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New-York tribune. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, January 06, 1901, Image 19

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There would to the lover of his kind be little
pleasure in recording of the nineteenth century
ih&t It surpassed all Its predecessors in the
§ cumber, magnitude and deetructlveness of its
ware. Nor. indeed, are we sure that such a rec
ord would be true. It is. however, impossible
to declare the century a peaceful one. though It
opened with a notable cessation of war. and
has closed with a more notable essay at uni
versal peace. If we cannot point to a new
declaration of war In each one of the hundred
j-pars. we must declare with Halfred the Bald,
"la another 'twas multiplied Three times." The
unexampled progress of the world In civilization
has resulted in greater complexity of the politl
¦l relationships of the nations, and in bring
ing each nation into more direct contact with
otters and with a far greater number of others,
and these conditions, amid the persistence of ele
mental passions, evil as well as benign, have
Inevitably widened the opportunity for war.
Kor shall we err if we judge that more wars
<•: the nineteenth century were of high Import
to the world than of any other century. Sir Ed
ward Creasy has set down only fifteen "decisive
battles" in more than twenty-three centuries—
battles, that is. which materially affected the
course of human progress — and only one of
these was in the nineteenth century, while the
eighteenth century had no fewer than four.
Bat Sir Edward stopped with Waterloo. Had !.
extended the scope of his observations to the
end of the century he might well have found
several other conflicts at least as important as
the futile cannonade of Valmy. At least six
or seven of the nineteenth century wars may
veil be ranked as of first class importance to
(he world, and several must rank in point of
physical magnitude among the greatest of all
The century began with a sort of intermezzo
Is the Napoleonic wars. France made. In Its
feat year, peace at Lunevllle with Prussia and
Austria, on the basis of monstrous spoliation;
with Spain. Naples and Russia; and with Eng
land, after the latter had driven her out of
Egypt and destroyed the Danish fleet. In tho
1 earae year, however. France began war against
Kaytl, and Russia conquered Georgia, and the
United and destroyed the Danish fleet. In war.
same year, however. France began war against
Hayti, and Russia conquered Georgia, and the
United States and Tripoli engaged In open war.
The next ye'ir saw rebellion and French inter
vention in Switzerland. The next saw England
¦gain at war with France, and likewise with
th* Mahrattas. The year 1804 saw Decatur's
heroism at Tripoli. France's attempt to Invade
England. Spain's war against England, and
Servia's rising under Kara George. Ulm, Tra
falgar. Austerlitz and Presburg are the land
rrarks of 1805. and Jena and Auerstadt those of
1806, while in the latter year Russia waged war
en Turkey, and England regained possession of
the Cape. ' ~>
Eylau. Friedland. the Tilsit spoliation and
the bombardment of Copenhagen filled 1807,
. with France's invasion of Portugal, which lat
.•¦;- ter act Invited the coming of the victor of As
• saye and opened the sure road to Waterloo. The
next year saw Bonaparte's aggressions on all
sides, the advent of Wellesley in the Peninsula,
and Russia's conquest of Finland. Saragossa
. and Talavera, Aspern and Wagram. and the
peace of Schonbrunn, tell the tale of 1809, fol
lowed by Torres Vedras. the Russian campaign
in the Balkans, Hidalgo's war for Mexican in
dependence, and the outbreak of the revolu
tions throughout South America in 1810. Tlp
pecanoe. Albuera and the slaughter of the Mam
dukes were the widely diverse war notes of
1611. stern preludes to the tremendous struggles
*hlch were to begin with the next year.
; The first supremely great episodes of nine
teenth century militarism bear date of 1812. In
that year began the inconsiderate war between
the United States and Great Britain, which
Martled the naval quid nuncs of the world and
established a new sea power of serious magni
tude; Bonaparte's disastrous Moscow campaign
shattered bis strength and prestige beyond re
pair; and Wellington's remorseless prosecution
of the Peninsular war made omens of Waterloo
loom large and dear.
The next year saw Perry's victory on Lake
Erie, the rising of the German people, the crush'
ing of Bonaparte at Leipsic. and Wellington's
invasion of France "past the Pyrenean pines."
' In 1814 came the battle of Lake Champ] ain and
the restoration of peace between America and
Great Britain; the fall of Paris and abdication
c* Bonaparte. In 1815 was fought the postbel
¦ nra battle of New-Orleans; Decatur dictated
terms to the Barbary States; Milosh Obrenovitch
renewed the revolt of Servia; and the Congress
of Vienna was held and the Holy Alliance was
formed. But above all rose the one incomparable
event of Waterloo.
After the "world's earthquake" a calm, with
minor tremors. '. The British bombardment of
Algiers, the crushing of the Mahrattas. the Sem
inoie War and the triumph of Bolivar at Bogota
were the four chief military Incidents of the
¦ext four years. But in 1820 came revolution
la Portugal and revolts in Spain and Naples.
and the next year saw revolution In Piedmont.
