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New-York tribune. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, January 06, 1901, Image 22

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HISTORY OF RELIGION.
THE PEOPLE. A "7 TnEOLOGIAXS.
VOM LARGELY SHAPE CREEDS.
The history of religion in the nineteenth cen
tury does not readily lend itself to analysis. It
Is marked by many puzzling counter currents,
and some of its most noteworthy tendencies
have not yet reached a stage where their real
meaning and import can be understood. One
fact stands out clearly— it has been largely
shaped, if It has not been dominated, by the
people, and not, as in nearly every preceding
age. by the theologians. Even the Reforma
tion, though its Impulse was primarily due to
the plain people, finally crystallized into a num
ber of rigid ecclesiastical organizations, with a
body of dogmas and traditions which came to be
regarded as sacrosanct and immutable. But in
the century now drawing to a close the people,
and not the theologians, have taken the largest
part in shaping the thought of Christianity. Its
«reat currents of religious life have been fed.
and in many cases guided, by the Impulses. of
the multitude often vague and undefined, but
none the less irresistible. We may gauge the
strength of this tendency by noting the fre
quency and vigor with which it has been repro
bated by ecclesiasts and theologians, who saw
in it a deplorable drift to heresy and infidelity.
But the radical character of this nineteenth
century tendency will be realized still more
clearly if we contrast it with the religious life
of the Middle Ages. Then the Church dominated
the conscience and the reason, and not only did
.the people not object to this domination, but
out of their loyal desire to believe even to the
uttermost they extended and developed many
of the formal dogmas of the Church. They thus
exaggerated the teachings of the theologians to
such an extent that the Church often felt
obliged to protest against the gross credulity of
the popular theology. But. on the other hand,
the almost uniform tendency of the people In
the nineteenth century has been to minimize the
creeds and traditions of the Church. Naturally
enough, the one notable exception to this is
found In the Roman Catholic Church, which has
added two dogmas to the faith, that of the im
maculate conception, declared by Pius IX in
1854. and that of the infallibility of the Pope,
proclaimed by the Vatican Council in 1S»O.
These decrees doubtless represented the thought
of the Church.
MOVEMENT IN ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH
The old Catholic schism which grew out of
their promulgation was never very strong, and
gives no Indication of vitality. But though the
Roman Church stands to-day apparently unaf
fected by the moral and intellectual convulsions
of the century, a school of thought has grown
up In it which, while professing loyalty to its
fundamental teachings, would have the Church
put itself, as far as may be. In sympathetic re
lations with the great currents of thought and
activity in the world. Whether this school of
thought will ultimately be condemned by the
Church or whether it will succeed in infusing a
more tolerant spirit in its government is a ques
tion that can only be decided by the future. Al
though it no longer holds the Intellectual leader
ship of the world, Roman Catholicism has shown
much vitality. Its missions to heathen lands
have been prosecuted with unflagging zeal, and
Its growth in the United States has been great.
Protestantism, especially in Europe, has. on
the other hand, been profoundly modified by
the secular movements of the age. but most of
all by the new scientific and historical spirit
which has so completely revolutionized every
department of human thought and activity. The
crystallized creeds of Protestantism have lost
many of their sharp outlines in the alembic of
the modern time spirit. The new Biblical criti
cism, which denies the popular beliefs of Bibli
cal Infallibility and inspiration, has conquered
a permanent place for itself in every Protes
tant body. The new historical method has led
to the modification of many old ecclesiastical
motions. Archaeology has, indeed, disap
pointed those who predicted that it would over
throw the superstructure of historic Christian
ity but it has shown that the point of view of
the Biblical writers does not altogether cover
all the facts of the case, and that the testimony
of the monuments and : tablets corrects or en
larges many popular Inferences derived from
the sacred narrative.
SCIENCE AFFECTS PROTESTANTISM.
