seated by the side of a
female figure. Rich mural decorations, fresh In
color and perfect in drawing, cover the parts of
the walls ii"t occupied by the main frescos.
Unfortunately for students .if art. it is feared
that exposure to the air and the light will cause
tii. se magnificent paintings t 1 fade as quickly
as those at Pompeii and in the Naples Museum.
Every effort is being made to preserve them as
long as possible, hut lovers of art are taking ad
vantage of the opportunity to see so unrivalled
an example of pre-Christian mural decoration
before it fades.
X///<; WAS READY.
From The Chicago Tribune.
He (describing his journeyings) — Then, leav
ing Gibraltar, 1 made my way to Australia, and
from there 1 went to the diamond mines in South
Africa, where I made my fortune. Then — do you
follow me. Miss Crynkle?
She (with a vivid blush) — To the world's end,
Mr. Rocks worthy.
ITS TWENTY-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY TO
BK CELEBRATED THIS WEEK.
The Art Students' T,°as:uo of New-York, which
will celebrate from May '.) to May 12 the twen
ty-fifth anniversary of its foundation, began its
career in an exceedingly humble way. For some
time many of its founders had studied from tha
C. Y. TUKNER.
President of the Art Students' Lj igue if New-York.
antique in the schools of the National Academy
of Design, and on May 12, 1875b they united to
form an association to obtain the advantages of
constant study from life. Among the students of
tie Academy there had existed aft organisation
for social purposes, and when it was doubtful if
the Academy schools would be opened in tin;
fall under a professional teacher the members
organized, and at the fust meeting, in the studio
of Professor L. E. Wilmarth. on June '2, 1835b
a circular was prepared stating that the league
would begin work on September 15.
Professor Wilmarth volunteered to take cbatga
of the life classes gratuitously until the leagu*
could afford to pay him fur his services, or until
the experiment had had a fair trial, its firs'".
home was in a loom about twentj fei t by thirty.
at Sixteenth-st. and Fifth-aye., which was if er
ward enlarged and occupied by the life < i.iss for
several years. With the rapid Increase in the
number of students, before the end of the first
month larger accommodations were required,
l'K- >FESS< 'X :. E WII.MAKTH
1 of tin v ■ S d its' '. ■ iguc of
.■. ■■■ t'ork.
and. the league having no fund?, the work of
erecting the platforms was done by tin- mem
bers themselves. At the first gpner?.l meeting, in
0 r, Professor Wilmartn was elected presi
dent There were three 'if- classes five (fanes a
w ■••'•>•. .-it. i .1 sketch class late in the afternoon,
at which the students posed in turn. Near tho
end of the season an adj lining room was taken
for .t p. .trait class. Applicants were at i>nee
admitted to (',<•' classes sfter passing 'he exam
inations. The '",!••, however, then is now, re
tained control over its membership by elect'ng
only thus, wli 1 were studying in the life clashes
and proposed to make ar( 1 profession.
The financial outlook was gloomy before tin;
opening of the league for the second year, but
s.jine of the expenses vere guaranteed by n
member. <.rid an annual fee of $5 was required
As the advantages of the league became bettel
known the numb r if students increase^ to 1 ;'..">.
In answer to written questions submitted to him
Professor Wilmarth lectured on art topics once
a month, and there was a good attendance at
the portrait class. Professor Wilmarth d> fded
near the close of" the season to return to his posi
tion as instructor at the National Academy of
Design, hut the league continued its struggles
to maintain its schools. The number >f instruc
tors \as increased in following years, and the
number of .students increased to 423 in 1885, ?■««