Iturbide's revolution in Mexico and the begin
¦lng of the heroic struggle which set Greece free
«nee more. The next year saw the infamous
Congress of Verona, the separation of Brazil
from Portugal, the rise of Santa Ana and the
gratifying progress of the Greek war.
The name of Marco Bozzarls Illumined l v -3.
despite the shame of Franco's suppression of
constitutionalism In Spain at the behest of the
Coagress of Verona. Then came the death of
I Byron, the British war with Burmah and the
-final, fall of Spanish power in all of South
••^ America. The Greek war went on through 1825
••fl 1826. and In th* latter year the Janissaries
"to* massacred and Russia and Persia began a
."?.'Er. Navarino gave nope to Greece In 3827,
', *r:'l Jtoesla overran much of Persia, compelling
I. * spoliative peace treaty in the next year. In
Wch latter Russia mmtwrni her regression*
. '£33 Turk-:. This int*-r«p t ing era ended In.
>;:-l *'•.".» with Turkey's recognition of Greek :nd<-
r>-n'J. :ijcf« and b- i nation by Jiuxnl:.- undf-r th*
'¦¦ ¦" treaty of Adrionople.
- ¦ »''•" i -'lv onough another series of wars began
"J IS-'JO •::!. th- French conquest of Algiers,
'->'¦' the July resolution in Franc, the Belgian revo
'Uti.,l. which wrk coon crowned with Inde
*. :'P«-ric3enc<*, ; end r«-voltc in nrunHvvirk. Saxony
"nil Poland, Th*. n*xt ypar Poland was r.ruf-hed,
• " ( " 1 " In .M«iO«-n* nn-1 lh<- J'upa! BtatP?< were
• t.'-'i'Ushfid by AuMiln, ami in.-- KKVl'ilan lrfvn<-ion
''•' : bct-sn. The UlnclthHwk V-' H r. th" rise
•Jit MA.o]-Kiir\r r ii, Al^rin. ¦ th- final liberation
,"t J',pjt;lnm, and ihmliUn's -Kreat victor)* 1 * at
*'" and K. :,.'¦<. nsnrks«l. :h- «tory :of 1832,
, *}><}•"¦ thai cl JS-,:; . ;.,,.,: '. I•• allemtiterl rev
olution of Frankfort, the beginning- of the Carl
ist wars, a revolution in Portugal with British
aid and the Russo-Turklsh treaty of Unkiar
Skelessi. Peace with Abd-el-Kader and in Por
tugal was next effected, to be followed in 1835
by renewed war with tl.e Algerian chief, the
second Seminole War. the Texan revolution and
the "Great Trek" of the Boers.
The storming of the Alamo, Louis Napoleon's
Strasburg fiasco and K&partero's triumph over
the Car'.ists took place in IS."5<). and the next
year saw wars in the Caucasus, the Persian
siege of Herat, and insurrections in Canada..
The British-Indian Government in 1838 began its
war against Dost Mohammed. Ameer of Cabul.
In IS3O Turkey made furious but disastrous war
on Egypt and then proclaimed the Hatti-Sherif
of itulnare. Russia met with success in the
Caucasus and with utter disaster in her attack
upon Khiva, and the British occupied Cabul.
In IS4O the Hist Carlist war ended, but Maria
Crlstina had to leave Spain, resigning her power
to Espartero. The European Powers inter
vened to drive the Egyptians back from Syria,
and the British opium war with China began.
Peace between Egypt and Turkey followed, the
Dardanelles were closed against ships of war
and the Afghan chiefs rose against and mas
sacred the British Invaders.
The fatal British retreat from Cabul, the Brit
ish annexation of Natal and the submission of ]
China to Great Britain in the Treaty of Nan- i
king and cession of Hong-Kong were the chief
incident* of 1842. Narvaez's revolution in Spain,
the expulsion of King Otho of Greece and
Napier's conquest of Scinde — "Peccavi!" — fol
lowed in 1843, and the final conquest of Algeria
and the Bandiera revolt in Italy in 1844. The
Russian war in the Caucasus, the French and
British war against the Argentine dictator,
Rosas, and the first Sikh War filled 1845. Then,
in 1846. came the United States' war with Mex
ico, a Portuguese revolution, a rising and ruth
less crushing of the Poles and the peace of La
hore .vith the Sikhs. The next year was starred
with the names of Buena Vista, Vera Cruz,
Cerro Gordo. Puebla, Contreras. Churubusco,
Molino del Rey, Chapultepec and Mexico, and
there were civil war in Switzerland and a revolt
in the two Sicilies.
The Treaty of Gaudelupe Hidalgo at the be
ginning of 1848 marked an epoch In the world's
history in giving the United States Its vast do
main on the Pacific Coast. At the same time an
other movement of supreme importance began
In the revolutionary tide which swept over prac
tically all the enlightened lands of Continental
Europe. Italy, from Alps to /Etna, first felt
its force, with Charles Albert's epoch making
Constitution; then France, with Louis Philippe's
abdication and a short lived republic; then Aus
tria, with the fall of Metternlch; then Rome,
with a Papal Constitution: then Hungary, with
the rise of Kossuth; then Prussia and Bavaria;
the Sardinian war against Austria and the first
Schleswig-Holsteln War followed: the Chartists
came close to civil war in England; Poland and
Ireland essayed revolt; the Frankfort Parlia
ment 3iet; and so the storm swept over the Con
tinent, while afar off th? second Sikh War be
gan and another Boer war led to the founding
of the Transvaal. Such was 1848.