It Is needless to say that the remarkable
growth of science and Investigation In the nine
teenth century has profoundly affected Prot
estantism. It is sufficient to note here that
Darwin's theory of the origin of species, de
nounced, when it was first published, by every
conspicuous theologian as a denial of Christi
anity, has come to be accepted by almost every
conspicuous theologian of the present day. But
the influence of modern secular thought on
Christianity is, seen not so much In any formal
acceptance of its conclusions — for the Church
has ever shrunk from taking such a step— as in
the attitude and temper of Christians, clerical
and lay, in discussing questions relating to re
ligion. There is a tone of modernity even in
the sermons of to-day that shows how far the
Christian world has drifted from the mediaeval
ages of faith, when nobles, burghers and serfs.
all distinctions being levelled by a common im
pulse, were wont to gather in the market place
to discuss the mysterious relations of the Trin
ity or the Procession of the Holy Ghost.
It would not be possible to trace here the vari
ous movements of thought that have left their
Impress upon nineteenth century Christianity.
There came to it from the eighteenth century
two great impulses which in its first decades
struggled for supremacy. One of these was that
which culminated in the deistic movement and
found concrete expression in the fierce infidelity
of the French Revolution. It Is a mistake to
¦¦sums that all the deists were outside the '
Church. Virtually many of its leaders agreed
with them in minimizing or denying the super
natural, and so strong were they that for a
time It almost seemed as though the Church
were destined to become little more than a
moral police agency. The other Impulse, which
was a passionate denial of this theory, found a
fit leader in John Wesley, who, humanly
sneaking, saved Christianity from the dry rot of
Indifference and unbelief. Methodism, which
grew out of Wesley's preaching, by no means
monopolized his spirit and influence. They pro
foundly affected the Church which antagonized
him. and, curiously enough, the revolt of Wesley
against Erastianism found expression in the
Oxford movement of 1832. of which John Henry
Newman was for many years th. leader. More
dire- traceable to Wesley's influence was the
Evangelical movement, which inspired nearly
everything that Is best and noblest in modern
Protestantism. The great modern missionary
activities of Protestantism first sprang from
EvangelicJEin, and it seems to many that its
decadence would mean their speedy collapse.
But while the aggregate results of missions
have been enormous, it is to be noted that no
heathen nation or race has been Christianized
outright Even Japan, which seemed likely to
accept Christianity a few years ago, now seems
more disposed to make a mosaic of religions for
itself. ¦ •
NEW-ENGLAND'S POWERFUL INFLUENCE
' Th*- New-England theocracy for a long time
completely dominated the religious world In
America, and even to-day, though the pitiless
but logical theology, of Jonathan Edwards is no
longer preached, It Is still an influential factor
In shaping the moral life of Christians. But the
revolt against It '-which resulted in Unltarlan
ism became in its way quite as truly character
istle of New-England's religious aspirations, and
Theodore Parker and Charming stand on the
Fan:'- pedestal with Jonathan Edwards as re
ligl-rtis leaders. American Christianity, how
over, has i.:. shaped by other influences than
those that come from New-England. Every
denomination has contributed something to the
general result, and on the whole all have worked
together in peace and harmony. American
Christianity can point with pride to a brilliant
lift of sreat leaders., and preachers, and Henry
Ward JU-^-her was the first perhaps to strike
what n.cy i- called the modern American note
In his preaching and to lay Btre,«s not on the
ology. but on the humanitarian side of religion.
• This drift away from theology has indeed be
rome one of the most marked characteristics of
Christianity. Dr. James Alartlneau was one of
Its most Influential exponents in England, and
in this country every denomination is constantly
mending its theological f>n> "•= At the same
time th- sociological and ethical side of religion
Is more, and more coming 1 to hold its supreme
place in the thought of Christian*, and what is
called applied Christianity seems destined to
bring about a profound modification of the his
toric theology of the churches.
JAMES B. WASSON.
WEATHER PROPHET* MAT REFORM.
Willis I- Moor^, chief of thr- Weather, Bureau,
believes that •" '¦« day will come, easily, within thr
next"' century, when' su.h fundamentnl principles
underlying weather - hati»;e« will- have been dis
covered -•-•. will « liable us to forecast with accu
rarv corainjr (seasons..
FROM SIX WEEKS TO sl\ PAYS.
