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New-York tribune. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, June 20, 1900, Image 16

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tweak of hostilities with Spain the President of
tha United States, who knew by personal experi
ence on many a battlefield something of the hor-
TOrt of war. and who realized the expense and suf
fering which war entailed, stood firmly upon the
ground that a peaceful solution ClMl!f! » P *• f 9? m
And whe* that awful occurrence took place .ln
th« harbor of Havana, and a hot frenzy of indig
nation swept over our people, and a conflict seemed
inevitable, he faced pomilar clamor and heated
counsels, and still believed that the wrongs of
Cuba could be remedied and redressed without an
«ppeal to the arbitrament of war.
THE WAR WITH SPAIN.
The foiiv of Spain and the indignation of the
■Amerlcnr \ ■ forbade a peaceful solution. Then
tre President, sconced by a Republican Congress,
■K^fore V gun was lired. declared to the world the
10/ty Im<l vastiflsb motives that alone actuated the
;§ation. No man now. or in the centuries to come,
wher. history which alone "triumphs over time
■ ■• v - ir ., v y r
war. for it Was fought, with Moody sacrifice by a
KTeat «nd fro<? Republic, far the freedom of another
T*e* while iis= own liberties were nnassailed.
Th'i* i« not the time or t'.ie occasion to dwell upon
the in.io.v- of tha war. crowded with successive
victories and Illumined with countless examples of
Individual bravery and gallant conduct. It? living
•hero** ar. honored .»y a generous country, its dead
'have ennobled the race, and will l ive forever in the
•hearts of a grateful people. Throughout all it*
tnxious teya the President. iMT.mandrr-in-CMe o
\>ur Armies an.l o-.sr Navies, planned and directed
with uncTlnß haul. His wise diplomacy saved us
$rora thre.T "m-1 international complication. From
lhc roommenfvimnt of hostilities their dose
the conduct of the war was unassailable, and the
Vsl'rv erfticisnss of two year.- ago are already
■buried •-• the limbo of oblivion.
In August I*"* a preliminary protocol was exe
cuted at Washington, followed by the sessions of
•the Peace Comml^lonrrs of the United States r.nd
Spain in Paris. conttnencUw in Oetoher of that
ySr ' Public intereM in this country concerning
ine^ negotiations was intense. Until our soldiers
and* "sailers ha-i landed at Manila we had known
•little of the conditions of the people of the I hihp
flJnes W« soon ascertained th*t the cruelties and
eppre-sions existing in Cuba were mild compared
•with the treatment to which <--is-"ht millions of peo
ple- in tho^e Islands were subjected. We realized
'that if we relinqvished the archipelago to Spain we
'consigned Its Inhabitants again to a condition worse
than slavery, worse than b:«riiari=m. Wo had put
our hands 'to the plough, and every instinct of
honor and humanity forbade u<* to turn back. A
vniversal demand arose from all over the country
that we should retain our hold upon these islands.
«fford their people the protection of our laws, lift
them out o. thtir unfortunate condition and fit
'them, if possible, for self-government. Any agree
ment.by our Commissioners to give back the Phil*
rlj-ipim-=r lj-ipim-= to Spain, reserving for ourselves an island
or a coaling station, would have aroused a univer
sal National Indignation, and would never have
■been ratified by the representatives of the people.
No man saw" this so clearly as did the President.
3ti his advices To the CommiFf ioners he told them
.- was Imperative that we should be govern* d only
toy motives that =houSd exalt tho Nation; that
territorial expansion was our least concern, but
;that. whatever e!?p was done, th« people of the
Philipp' r:r!! mu?t le liberated from Spanish domi
ratfrn. anil he reached this view solely through
considerations of duty and humanity. The AmerU
cTTi Commissioners, men of differing polities!
■faiths reached a unanimous conclusion. The
'Treaty of Parts v,-.->s ratified by the vote of two
thirds* of the Senate, and the territory we acquired
Hinder it became lawful and lesal possessions of
the United States. The responsibility for the war
rested upon us all: the responsibility for the treaty
rests chfefiy ui»on the Republican party, and that
avows the wl^iiom of the treaty and declares
t to be the policy of the party to adhere to its
term? and to accept the responsibilities It imposed.