Its sequences In 1849 included the crushing
of Hungary by Austria with Russia's ruthless
aid, the defeat of Charles Albert and the ac
cession of Victor Emmanuel 11. French Interven
tion at Rome and the submission of the Sikhs.
In 1850 came the insurrection in Bosnia and the
Tai-Ping rebellion In China. Louis Napoleon's
coup d'etat gave 1851 a bad pre-eminence, and
In the same year the first Schleswig-Holstein
War was ended, there was another revolution
in Portugal and the first British war with Bur
mah was begun. And thus the war storms of
Western Europe for a space subsided.
They arose in the East, however, with Monte
negro's revolt against Turkey In 1852, followed
the next year by the Crimean War. with its
Alma, Balaklava and Inkerman in 1854. In the
last named year, too, O'Donnell had his revo
lution in Spain. Russia gained control of Khiva
and the United States began a new era in his
tory with the "opening" of Japan. Walker's
filibustering In Central America began in 1855,
and the Crimean War was pressed to the fall of
Sebastopol and Kars. Civil war in Kansas came
in 1856. together with the end of the Crimean
War, the promulgation of the Hatti-Humayun,
O'Donnell's dictatorship in Spain. British annex
ation of Oude, a second British-Chinese war and
the Persian war against British India.
The Mormon rebellion occurred in 1857, and the
same year saw the Sepoy Mutiny, with the Cawn
pore massacre and the defence and relief of
Lucknow. The mutiny was ended the next year;
Great Britain and France vanquished China and
dictated the treaties of Tlen-Tsin, Russia seized
the Amoor provinces, and France began her con
quest of Anam. The Sardinian-French war
against Austria in 1859 Jed, by way of Magenta
and Solferlno, to the Treaty of Villa Franca;
Spain warred with Morocco, Russia subjugated
the Caucasus, and Mexico was in the throes of
civil war. Garibaldi and his "Red Shirts" went
to Marsala in 18150. and that year saw all Italy
save Rome united under the "Re Galantuomo."
In the same year the French Intervened in Syria,
and an English and French army seized and
despoiled Peking.
The year 1801 marked the opening of yet an
other era, with the outbreak of our own Civil
War, one of the greatest in magnitude and in
Importance the world has ever known. At the
same time Great Britain. France and Spain be
gan their Intervention in Mexico. Of the great
battles and campaigns in the United States dur
ing- the next three years it would be idle to at
tempt to speak here In detail. We may recall,
elsewhere. Garibaldi's futile attack upon Rome,
the Montenegrin and Servian wars against Tur
key, the Greek Revolution, and the French war
against Mexico for the establishment of Maxi
milian's empire. in 1862; the Polish revolt, and
the Schleswig-llolsteln war. In 1803; the Russian
conquest of Circassia, the end of the Tai-Plng
rebellion, and wars between Peru and Spain, and
Paraguay and Brazil, in 1864.
The end of our Civil War came in 1805; th«
Gasteln Convention was made between Prussia
and Austria, and Uruguay and Argentina Joined
Brazil in war against Paraguay. The next year
saw Prussia's vanquishment of Austria at
Sadowa, through the genius of Yon Moltke, and
the reorganization of Germany: Italy's redemp
tion of Venice and the insurrection In Crete. The
British war with Abyssinia, the fall of Maxi
milian and establishment of the Mexican repub
lic. Garibaldi's second attack upon Rome and the
abolition' of the Shogunate In Japan followed in
18C7. The Spanish revolution, the expulsion of
Queen Isabella and the beginning of the Ten
Years' War In Cuba, the defeat of Paraguay by
the allies and the Russian conquest of Samar
kand occurred in ISCB, and then a breathing
¦¦pace wan had In ]*<«», with only a Dalmatian
insurrection and the suppression of revolts in
Another colossal war, with results of worldwide
Importance, came on in IS7O. between France
and Germany, ending in 1871 with the d.-feat of
the former and the creation of a new republic
and a new empire. Meantime, in 1870, Italy
took Koine for Its capital, and the Egyptian con
quest of the Soudan began. In 1872 the Geneva
Arbitration wn.i eff^ctM between Great Britain
nnd the United State*, with Invaluable results
fur peace unions 1 the nations, find another Carl
i tat war broke out. Kubhlu seized Khiva, and the
I firei ABhantee war and the Atcheen war besa*
in IS".'!; a r.-vulntinn r. -stored thf- Bourbons in
sl-'-':s l-'-' : ii I-.', an.! n,isn;a and Herzegovina re
belled In 1875. In 1876 occurred the Btoa was
and "Custer's last stand," Russia < -oiiqu. -r.-d
Khokan, and the Boers engaged in their disas
trous attack upon the Kaffirs.