A CENTURY OF ALMOST INCREDIBLE AD
VANCES IN OCEAN NAVIGATION
SAFETY. CERTAINTY. SPEED
AND COMFORT ASSURED
TO TRAVELLERS.
From jin uncertain six weeks to a certain six
days— from the sailing packet of a few hundred
tons to the express twin-screw steamer of 16,000
tons— that is the achievement of the nineteenth
century in transatlantic voyages.
In 1819. only about a dozen years after Robert
Fulton had startled the world by sending his
steamboat. Clermont, from New- York to Albany In
thirty-two hours, a little tddewheel steamer, the
Savannah, sailed from the port of that name on an
adventurous voyage to Liverpool, and actually made
her destination in twenty-five days. She was in strict
fact a composite ship, such a . we now call an aux
iliary eteamer. fully rigged with sails and ready to
take advantage of any favoring slant of wind,
while trusting to her paddles to add to the speed
or to propel her In adverse winds. Although
her performance marked an epoch In the world's
history, yet the recital of the measurements may
well provoke a smile in these days. She was luO
feet in length and of 300 tons burden.
In 1840 one Cunard started the Britannia, pioneer
of a fleet of four sister ships. 207 feet long. 85>4
broad. 22>« deep. 1.154 tons burden, BV£ knots sea
speed. Several other companies took up the busi
ness, some achieving success, some failure, The suc
cessful ones, adding ship after ship to their fleets
and employing the highest engineering talent,
joined to unlimited capital, scored new triumphs
with each addition to their fleets.
Up to 1870. or thereabouts, sldewheelers were the
accepted types of seagoing ships, but slowly the
light broke upon shipowners that this form of ap-
JAMES MARTTN-FAU. CAnUI^'AZ. NTWM^N H ¦ RV TVAItI> BEDCHER. THEODORB PAKKTR TVIL.TJAM T, CirATCXTXO.
LEADERS IN RELIGIOUS THOUGHT IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.
plying power was at a great disadvantage In a
heavy seaway, and that the ponderous transverse
shaft was a source of structural weakness.
The substitution of Iron for wood made possible
the almost indefinite lengthening of ships, hut
also made It more than ever essential to avoid the
weakness due to the transverse shaft. The screw
propeller, with its fore and aft shafting, was
tried, and with most gratifying results, as regarded
speed also. Minutes, hours, days even, were clipped
from the record, and the regularity of the passages
surpassed belief.
Later, finding that the limits of a single shaft
and screw had been reached, twin screws were
adopted, and with them Independent compound
THE FIRST DEUTSCHLAND
Built in 18*7—717 tons.
engines, which utilized the steam over and over
again. These changes wrought another revolution.
and in the light of past experience no one can now
he found bold enough to set a limit to sl«e. speed.
power or comfort of the future transatlantic liner.
The marine engineer of twenty years ago would
have paid that our present ships were beyond the
boundaries of possibility.
Rather more than a representative exponent of
the leaps and bounds by which the ocean K««-y
bound has developed from the Savannah of ISI9.
100 feet lon*, of 300 tons burd< n. to the Deutsch
land of 1900. 686V4 feet long, of 16,000 tons burden,
with twin screw engines of 35.000 horsepower and
an average speed of 23 knots, stands the Humburg-
American Steamship Company. To quote tlieir own
modest statement this company, "established in
1847, is the oldept German line and the largest
steamship company in the world, owning 107
ocean steamers, twenty-two of which are large
new twin screw passenger steamers: this is a
larger number than any other line possesses."
The steamer Deutschland. cited above, is the
latest addition to their regular fleet, and passen
gers sailing in her from New- York reach London
or Parts in six days. Hamburg in seven days. She
was planned to excel all other express steamers
In size and power, but to afford to her passengers
luxuries equal to those obtainable only in the most
magnificent homes and hotels. Ir addition to the
grand dining saloon, ladies' pariu* and smoking
room, there is a playroom for children, and
on the promenade deck a grillroom. The state
rooms have been so arranged as to meet the
varied wants of all classes of travellers, and every
ingenious appliance for their comfort has been
carefully thought out. There are staterooms de
luxe in suites, parlor, bedrooms and bathroom.