We ?.?>umed dominion of Porto Rico. Cuba and
the Philippines for reason* liff. ring as to each of
them.
PORTO RICAN LEGISLATION.
We took to ourselves the tittle Island of Porto
TRico because it lay under the shadow of our own
chores, and because Us continued occupancy by
f=pain or by any foreign Government would be a
constant menace to the States and to that great
.lr.teroceanle waterway which we shall build and
lown and operate as an American canal. We found
Jt Impoverished by years of colonial misßovernment
ICHIGAN DELEGATES TO THE PHILADELPHIA CONVENTION.
■.nd Without any system of revenue laws. Soon
after the peace its people were further stricken by
flood and famine. \y<? assumed toward them every
obligation which sympathy and friendship could
prompt. We contributed as a Nation lar^. sums
of money to ameliorate their condition and to en
able th<m to filaiit nnd gnrr.er th<*ir crops. Then
•we- said to them. We shall give you a Just and
equitable form of free government, with power
to manage your home affairs. Until you shall de
vise proper and efficient methods of revenue and
taxation, your needed fundjs shall be raised as fol
lows: You fhall pay upon your imports 15 per cent
of the present tariff rat" governing importations
. into the United St<-tef. which moans an avernfre
duty of r.»>out 7 per cent. A!l the necessaries of life
and building materials for the structures you need
shel! be free. On the first day of March. Wi2, all
the** outle* shall cemse in any event, n "d shall
cease sonnn- if .',!.■ that time you can arrange
for the needed revenues of the island.
The rfvommendalion? of the President were fully
*p*l jtatisfactorl.'r complied with: tin- people of the
It-):. ■:•: nre content, the vast mass of tl.e American
people approve, and wo have avoided precedents
tliiit mij-'nt vex us when we come to deal with
n.. problems thai finally await ua in the establish
ment of our permanent relations toward the people
of the Philippine Inlands.
There lias been much discussion during the last
few months in respect to the extent of the power r.t
this country to deal with I'orto Rico and our other
-ions, and it has been frequently contended
by the Democracy that ns soon aa we became the
owners of any nf thepe islands the < "onptltutlon of
tlio T'nlted States at onre extended over them, or
In the oratorical but misleading phrase "The Con
stitution follows the Sag." The argument Is spe
cious, but it will not bear Investigation. The
same question was raised In 1903, at the time of the
Louisiana Purchase, and the doctrine then estab
lished by Congress that we ould acquire foreign
poll by purchase, that Congress had the right to
efctabllsh there such government as It saw fit, and
that the Constitution did nojt of .its own force ex
tend over such territory. The doctrine was never
questioned until In Calhoun'a time It was sought to
be denied in the effort to extend human slavery
into the Territories.
WHERE THE CONSTITUTION EXTENDS.
The Supreme Court of the United States has more
than once determined the question and the con
tention concerning it now by our opponents is not
because anybody believes that the laws we have
enacted for the government of the island are un
just, but in order to embarrass the Administration
in dealing effectively with our new possessions,
The nag went to Mexico in jMg, the Constitution
NEW- YORK DAILY TRIBUNE, WEDNESDAY. JUNE 20, 1000.
INTERIOR OF THE CONVENTION HALL, PHILADELPHIA.
This view shows the chairs for the delegates on the main floor. The chairman's platform is dn the centre of the picture.
did not The flag -went to Cuba and was carried
into Santiago, and is there yet. But our Constitu
tion not only Is not there, but we are busy encour
aging; Cuba to prepare a constitution of her own.
When any portion of our territory becomes a sov
ereign State, then is our Constitution its corner
stone. In the territory of the United States not
Included within State boundaries Congress alone
determines the extent to which the provisions or
the Constitution extend.
The circumstances associated with our posses
sion of Cuba are new and unparalleled In the his
tory of conquests. The cruelties practised upon its
people Induced the war. Before we. began hostile
proceedings, however, and that the world might
know that our hands were clean and that we were
not animated by lust for territory, we solemnly
disclaimed any disposition or intention to exercise
sovereignty, jurisdiction or control over the Island
except for its pacification, and asserted our deter
mination, when that was accomplished, to leave the
government and control of the island to its people.