The great feature of the year, however, was
seen in the Turkish Empire, comprising revolts
and massacres in Bulgaria, a Servo-Montene^rtn
war against Turkey and revolution at Constanti
nople. Russia made war on Turkey in 1877. and.
after _l>eing saved from rout by Rumanian aid.
in IS 1 8 dictated peace at San Stefano. This
treaty was set aside by the Congress of Berlin,
and Montenegro, Servia and Rumania were
made independent, Bulgaria autonomous, and
'Bosnia and Herzegovina were placed under
Austrian administration— the last provision en
tailing a desperate war In those provinces.
In 1878. too. another British- Afghan war be
gan, and the Ton Years' War in Cuba was ended
with the dishonored Treaty of Zanjon. The
Cavagnari massacre and Roberts's capture of
Cabul. in Afghanistan; the British-Zulu var, the
Hussian campaign against the Turkomans and
a war between Chili and Peru were the military
features of 1879, which were continued through
ISSO, Roberts's famous march to Kandahar oc
curring in the latter year. The Russians crushed
the Turkomans in 1881, the Boers successfully
revolted against the British, Franch effected the
conquest of Tunis, and Arabi began his at
tempted revolution in Egypt.
Thi next year saw British intervention In
Egypt and the suppression of Arabi, and the
French war ir. Tonquin. The latter was con
tinued in 1883, and the French conquest of
Madagascar began, and the Mahdlst outbreak In
the Soudan became serious. The illustrious Gor
don was sent to Khartoum in 1884, and Wolse
ley was sent to his relief, while Merv was seized
by Russia The next year saw Gordon's martyr
dom, the Russian attack upon Afghanistan,
which was checked by. Great Britain; the Riel
rebellion in Canada, the British conquest of
Burmah, the annexation of Eastern Rumella to
Bulgaria, and the Servo-Bulgarian war. In 188 l»
Russia fomented revolution In Bulgaria nnd
Greece threatened Turkey with Invasion. The
Italians met with disaster in Abyssinia, at Mas
sowah. In ISS7. and in 18S8 the British waged
war with tho Dervishes at Suakim. In 1880 oc
curred the Brazilian revolution and establish
ment of the republic, and in IS«.M» a rebellion In
Switzerland and another In Argentina. Civil
wars occurred In Chill and in Argentina In 1801.
and British India was troubled with a "little
war' in Manipur. France engaged in war with
the loathsome tyrant of Dahomey in 1802, and
In ISJ>.'{ occurred the Ilav/aiian revolution, the
British war with Lohengiila in Matabeleland and
a civil war in Brazil.
The major wars of the last years of the cen
tury began in 18ft4-'9r>, with that between China
By EDWARD W. BTRN, A. !/..
Author of 'The Progrr»a of Inrrntion in the Nineteenth Century."
By special arrangement vith "The Scientific
American." The Tribune Is able to reproduce a lib
eral portion of nn article prepared for that peri
odical hit Air. Ityrn. The portUtn ntlectcd relates
more particularly to advanim in machinery.
When the nineteenth century began the
United States was of limited territory, flanked
by England on the north. Spain on the south
and France on the west, a storm-swept coast on
the east, and a hostile and übiquitous host ol
aborigines In our midst. The necessaries of life
were still directing the energies of the early
settlers almost entirely to agricultural pursuit*
and to supplying by the quickest methods the
Immediate wants of food and shelter. It Is not
surprising, then, that most of the notable steps
of invention at this time should have been taken
in foreign lands. As. however, the American
people wen- quick to appreciate and adopt any
thing of practical value, and as in later years
United States patents have been quite generally
taken for the most important granted through
out the world, these foreign Inventions have be.
come working assets of industrial progress in
the United States which cannot be ignored in
any estimate of the causes of Its growth.
In the very beginning of the first decade ...
Louis Robert, of France, devised a machine
for making continuous webs of paper, which
rendered the web perfecting printing press pos
sible; Jaequard. also of France, Invented a pat
tern loom. Somewhat later. Trevlthlck. an Eng.
lishman. built the first steam locomotive; and
Wlnsor, his countryman, organized the first gas
In our own land. Colonel John Stevens ana
Robert Fulton successfully established steam
navigation and laid the foundation for the pres
ent great commerce and splendid naval equip
ment of the world.
In the second decade (181<)-'2O) Ko'nig's
rotary steam press marked a great advance in
printing; Stephenson built his first locomotive;
Fulton built the first steam war vessel; '."'•v'~,T
Sir Humphry Davy invented the safety lamp,
the English engineer Brunei supplied in civil
engineering: notable improvements In the meth
ods of driving subterranean and submarine tun
nels; ... the American ship Savannah
utilized steam for the first time tor crossing th«
Atlantic, and Mlunchurd invented his lathe for
turning Irregular forms.