The best time made by this steamer, and the
fastest trip across the Atlantic, occupied 5 days. 7
hours and 38 minutes, from New- York to Plymouth
on a course of 2.982 miles. This is equal to a cross-
Ing of 4 days and 22^4 hours from New- York to
Queenstown.
The table set by this line has long been celebrated
for its exquisite neatness excellent cooking and
the admirable quality and variety of the viands
set forth. To the proper enjoyment of these good
things the fact that all these ships are fitted with
m:*- keels, which greatly reduce the rolling motion.
contributes largely.
Associated with the Deutechland In the. weekly
express service are the magnificent twin screw fleet
THE PRESENT DJOU'ISOIU«AJfD
OS feet In length— l6.ooo tons.
Augusta Victoria. Columbia and FOrst Bismarck,
ranging from 8.500 to 12.500 tons.
The sailing day for this line Is Thursday, and
passengers may count upon being In London or
Paris ready for business or pleasure the follow
ing Thursday, and In Hamburg one day later.
Not content with mastering the regular ocean
travel and commerce, the Hamburg-American
Company each year carries out on a more and
more extended scale a series of excursions In
cither one of their meny magnificent express
steamers or In the Prlnzessln Victoria Lulse, a
gigantic steam yacht, especially constructed to
their order for this work. She is 450 feet long, 47
feet beam and SO feet deep.
The summer cruises have been to the North
Cape and the Land of the Midnight Sun. while In
winter cruises are made to the principal Mediter
ranean ports, the Black Sea and the Orient or
to the West- Indies. In fact, they follow just the
routes that a well informed gentleman would map
out were ho taking a party of friends on his own
yacht to th. most interesting spots in tho world.
Another and very successful cruise was that made
last summer In the Prinzessln I. also, starting from
Hamburg ami th.-i going around the world, tak
ing In th.- Mediterranean ports, Greece, the Holy
Land, India. China, Japan and to San Francisco.
Eitß comfort and luxury suggested by years of
careful management Is provided on these cruises,
an.l for ih"«< suffering from brain fag, from pul
monary trout. . from ennui, or those merely, in
pear-h of pleasure, they have never l.>. equalled.
A recent allusion to this line from a high ...
thority says: "The Hamburg-American Line, the
greatest Ht.-am-hlp combination In the world, . . .
owns 107 ocean steamers, aggregating 559,1»>
tons, or about 50 " per cent more than the entire
tomiHK.- of the United States registered In- the
foreign trade."
Tb» miiKnliudo of such a business Is almost be
yon.i .->: . • pt|.-.t ;,n.l yet so perfectly is It man
¦fsii in all Its pettiest details that for comfort.
safety and speed It fears no competitors. They
may rio to-morrow what the iramburg-Amorlcnn.
has done to-day, but meanwhile th.- grass will
not 1..- allowed, to grow under tho. bottoms of the
NMinliurK American tie.-;
NEW-YORK DAILY TRIBrXE. SUNDAY, JANUARY 6. 1901.
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT.
/./ \lH\t; Ft: 177 /,»/•>¦ si CHEST Kit
/.' \ther ru \ \ \sst/rrri>
An attempt to recount the social development
of the nineteenth century within the compass **t
this article would recall the preposterous de
mand for a history of the world between th*»
courses of a dinner. All that is possible is a
mere reference to some conspicuous features,
and that rather by way of suggestion than as
sertion.
The first thing that occurs to the mind in ap
proaching the subject is the luxury of the period,
accompanying what preachers, lay and clerical,
are fond of describing as "the mad race for
wealth." But it is judicious at the outset to
distinguish between the luxurious spirit and the
appliances of luxury. The latter have multiplied
amazingly, through the application of human
ingenuity to the conquest of natural forces, but
It may at least be asked whether the former has
not existed much longer than a century in a de
gree comparable with that manifested to-day.
There is considerable reason for supposing that
the more fortunately placed men and women of
preceding generations usually surrounded them
selves with as many of the good things of life
as they were able to obtain. The Jewelry and
laces and silver transmitted from the last cen
tury to this, and authentic records of acquisi
tions which have perished or been consumed,
testify to a state of society wMdi wag an in
trinsii-.il'.y luxurious '.no so f:ir as it rould be,
and was contrived and enjoyed as such. Doubt
less it was In many respects crude and closely
circumscribed on Its material side, but that was
not Its temper.