To this declaration we still rigorously adhere.
When we took possession at the close of the war
we found the conditions existing in Cuba to be de
plorable. Under the conservative and wise man
agement of Generals Brooke and Wood vast Im
provements have been effected, and we have given (
the people the first pood government they have
ever known. We found its cities beds of pesti- j
lence. We have stamped out yellow fever and i
rrade Havana as healthy a city as exists at that
latitude. We took its starving reconcentradoa who
had survived the war, and its other poverty-stricken
people, and fed -and clothed them. We organised a
public school system, and have everywhere estab
lished law and order. This had first to be done.
Then followed a compliance of the terms of the
treaty which gave the Spanish Inhabitants until
April 11 to determine whether or not they would
register .is citizens or preserve their allegiance to
Spain. Meanwhile a careful census of the island
•was- made. Then came the fixing of the qualifica
tions for the right of suffrage, which were fairly
bestowed. The island was divided into munici
palities and the registration provided for. And on
yesterday, June 18, municipal elections were
held ail through the Island, as the first and pre
liminary steps toward the establishment of a na
tional government and the adoption of a constitu
tion.
THE CUBAN THEFTS.
Anfl in this connection It is fitting to say that
the peculations and frauds committed In Cuba by
subordinate officials have made every American
blush with shame, and until the last of the guilty
men is arrested and convicted and sentenced that
si;ame will know no abatement. It is no more to
be charged to the party than would a theft by a
trusted employe be charged agnlnst the character
of the merchant who employed him. The party
that shield? and protects dishonest officials forfeits
public confidence, not the party that exposes and
punishes them. The Republican party has been
rarely the victim of misplaced confidence in Its
officials. In this instance the appointments were
made with the greatest care, many of them from
the classified service. Whenever fraud has been
discovered the guilty have been pursued unppar
!n?rlv and with the greatest publicity. So has It
be. with these thieving Postofflce officials, so has
it been always. In the vast aggregate of business
transacted by the Government the dishonest man
is raru. and his detection certain. The great hu
miliation Is that the thefts were from the people
of an island toward whom we sustain a fiduciary
relation, and whose confidence we ask. That this
Government makes good the loss is not enough. I
and perhaps the lesson has rot been in vain If it !
shall serve to stimulate us to even greater care
In dealing with these people, for whom we have
poured out our blood and treasure, and whom we
hope some day to Welcome on terms of closest
friendship as citizens of a sister republic.
We are dealing with Cube in a spirit not only j
of fairness but of generosity and of absolute un- i
pelfishness, and whenever the inhabitants of that
Island evince and declare their ability to take over
Its government and control, that day they shall
receive it; and until then we shall continue to ad
minister its affairs under a rule salutary and
satisfactory to all pood citizens In Cuba, and
creditable to the Administration at Washington
under whose orders the government Is conducted.
THE PHILIPPINE QUESTION.
Had there been no war with Spain this Republic.
inclined by principle and instinct and tradition to
peaceful ways, would have continued the develop
ment of our National resources and character with
in its existing borders, content In the future, as
throughout the century just ending, with that
path of National duty. We are not a warlike or a
quarrelsome, people. We have never coveted the
possessions of foreign principalities, and land lust
is unknown among us. We would fight to the
death to protect that which is rightfully ours; to
avenge a wrong sought to be perpetrated upon u#,
and to guard this hemisphere from any attempt by
foreign Powers to further extend their rule over
its soil. This has been our creed, and we have
looked forward with hope and with confidence to
the time when these United States, lying between
the two oceans, should lead among the nations of
the earth, not by right of the sword, but because
the character and high Intelligence of our people,
and the marvellous resources of our country, would
enable us. In the peaceful rivalry of commerce, to
dominate eventually the markets of the world.
To that end we had. for more than a hundred
years, held ourselves aloof from foreign complica
tions, and sought to make ourselves strong from
within, with no thought of colonial conquest.
The future of nations, however, like the future
of man, is hid from mortal vision, and no more
than man may a nation choose Its own duties.