In the third decade (1820-'3OJ Faraday con
verted the electrical current into mechanical
motion, and in experiments in th. liquefaction
and solidification of gases laid tl.e foundation ot
the modern absorption ice machine?; pin* 'began
to be cheaply made on Wrights machine; the
first public passenger railway was opened in
England between Stockton and Darlington;
Sturgeon invented the prototype of the electro
magnet; Professor Henry perfected the same
and rendered it effective for all useful purposes
In the arts. Barlow's electrical spur wheel.
Ohm's law of electrical resistance, Becquerel's
double- fluid galvanic battery, and Dal Negro's
electrically operated pendulum marked other
notable steps in the electrical field. Friction
matches were introduced by John Walker. Neil
»on's hot blast for smelting iron was the greatest
of the early steps in metallurgy. Stephenson's
locomotive, the Rocket, took the prise for speed;
the Stourbrldge Lion was imported, and was
the first practical locomotlvo to be put to work
In America *./•. . and Ericsson supplied the
steam flre engine. *f \ •''¦"
. .In the third decade .IS.-UI- the United States
began to show the fertility and resourcefulness
of 'lts inventors to a remarkable degree. Pro
fessor Ilenrv teleEratihed siunala to a distant
and Japan, which placed the latter among the
great military Powers of. the world. In the
same years the Philippine rebellion against
Spain occurred. France proceeded to the entire
conquest of Madagascar in 1895, and another
Cuban rebellion began. The next year saw the
foolish and futile Jameson raid, the British sup
pression of Ashantee horrors, the end of Italy's
Abyssinian enterprise in the disaster of Adowa.
the advent of Weyler. the Butcher, in Cuba and
the progress of the Anglo-Egyptian expedition
for the redemption of the Soudan as far as Don
gola. In 1897 came the troubles In Crete, ending
in the liberation of that island from Ottoman
misrule: Greece's disastrous attack upon Tur
key; the Anglo-Indian war with the hill tribes
of the Afghan frontier, and Germany's seizure
of Klao-Chau.
A war of worldwide import was that of 1898
between the United States and Spain, resulting
in the expulsion of the latter Power from the
Western Hemisphere, of which It once claimed
to be sole lord, and the great expansion of the
territorial possessions of the United States. In
the same year Omdurman and Khartoum were
taken and the Soudan redeemed, and there oc
curred various petty revolutions in South and
Central America and In Hayti. The penultimate
year of the century saw the conclusion of our
treaty of peace with Spain, the outbreak of the
Tagal rebellion In the Philippines, the beginning
of the British-Boer war in South Africa, the
final extinction of Mahdism in the Soudan and
the Czar's Peace Congress of the World at The
Hpgue. Finally the century went out with the
Boxer outbreak In China and the invasion of
that empire by half a dozen of the Powers for
Justice, vengeance, loot, conquest and what not.
In an ominous campaign, the end of which Is not
Such is the war and peace record of the nine
teenth century. It Is a bloody one. yet may It
largely be said that "these dead have not. died
in'vain." The vested iniquities of many centuries
have been «wept away by the hot breath of war,
millions of slaves have been set free, nations
have been redeemed from alien despotism, the
great principles of peaceful mediation and arbi
tration have been securely established, and. on
the whole, civilization has gone forward, both
upon the wings of peace and upon the thunder
ous powder cart of war.
If the century has not been more free from
bloodshed than Its predecessors. it has at least
been more free from blood shed In vain, and has
brought the world perceptibly nearer to the
hoped for century end when the Christmas bells
shall Indeed
Rinc out th« thnutand wars of old —
Ring In th« thounand years of r*"><" <> -
point by his electro-magnet, and Invented his
electric motor; McCormick anil Hussey invented
and put In service their respective reapers;
Baldwin built the "Ol<l Ironsides." and from
this time on American' locomotives began to
assert their claims to recognition, until to-day
in numbers and quality they excel all others.
Professor Morse gave the world the telegraph;
Colt invented hi*< revolver; Saxton devised mag
neto-electric machines; the link motion was in
vented by James; Davenport made his electric
motor: Professors Draper and Morse made the
llr«t photographic portraits, and Goodyear dis
covered the process of vulcanizing rubber. . . .
Ten years more completed the tlrst half of
the century, and this decade »-'."?»» brought
Bickers steam cutoff, Trlger's pneumatic cais
sons. Nasniyth's steam hammer, the first tele
graphic message from Washington to Baltimore,
the Introduction of anaesthetics by Dr. Wells and
by Dr. Morton, the Hoe type revolving machine,
House's printing telegraph, guncotton and nitro
glycerine. Howe's sewing machine. Savage's time
lock. Haln's chemical telegraph, BakewelTs fac
simile telegraph. Bourdon's pressure gauges.
HrewHter's stereoscope, the Corliss engine, the
first submarine cable (Dover to Calais), the col
lodion process in photography, Sloan's gimlet
pointed screw and American machine made
In the next decade <IN."iO-«» we find Dr.
Page's electric locomotive, the Ruhmkorff coil,
Helinholtz's ophthalmc-scope, Maynard's breech
loading ritle, the Smith & Wesson, the Spencer
and the Henry magazine firearms; the Chanting
.ft Farmer tire alarm telegraph". Gtntl's duplex
telegraph, the Watt & Burgess and the Voelter
processes for making paper pulp from wood.