If the requirements of an expansive mode of
existence were confined to the rich or well to do.
so that the Interval between the more fortunate
and the less fortunate element* were constantly
widening, the fact would be deplorable. But It
cannot safely be assumed that the contrasts of
condition are greater now than they were a
hundred years ago. Macaulay said that farm
ers and shopkeepers to whom eulogists of times
pant attributed contentment breakfasted on
loaves which would have raised a riot in a mod
ern workhouse, and he Imagined that in the
twentieth century luxuries then unknown or
confined .to a few would he within the reach
of every thrifty worklngman. His supposition
was verified long: before the end of the century
In which he wrote.
It is not rash to rejoice In the belief that the
great mass of those who are classified an the
poor are more favorably situated than they ever
were before. Their supply of comforts and con
veniences keeps pace with a demand which is
scarcely less obvious and Insistent than that
which is made and met in the case of the rich.
In the matter of healthful conditions of exist
ence the contrast between the present and a
not remote past is simply stupendous. Nor i«
It by any means certain that In respect to kind
liness of feeling between the so-called upper and
lower strata of society there has been any
change for the worse.
In this country the Colonial period was essen
tially aristocratic, but if the aristocracy of that
era was one of birth and tradition and that of
to-day is in a large measure based on wealth,
the latter is for that reason potentially more
democratic and accessible than the former and
not necessarily. If it is actually, less benevo
lent In disposition and conduct.
Turning from somewhat general reflections to
particular features of modern life, we should be
Inclined to say that the most notable social de
velopment of the century is the Institution of
clubs— that is. of associations of whatever name
or nature possessing a regular social attach
ment. Sodalities formed with various objects
were numerous in ancient civilizations, and
some of the modern type now existing In London
are more than two hundred years old. while th.>
Fish House Club of Philadelphia dates its
origin from 1728; but the coterie which Dr.
Johnson chiefly made famous his sufficiently
designated as The Club, and the vast
growth of a social contrivance which now
makes its appeal to a*] sorts and conditions
of men and women, and to virtually every ele
ment in every community, has ».ee n accom
plished not only within the century but within
the. memory of those who are not yet old.
A club has been defined as an establishment
which Is supported by a thousand men for the
benefit of fifty, but that description applies In
some degree only to those comparatively rare
examples of the species which require a huge
outlay for their housing, equipment and main
tenance. Below that grade, or above it. if you
please, flourish a wellnigh infinite number and
variety of clubs which exist for the benefit of a
very large proportion of their membership, and
In the aggregate exert an incalculable influ
en V ThuH> to mentlon a single exemplification
which a hurried glance might overlook, the
Young Men's and Young Women's Christian
Associations of this and other lands, with their
immense enrolment and diversified activities are
all clubs. '
A special word should be reserved for women's
clubs. Extremely modern in »he present familiar
sense of the word, they have, in fact, under va
rious forms and designations. been a force to
be taken account of for the greater *>art of a
century. It might be carrying the analogy too
far to say that the sewing society, for instance.
Is essentially a club, though to that parentage
may be traced- many associations which
born of the social instinct, have In effect
been important factors In the wide field of
charity. From the gregarious propensity have
sprung innumerable enterprises for the better
ment of human conditions.
Interest In outdoor sports, no longer the badge
of a small minority, but a characteristic of the
period, has had important consequences, for the
most part salutary. It is believed, not without
reason, to have increased the stature as well
as the physical vigor and moral health of the
rising generation, both boys and girls, and espe
cially the latter. If formerly young women
were proud to be delicate and helpless, or to be
thought so, their daughters have adopted a dif
ferent standard of attractiveness. And hosts
of men who in their youth considered it gentle
manly and pleasant to loaf when they had the
chance have lived, if they are still alive, to see
successors of a robust, energetic, open air type
and in many cases are themselves trying hard
to make up for lost time.