When this war ended and we faced our victory In
all its completeness we found eight millions of
people living upon uncounted Islands delivered Into
our hands. Abandonment of them would be con
fession that while the oppression by Spain of a
million and a half of Cubans demanded our armed
interference greater barbarity and cruelty to mill-
Jons of Filipinos, less able to protect themselves,
was a subject of no concern to us. No civilized
nation in the world, no Christian nation, could
have turned these people back to Spain. Our
Commissioners, when they Insisted upon oii reten
tion of the Philippines, voiced the sentimenti and
wishes of the American people; and this Nation has
assumed with open eyes and with full realization
of the difficulties which may be encountered the
grave responsibilities imposed upon us by the Treaty
of Paris.
We are told that the Islands are rich In all the
I products of the tropics. In mineral wealth, and In
the possibilities of their future development So
much the better. But if they were as barren as
the Libyan desert we would have taken them just
the same.
REBELLION MUST HH CRUSHED.
Wo haven't been there long, but long enough to
i reach two conclusions: One Is that the first thing
we Intend doing is to suppress the Tagal insur
rection and to establish law and order throughout
tha archipelago. That is the flm thing we shall
do. And the last, the very last thing we intend
doing, Is to consider for a moment the question of
giving up or of abandoning these Islands.
We are actually owners of the Philippines by an
undisputed and Indubitable title. We are there as
I the necessary and logical outcome of our victory
over Spain. There are upward of a thousand isl
ands uprinkled upon that Southern sea. peopled by
i more than eighty tribe" of differing race and lan
guage, and having absolutely nothing in common
with each other. Most of these tribes welcome our
i coming and are grateful for our protection. The
Tngal tribe, hostile not only to us, but to most of
the native tribes, are in insurrection against our
authority. They have neither a government nor
the capacity to conduct one. and are waging a
predatory guerilla warfare which.' would be turned
against the other native tribes If we let them alone.
What would the. Democracy hiive us do? Give
them up to rapine and bloodshed, and leave the
islands as flotsam and jetsam on. the face of the
waters? There are parallels In 'Our own history.
Wo purchased Florida from Spain in 1821. when it
had four thousand white settlers, for $5,000,000 and
other valuable considerations. Tlte Sexninoles, na
tives of the soil, brave, resolute, having- far greater
Intelligence and character than the Tagals, dis
puted our possession. We sent Andrew Jackson
down to fight them, and it took us twenty-one
years to subdue them and send what was left of
them west of the Mississippi. If the "anti-every
thlngs" had lived then they wook\. I suppose, have
urged us to turn over Florida to Osceola, the
Aguinaldo of the Seminoles! Would you. after the
war with Mexico and the Gadsden Purchase, have
given the great area south and west of the Ar
kansas to the red Apache? Not so did our fathers
construe their duty, and as they built so shall we,
their sons. ■
AGUINALDO'S AMERICAN SYMPATHIZERS.
The insurrection against our legitimate authority,
which, tor the time, impedes our efforts to estab
lish a government for the Filipinos, involves us in
a sacrifice of lives and of treasure. The difficulties
we encounter in the Island of Luzon are many, but
the chief inspiration and encouragement of the
Tagal Insurrection come from the Democratic
headquarters in the United States. Partisanship
has proved stronger tbau patriotism, even while
our soldiers are being murdered by marauding
bandits, and if it were not for the hope held out
to Aguinaldo by America^ sympathizers the in
surrection in the Philippines would long ago have
ended.
The obstacles to the establishment of a civil
government in the Islands are many, but we shall
overcome them. Mistakes will undoubtedly be
made, but we shall remedy them. We shall in time
extend over that archipelago the segis of our pro
tection and of free government, and we shall grad
ually, but surely, lift these alien and savage races,
into" the light of civilization and Christianity,
Meanwhile, American enterprise and ingenuity and
push may be depended upon to develop the re
sources of the islands and make them an added
source of wealth to our country. The wise states
manship of the President and our able Secretary of.