Wilson's four-motion feed for sowing machines,
Kessemer's process of making steel. Hji'.rth's
dynamo-electric machine, Ericsson's hot air en
gine. . . . the Michaux bicycle. Hughes'*
printing telegraph. Woodruff's sleeping car,
Perkins's aniline dyes. Siemens'* regenerative
furnace, Iron floor beams In building construction.
I 'help's printing telegraph, first Atlantic cable.
Gitfard Kteam Injector, Gardner's underground
cable car system, the discovery of coal oil In the
United States, the first use of the electric light
in a dwelling, by Farmer; launching of the
Great Eastern, Osborne's process of photo-lith
ography, the Improved spectroscope and the
Kirchhoff and Itunsen system of spectrum an
alysis. Plante's storage battery. Itels's crude
telephone, and Carre's ammonia absorption Ice
The following period (18<>(>-'7O) Included the
civil war. but even this terrible calamity could
not arrest the momentum of inventive progress.
As might be supposed, the inventions of this
period reflected to some extent the strife of bat
tle, and we find here the Introduction of Timby's
revolving turret. Ericsson's ironclad Monitor.
the Gatliug gun, the white gunpowder of SchulU
and of Dittnuir. dynamite, Nobel's explosive gel
atine, the Whltehead torpedo, Moncrleff's disap
pearing gun carriage, and the rebounding gun
lock. The McKay shoe-sewing machine revolu
tionized the shoe Industry. Colonel Green In
vented the drive well. Otis Introduced his pas
senger elevator, the first barbed wire fence ap
peared, and rubber dental plates were Intro
duced. . . . . Wilde. Siemens and Gramme
brought out their several dynamo electric ma
chines. Burleigh Invented his compressed air
rock drills, and Tllghman his sulphite process
for making wood pulp paper. Oleomargarine
was produced, the Suez Canal opened, the Pa
cific Railway was completed, the first Westing
house air brakes were devised, the \\ in. 1!. mi- m
refrigerating machines were brought' out, and
the Mont Cents tunnel was practically com
The next decade. (ISTO-*8O) Included th- peri
ods of the great financial panic in the United
States and the critical political srrif.- incident to
the contested Presidential elation. This retard
ed to some extent th» growth of patents in num
bers, hut it does not seem to have arrested th-
(unilnuecl ou u:iur aevera.
By PROF. \\l\THh-oi' ORE DANIELS, A. J/..
Political Economy. Princeton University.
Rapid and varied as the educational progress
of the nineteenth century has been, there is one
of its movements which in scope and Importance
outstrips all the others combined— l refer to the
widespread diffusion throughout the civilized
world of rudimentary Instruction. For what
ever else in the nineteenth century may be for
gotten, future generations will not forget its
radical dismemberment of the empire of illiter
acy. To realize this change fully, we must look
for a minute at the situation In 1801. Statistics
of illiteracy are not forthcoming until about the
middle of the century, but it is scarcely an ex
aggeration to say that throughout Central Eu
rope the ability to read and write was then al
most as rare as to-day it is common. The
prevalence of rudimentary education has in a
i way alienated us from the experience of the
race, and so sophisticated have we become that
j to-day we have to think twice to catch the point
| of Dogberry's dictum that "to be a well favored
man Is the sift of fortune; but to write and
read comes by nature."
It goes, of course, without saying that this dif
fusion of the rudiments of letters is the outcome
of the public school system, itself the most wide
spread social institution of the century. Com
mon schools there were, it Is true. in preceding
centuries; but how few and transient these oases
in the wilderness of Illiteracy were prior to 1801
a cursory review will tell. In the early sixteenth
century, as the outcome of the Reformation,
common elementary schools were instituted in
Saxony and other German States, and in certain I
of the Swiss cantons. Luther and Calvin In ap
pealing "from an Infallible Church to an infalli
ble book." and the right of individual Judgment
thereupon, realized that popular education was j
an Indispensable bulwark to the reformed sys- ,
tern. In many parts of Holland and Sweden, !
also, the common school followed In the wake \
of the Protestant movement. But after the
Thirty Years' War had swept over Germany !
scarcely a vestige of the common schools re
mained. It was only in small out-of-the-way
corners, such as parts of Holland and Switzer
land, that the young educational shoot took per
manent root. In Scotland it is .true that the
parish schools planted by Knox's fiery zeal as
an auxiliary to the Kirk lived on; and as late
as 1770 Adam Smith could say of them. "In
Scotland the establishment of such parish
schools has taught almost the whole common I
people to read, and a very great percentage of
them to write and account."
Not least Important of these beginnings was ;
the common school system of our Northern '
American colonies, especially New-York. Massa- j
chusetts and Connecticut— a system seemingly j
indigenous to New-England, and transplanted
from Holland to New- York. Despite these ex
ceptional instances of elementary schools reach- ;
Ing the bulk of their respective populations, the j
general situation in England. France, Germany
and the rest of Europe In 1801 was an almost '
unbroken prevalence of general illiteracy, tem
pered by the enlightenment of the nobility, the
wealthy, and the professional orders, on whose \
patronage the schools devoted to superior edu- |
i cation depended. The public conscience excused
. Its neglect of the masses by meagre doles for the j
{ religious instruction of a fraction of the poor.