It used to 1.,-, said that Americans lived every
where except at home, and that those who "kept
house" were always moving. T!i-- exaggeration
of the saying emphasised Its truth. In recent
years a tendency to possess fixed habitations
and live in them has been proclaimed, and un
doubtedly the habit of going early to country
houses and staying 'late has visibly Increased
among the wealthy . winter . residents of turn
"cities. Still.' there; Is 'an enormous .m.l a.«ji.iii
ently growing: use of hotels, especially of the
family and apartment . type, due, we must be
lieve, in great measure to the domestic diffi
culties which have arisen from the progressive
demoralization of servants.
It Is to be hoped, and may be credible, that
this is a temporary phase, but It arouses serious
anxiety lest the twentieth century, long before
its close, should be mortified to behold Bridget
fitting on the ruins of the social fabric.
HART L V.MAN
1//W.7/I/. t \7> 1//T 1/ nl 77'/ 7.
"The Engineering and Mining Journal" In its
issue of January 5 gives a summary of the mineral
and metal production of the United States for the
year 1909. This summary has been compiled from
advanced figures furnished by producers and from
official sources, and gives a complete statement of
the gold production of the world for the year Just
closed. The total value of the metals produced In
the United States in 1900 was $509,800,992. as com-,
pared with $496,057,320 in 1899. The value of the out
put of non-metallic substances was $750.680,9 M. ns
against $645,754,305 in 1899. The total value for the
two years, after allowing for duplications, was re
spectively $1,157,162,182 and $1 019.230.59*.
The more Important Items of this production in
metals were gold, valued at $78.658,750: silver, valued
at $37,085,248; 615.576.802 pounds of copper, valued at
$100,154,345; 251,78t tons of lead, valued at $22,005,659;
122.850 tons of zinc, valued at $10,786.2U>. and last, but
not least. 13.914.596 tons of pig iron, valued at
$238,078,737.
Of the non-metallic products by far the most Im
portant was coal, of which the United States pro
duced no less than 274,847,779 tons— the greatest
quantity ever produced in one year by this or any
other country. In 1899 the United States was the
largest producer of coal In the world, and this pre
eminence was increased In 1900.
Other Important products of this class included
cement, of which 17,828.698 barrels were made; salt.
SSfpss sulphate, mineral paints, phosphate rock
and slate, while the minor mineral products In
cluded a variety too numerous to mention.
The total gold prr iuctlon of the world in 1900
amounted to $256,462,418. which compares with 9U3,
641.534 In 18S9, the decrease being entirely owing to
the stoppage of gold production In the Transvaal
by the war. nearly all other producing countries
showing an increase. In 1900 the United States took
the lead among the gold producers, with 975.658.736,
Australasia ranking second, with $75,283,215. The
large production of the Klondike has put Canada
In the third place, with a total output of $38,000,000.
while Russia was fourth, with SSS.O9O.sSX. These
four countries produced over SO per cent of the gold
of the world.
HI XDRKD MILE 4Y EOVR TRAUFS.
Dr. I/ouls Bell In The Street Railway Journal.
The noie vital question In the commercial one.
whether there in a sufficient demand for a flfty
ipinut- train from New-York to Philadelphia or a
ten hour train from New-York to Chicago, to
make it pay. Commercial Judgment Is the "court
of lnst resort" in these matters: men do not build
roads to substantiate theories of engineering.
That there will be a demand for such rapid trans
portation in the future seems highly probable.
Hallway .sp.-eds steadily creep up mile by mile, and
will continue so to do. The first high speed electric
road has yet to be built, but whenever it la shown
that there Is a probable demand for the kind of
service, thereby Implied, the means are at hand for
carrying out the project to operative success.
What will he the limiting speed so to be reached It
is Impossible to say. but-far n. long time to come It
will l.c set by rommeirl.il rather than by engineer
ing, considerations. One hundred miles an hour
will. I think, bo regarded as a conservative speed
within the lifetime of men now living. How much
further the limit will he pushed no one knows.
Then seem, however, no serious difficulties to meet
i-ntll even that limit has been left far behind.