State has already brought from, the countries of
Europe a recognition of our right to share in tho
vast commercial advantages which will follow the
opening of the Chinese Empire to foreign trade;
the Nlcaraguan Canal will be soon constructed;
Hawaii, With Its valuable- harbor, is ours; we pos
sess the best of the Samoan Islands, with Its mag
nificent roadway: the Philippines are almost at the
door of China, and if counsels of fear do not pre
vail this generation will see the American Nation
girdling half the glob I with its flag, extending Its
foreign commerce to the" uttermost parts of the
earth, and taking its place among the great world
nations, a power for good, for peace and for,
righteousness.
WHAT HINGES ON REPUBLICAN VICTORY.
Never since l^<">4, when the voters of the country
were called upon to determine whether the effort.-;
of Abraham Lincoln to preserve the Union should
be continued, or whether they should be abandoned
and other measures attempted, have questions so
vital been presented to the American people for
settlement. :ision must determine tha
maintenance or the degradation of both our Na
tional credit and our National honor. A p«-mo
cratic President could paralyze the operation of
thr new Currency law as effectively as if it were
wiped from our statute books. A Democratic vic
tory would infuse new lite into the Tagal insurrec
tion, cost us the lives .>f thousands of our gallant
army in the Philippines, Impair or destroy our
prestige, if not our power, in the islands, make us
a byword among the other great nations of the
world, and obliterate our Influence in the settle
ment of the vital questions certain to arise when
China shall be opened to foreign commerce.
There is little room for fear. The farmer and tha
artisan In their day of prosperity still remember
th impoverishmi :;t and blighi of Democracy, and
the Chicago platform has no allurements for them.
Our National honor is equally secure.
The American people are neither poltroons nor
pessimists, and they will not signalize the dawn of
the new century by the surrender of either convict
Huns or territory. Every soldier back from tha
islands, anil they arc in almost every hamlet In the
land, return! an advocate of their retention. Our
re buried aloTitf the sands of Luzon, and on
Its poll no foreign (lag shall ever salute the dawn.
Whatever may be in store for us in the new and
unbeaten track upon which we are entering, we
shall not be found "with the unlit lamp and tho
lingirt loin." Our way is new. but It is not dark.
in the readjustment of world conditions, where wo
musi take our place with the o'hor f^rcat nations
of the earth, we shall move with caution, but not
with fear. We seek only to lift up men to better
things— to bless, and not to destroy. The fathers of
the Republic accepted with courage such responsi
bilities as devolved upon them. The same heavens
b«nd over us. and the same Power thnt shielded
them will guard and protect us. for what we seek
1h to build still morn firmly, always upon founda
tions of probity and of virtue, the glorious edifice
of the Republic
WHAT THE FUTURE HOLDS.
We stand at the dawn of the new century. Be
fore It shall have reached Its meridian the youngest
here will have passed beyond this life or beyond
th.» sphere of usefulness. New recruits will "step
Into the ranks as we fall out. This very year
thousands of young men will for the first time
exercise the right of citizenship and cast their
Lailots at the National election. The safety of this
Republic must ever rest In "the courage of yount?
hearts and the vigor of a noble manhood." Youth
is buoyant and hopeful. No snarling criticism or
gospel of a little America, or prophecy of despair
will find response from hearts that beat full and
strong with courage and with faith, and whose
creed It Is that
Goi's In His heaven.
All's right with the world.
Whatever else in the past has suffered change or
decay, th* Republican party, which for forty years
nns been identified with everything ennobling and
uplifting in our history, wa never so vital so
virile and so vigorous as to-day. And the heritage
we shall transmit to the new century, to the com
ing generation and to their children, and to their
children's children, shall be a record clean and un
tarnished, an unquenchable faith in fre«> institu
tions, an unalterable belief in the patriotism of the
people, and an undying love of liberty and of
country.
Senator Wolcott has a clear, resonant voice,
which penetrated to all recesses of the hall. He
speaks, however, with great rapidity, and this
perhaps somewhat spoiled the effect of his
speech, but the thousands before him -were In
thorough sympathy with him .and he had no
difficulty in striking a responsive chord. When,
with outstretched arms, he predicted the tri
umphant election of the Republican ticket in
November the audience broke into great ap
plause, and when he first mentioned President
M' K:n;e\'s name he could not proceed for a
minute, owing to the demonstration.