I Even where common schools existed they gave
in general only the most rudimentary instruction ,
', in "the three R's." They were under no central
: control or Inspection. They had no uniform or-
I ganization. There was little or no provision
I for testing the capability of the teachers. Every
, thing requisite to make instruction efficient, at-
I tendance general, school Influence pervasive or
j financial support adequate was lacking.
The leadership in the task of providing uni
! versal elementary instruction must be conceded
j to Prussia. Frederick the Great as early as
j 17«»I5 had by decree made school attendance uni
! versally obligatory upon children, and had
: backed up the decree by specific provisions for
j general financial support of . teachers and for
competent Instruction. This legislation, though
falling largely of its aim. blazed the way for
subsequent advances. The present system may
be said to date from 1704, when the Prussian
Government took direct control and supervision
: of all schools, public and private, whether con
' cerned with elementary or superior education.
Since then the requirement of compulsory edu
; cation in elementary studies has been enforced
j with ever increasing vigor. In point of com
: pleteness the Prussian system is still unrivalled,
j combining State supervision and inspection of
i schools and teachers, providing seminaries for
I the preparation of qualified Instructors, enforc
! ing with thoroughness the requirement of com
pulsory attendance, and correlating Into a uni
fied whole the primary and the superior edu
¦ cation of the kingdom.
France, notwithstanding her early adhesion
i to democratic principles, was unprovided with '
' elementary public schools until 1833. In that
! year, under the leadership of Gulzot. for whom
' Victor Cousin had investigated the German
' school system, public schools for primary In
, struction were first instituted. Here also the
¦ central Government took from the outset the
; power of supervision and control.
• In characteristic contrast to the Prussian and
French systems of national public school estab
lishments with central administrative control
was the system of school administration to be
found at the' same time In the northern Ameri
can States and In England. In the first the local
governments had practical control over the pub
lic schools. In England the elementary schools
were controlled by two voluntary religious so
• cietles, the earlier composed of Nonconformists
and the later of Churchmen. But neither of
these societies exercised any common superin
tendence, imposed any code of regulations
nor enforced any uniform standards of instruc
tion. The problem presented in New-EngUnd
was to reform elementary education by wresting
from th. towns, and particularly from school
districts, their short sighted and misused power
of control. In old England the more serious
problem was to provide instruction for the
masses and at the same time to steer clear of
ecclesiastical prejudices. ' In America Ii was
Horace Mann, who. in the fourth decade of th
century, undertook and accomplished In Massa
chusetts the essential reorganization of the pub
li, school system. He secured in 1830 th.' estab
lishment of the first normal school for the
preparation of teachers. . He -secured also pro
visions for testing the qualifications of teachers,
and introduced ih. scientific system of grading,
general superintendence! and uniform adminis
tration. In Connecticut, and forward in Rhode
Island, Henry Barnard accomplished essentially
what Mann bad done for Massachusetts. ; Nor
as the influence of these two reformers con-
Ihied to the States mentioned. The inherent
excellence of the new system caused it to b«
largely copied in the other States. Even in the
South, where until slavery disappeared there
was practically no provision for popular instruc
tion, the new models of educational systems
were largely copied.
In England Parliament first recognizer! th«
need of aiding popular education by granting.
In 1533 and thereafter, money to the Noncon
formist and Church schools. The disposition cf
these grants of money was determined by Gov
ernment inspection, and was proportioned to
he numbers who passed examinations in the
three elementary branches. In 18€» the in
spected schools provided for about two million
children, or twice as many as these schools had
provided for ten years earlier, although this
was adequate accommodation for but half tha
population of school age. The daily attendance.
moreover, was only half of the school accom
modation provided. In IS7O Mr. Forster*s Ele
mentary Education bill passed Parliament, and
provided for public schools in all districts
where inspectors thought them required. Local
school boards, elective in character, were
created by this act with power to impose local
taxes for the support of schools. These Board
I schools, as well as the voluntary schools (1. c.,
Nonconformist and Church schools), still re
ceive grants from Parliament in part payment
of expenses. The religious difficulty woo
avoided by making religious instruction unde
nominational and optional in Board schools. The
principle of compulsory attendance has been
gradually extended, though its application and
enforcement were left in large part to the dis
cretion of local officials. The combined schools
provide accommodation for about 20 per ce nt
of the population, and the average dally at
tendance to-day is over 12 per cent of the pop
It would be Impossible to recount the ways
in which the compulsory rudimentary instruc
| tion of the masses has been taken up and devel
oped by other progressive nations. Austria altar
bt-in? vanquished by Prussia, in 1866, set itself
seriously to work to reform its educational sys
tem. In 18T»;>. under Casati, the communes off
! Piedmont. Sardinia and Lombardy were forced!
j to erect elementary schools. This served as the
, basis for the construction of the common school
i system of United Italy, where In 1877 lnaUsje-
I ti..n was made obligatory for children between
I six and nine years of age. In Japan as early as
. 1ST!! a law providing for elementary educa
{ t?on was promulgated. Attendance upon the
j elementary schools is made obligatory upon boys
I and girls alike, from six to fourteen, and to
this, as in many other respects, the Japanese
I have copied the most advanced educational ex
¦ periments cf Western nations.