Wh.tli.-r th« ultimate speed will be fixed by cotn
mercial requirements or vnly by the tensile strength
of th»- whirling steel in "Ihe driving wheels. Is a
problem for the next generation to settle.
FITIRE OF TELFPHOW.
Kempster H. Miller in The Kleetrlcal Worn! and
Engineer.
From what wns ci»n?Mered an interesting toy at
tin- Centennial In P*7t». the telephone has growu to
be <>ne of ilie most Indispensable factors of our
modern civilisation. Tli* development wus slow at
first, the gr«:tt invention being for the most imrt
unappreciated by the public. Once started, liow
ever, it surpassed, year by year, the hopes of those,
most Interested in its welfare. No practical results
have recently been raeorded arising from any of
the various schemes for radically increasing the
transmission rfflrier.i-y over very long distances
The telephone repeater seems to have met witli no
practical success, and ih.> various proposed >ys
terns of associating impedance colls with the lino
circuit for Improvement in the talking circuit Itself
are yet, so far as the put He l< aware, in an experi
mental stage. .Notwithstanding this, and not pre
tending to know how. i believe that long before the
new century is ended ii will lie possible to talk
from Han Francis... to London or. In fact to al
most any other porli-.ii .if the gl«»l>e. To believe
otherwise Is to acknowledge defeat al the very out
>et and *a lose faith In the progress of science and
InventlAt.
DEUAMt FOR OUR SULPHATE OF COPPER.
From The Oil. Paint and Drug Reporter.
Foreign shipments of sulphate of copper from the
United States and their total value during the fl*cal
.war ending Juno 30. 1000. were as follow":
Countries. Pound*. Value.
Austria-Hungary 5.07 V..130 194.401
l<»>lKhim i«>."»7S "-SS
'i ! ,*" lanvI any ¦'".'.'•'•': ";;; i ;:!;: «*«;« SI lsilai
« i ..¦rman.v 2.M3.253 13.i'8ST
Italy in •••Mi «»-.» ,vv, rut.i
5iXriii.:::::::::::::::::::::: 16:^ •»«;
I'nlted Kingdom .W r.i-. •>•>«
ltfrmiiaa xm% *~J^
Canada 658.793 22.1W2
ro*ta Me* 4 sJll •*=•££
Mexico 3 113 53^ l«« txrr
West Inrilw. I""""'* 3flsw "Vlw
Argentina iv'm 1R mi
Other South American Republics. . . 4," tun •¦o*v"'»
Australia 35;,, Ot> *'*£
1 " 1 " ! 27,055,55() $t. 191.181
FREIGHT TRAFFIC OF, LAKE SUPERIOR.
From The Iron Age.
t According to advices from Dulutli. Minn., the
rrelght traffic of Lake Superior for the year 1900
amounted to 23.013.073 lons, an increase over the
preceding ye ir of 2 per cent. On the other hand
the number of ships that carried the freight was
19.402. a decrease of 4 per cent, showing the increase
in the average capacity of the freight ships of the
lake. The passenger traffic increased IS per cent
Of the commodities carried Into aud out of Lake
Superior the following formed the most important
items: . . w
Iron ore. nrt tea* i&i4:i mih
Anthracite coal, ton* «rC
Kttuminoun coal, t«.n» "* St>7l'4tfS
Flour, barrels .:::::::::::;:; ""I ::: fl7<;otlss
•Wheat, bushels 4)4v"^/»
Other icraln. bushels ....[ JjJSJ'S;
Copper, tons " "".'¦'. . ',!,,']?,*,.
Lumber, feet.
a OUiIPSE AT THE LEATHER TRADE.