As ha rehearsed the history of the four jcuio
of Rfpuhlican aiimlnistration, the prosperity
wMch had blessed it. the victories it ha.l won.
the glorious outcome of the Spanish-American
War, the campaign of misrepresentation In con
nectlon with tho Phillpplnea which its enemies
had b<?Run, and which it had n;et, the Conven
tion repeatedly broke into applause.
PROSPERITY THF: KETNOrm
It was a keynote speech, covering the legisla
tion which had been placed on the statute
hooks and its deepest rote was the financial
prosperity of th* country the legislation
NEBRASKA DELEGATES TO THE PHILADELPHIA CONVENTION.
which had made Its 'continuation possible if the
present Administration continued In power.
That was the theme to which the demonstra
tions of the Convention elans. When he said
that the old issue of the Democrats was dead
and that they were driven to find new Issues in
a war which they had be. most anxious to
precipitate the Convention rose at him, but the
outburst was even greater when he declared
that the division among the Kepub'.ioans of the
East and West on the financial issue was a
thing of the past and that those who had left
the party low years ago in the West were
returning on the issue of expansion. The first
mention of t-xpansion was also the signal (or a
demonstration.
Senator Wolcott paced up and down along the
front of the platform as he proceeded, and sev
eral times he consulted his notes.
Mr. Wolcott received many hearty ' -hakea
from those about him. and then turned to the
tuslnesa of the convention. The following list
of temporary officers was announced:
Temporary Secretary— CHAßLES W. JOHSSOX of JUa-
Assist -.- B?eretarl*<>— JOHN" R. MAIXOT. of Ohio;
JOHN r. BEAM, of N«w-J«r»«y: ureiEN ouat
cf Illinois: cariaku I*. STICKXET. of Wtaaen.
irtn: JAMES F. BURKE, of IVr.r.syl. ,-»nla ; W. ■
BOCHMAN f>f T»nn»«»e»: WARREN KIiJLER, of
Imli.Tr.a: JOHN Q. ROTCE, of Kansas, arvi P. C
GAYI> of Ccm»*ctlcut_
Rea>l!n«r Clerks— DEXNI9 El AI-W.\RD. of Mlch!«aa;
E. I* I,AJirSOX, of OhU ami JAME3 11. STONE.
of Michigan. _
Cl*rk it rresi.'.erst'* D^li-A'HER C. KIXD3. of \! in».
Official Reporter— M. W. IILLMEXIIERO. of the D'.itrtct
of Columbia.
Tally Clerk*— .l. H. r<~>TTS. of New-Jersey, and GEORGE
B. BCTUX. of Nebraska.
There was a momentary lull, and then Mr.
Wolcott, cazincr out at the assemblage, said:
"Governor Taylor of Kentucky Is reen^nlzedj*
SENATOR E. O. WOLCOTT,
Of Colorado, temporary chairman of the Phila
delphia Convention.
;■>• eye was turn
hall, where a tall. Banal rtgure.
with a swarthy face. s4 . n hand,
awaiting a pause In the hurrah a name
ha<l e\
DM to the platform. • they want
you." <-al'e,l oat m : -
TAYLOR BKFORE THK GATHEBUVa
The much dial iieiiarfl man from Kentucky
moved up the :.. n. re
ceiving a cheer as Senator
greet him. There was momentary si!.-:
■nvention waited, apparently expe | .
speech echointc some oi the recent Jramatlc In
cidents in Kentucky. B .• at that, in
a piping voice Governor Taylor secon '.
nominations of tht Odahi wl :
been announced, and. thia : Urn stag?.
The nominations were made unanimous.
"Mr. Payne, of Jfew-Yoik," aaaoenaeai the
chairman, and again all eyes turned to the oen-
tre of the hall, where this time tha silver topp**
form of the chairman of the Ways and Means
Committee was seen. He announced that the
rulea of the last convention should prevail until
other rules were adopted, and this prevailed
without dissent.
The call of the roll of States for the •übml»-
B *on of members of the various committees then
began. it proved a tedious process, and - he
Convention was virtually in reeeaa as the n&nMe
were handed in.
People leaning; over the rails of th» pi*
watched Mr. Wolcotfs movements, and many of
the delegates climbed on their chairs and
watched the crowd eddy around him.
When order had been restored after the con-

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