The net result of the nineteenth century
establishment of common schools and compul
sory attendance thereon may be grasped hi a
nutshell, if we compare the areas of illiteracy
1 in ISOI and 19»1. In the earlier year it Is doubt
ful whether there was any considerable region
apart from Scotland, the northern States of
America and certain German principalities,
where the illiterate population did not enormous
j ly outnumber those 'possessed of the rudiments
. of education. To-day the area of enlighten-
I ment includes Central and Western Europe.
i Australia and North America (except where the
; blacks predominate in numbers in the South).
I In Italy and Austro-Hungary the illiterates
• probably are in the minority, though forty years
I ago 7S per cent of the Italian population could
j not read or write. The illiterate nations are
• chiefly Russia. Spain. Turkey and the unpro
gressive nations of the Orient and of South
; America. .
If the educational progress of the nineteenth
I century on its external side is most clearly
j marked by the diminution of illiteracy, on Its
I inner side the educational advance of the cen
! tury is best exemplified by a series of move
[ ments which collectively we may term the ex
| tension of the educational franchise. Under this
j title fall (1) the educative nurture of early «hi;d
hood embraced by the. kindergarten an 1 the
maternal schools: (2) the specialized Instruc
| tion for defectives and delinquents. typified, the
I one in schools for the blind and for deaf mutes.
the other in various grades of reform schools;
1 (3) the growth of the higher education of wom
en; (4) the popularization of knowledge through
the extension of various voluntary agencies,
such as the summer schools and the university
extension centres.
The kindergarten was devised by the German
Froebel (1752-1532) in the early part of the cent
ury, while the French pastor Oberlin at the same
time organized in his parish a parallel system, tha
ecoles gardiennes. the forerunners of the present
ecoles maternelles. The essential feature of both
systems Is the guidance of the instinctive ac
tivity of earliest childhood in a manner and ac
cording to a sequence which Is indicated by a
sympathetic knowledge of children's mental and
moral growth. The system met with little of
ficial favor in Germany, where its spread is
mainly attributable to private efforts. Publio
recognition in France, however, has been se
cured for the ecoles maternelles. About ISTO
the kindergarten method was brought to th»
United States by private agency. So successful
did the early experiments prove that the publla
school management undertook the maintenance
of various kindergartens which had been begun
as private ventures Both under public an 1 pri
vate management its growth in the United
States has been fostered, and it seems to have
won h permanent place in our educational sys
tem. The kindergarten has suffered somewhat
from the indiscriminatim? adhesion of its adher
ents to the technique devised by Froebel. . It Is
not at all unlikely that experiment will alter
some details of kindergarten practice, but what
seems likely to remain is a special form of in
struction for children who are too young for th«
ordinary primary schools.
The philanthropic impulse of the century has
especially manifested itself in educational work
for defective and delinquent classes, and in Its
generous provision for the enlightenment "of
backward or half-civilized races. The Peabody
and Slater funds in the United States, as well
as the State support of colored schools, and Fed
j eral support of Indian education, instance oar
I participation in this kind of educational benevo
lence. More generally widespread throughout
| Christendom has been the growing Interest In
! the instruction of the blind and of deaf mutes.
Valentin Hauy. in 17*4. founded in Paris the first
school for the instruction of the blind. This
, school was taken under State patronage in IT.I
I Hauy was chiefly instrumental in founding in
St. Petersburg in lSUti. and shortly after at
Berlin, similar institutions. The first English
institution for the instruction of the blind mmm
in Liverpool in 1791. and in this country the year
i 18-' S.I saw founded in Boston the first estab
; lishment of the same kind To-day in the United
• States alone there are nearly forty of these
i schools, almost four hundred teachers, and more
, than three thousand pupils. The instruction of
I deaf mutes presents much the same history
Here again France led the way under the mrtt
: ance of the Abbe de I'Epee. whose school In
I Pans dates from IT--..'., In Edinburgh was erected
j the first British school for these unfortunates
! in 177"; while Hartford had the honor of har
' boring the first American institute of the kind
«IKl7>. To-day upward of seventy-five of these.
schools are to be found In the United States
alone. It is not the least interesting pan of the.
' educational story of the century. to' see how the
meshes of the lesser educational nets have been
I woven ever finer to catch the refuse elements—
| the t!ind, the deaf mute?, the feeble, minded."
I the Insane it;, th.- criminally disposed — who are
of necessity discarded from tho haul which or
dinary educational agencies draw f rom « the
depths of Ignorance.
The opportunities for the collegiate instruction
and professional training of women haw been

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