From The Shoe and Leather Reporter:
Our Imports of hides and skins for the first eleven
months of 1899 rose to $!3.SCO.SSS. which was an in
crease of $9,652,558 compared with the correspond
ing period of 1898. Of the Increase JJ.756.032 was in
Koatsklns. . The gain in Imports of •hide; of cat.
tit" was $1.«87.8». and in "all other hides and skins
except gqatsktns and hides of cattle' $4 198*57
amounting to $0.ECG,526 In the aggregite ' The iralri
in the combined exports of leather In the same
period, was {2.331.013. Including $-125,831 in sble^nd
W.9M.001 in other leather. , There was a silent in
crease In receipts of live stock at Chicago Of
cattle from January 1 to December 23. 25951* more
arrived than in IS*: of calv^n. 4.1t» more- of sheen
64,005 more. During the entire year 1899 < the re
ceipts of cattle at Kansas City were 151.080 larger
than in '-¦¦¦ • ..... . ' UXi>tr
EXPORTS TO OUR \i ii Pnssi:sslo\s
| From The Hardware Dealers' Magazine.
Export* from the United States to Cuba Porto
Rico and th^ Philippines, the Hawaiian and 3aman.ii
islands .lucri-traten »30.<NVi.(Ki0 for the last v^r
against «41.00«>.nnn | n ISK>. H?.000.00f» in 1898 and $17 I
000.000 In 1»7. This enormous growth Is shared bY
. each of the islands named, but I* especially np".
parent in the case of Porto Rico, to which the #i
i ports during 10J0. under the new Porto -Klein net
show in Increase of about ti\ per cent as ,-,.mpar»d
vII .. Llli. urcvious v»-- ¦ ¦
THR ART PRESERVATIVE.
IT IS NO LONGER EXERCISFP SOLELY BY
THE EXPERT COMPOSITOR OR
PRINTER.
THAT USJQSJI SKXTIKXT MEfHANISM. THE
TTPKWRITER. IN ITS LATEST DCVEU>I*
MENT. IM'XS THE PRINTING PRKSS
A CI4MHI nrORD-JUn IT IS MORK
(IKXKKAI.I.V IN USSt
HE PEN Is mightier than
the sword." quoth old
Cardinal Richelieu, look
ing up to the packed
galleries for the applause
which his well worn epi
gram never failed to pro
voke. At the time he
made, or is supposed to
have made, this compari
son the sword was the
mightiest instrument of
war. and the pen was a
¦rv.. ir.i ::veiy ;;nk::"U ::
tool, save in -.he hands of a few priests and schol
ars, and wielded somewhat clumsily, even by these
favored ones.
Pens have improved since those days; literature
has made wonderful strides. Greater numbers of
men are writing books to-day than In Richelieu's
time could read even coarse print. The arts of war.
too. have gone ahead by leaps and bounds. Swords
have become mere emblems of authority put Into
the hands of officers. So greatly have these two
professions, writing and fighting, been altered by
modern science and ingenuity that the grim Car
dinal's axiom, brought down to twentieth century
date, might be made to read. "Beneath the rule of
men entirely great, che Remington Is mightier than
i b.- M v,;,,
In point of fact, the educational and commercial
and professional rev dution brought about by the
typewriter within the last twenty years, has been
so complete, so overwhelming and withal so rapid
that we who stand In the midst of it cannot prop
erly realise its full import. Were It possible by an
edict to forbid for one week the use of these won
derful machines the whole business world would
be cast into such Irextrlcable confusion a 9 could
hardly be conceived
Without delving back into the ancient history of
writing and written characters, such as were ex
emplified in the Rosetta Stone, or stopping even to
glance at the uses of the reed pen on papyrus or
of the stylus on the waxen and clay tablets that
answered the purposes of correspondence and books
of record at a later period of the world's history,
we may come down to comparatively recent times.
A few metal pens are known to have been made
prior to the beginning of th* nineteenth century,
but they were costly rarities and Impossible of
practical use. Not until 1840 did steel pens come
Into general use. t'p to that time quills were the
one and only means by which the merchant could
keep his books, the poet pour forth his soul on
paper In sonnets to his mistress's eyebrow, the
lawyer draw his briefs, the statesman draft his
treaties or the clergyman indite his thunderous
diatribes against privy sedition and conspiracy.
From the old gray goose who furnished these
quills to the Remington typewriter factory where
are made the modern writing Implements, ¦eems a
far cry. Yet tnly :ilxty years nave passed since
SH.M.KS A OMPPFN TVrnWRTTKR
Industry began to give way to th * artisan in this
Industry.
Steel pens, with occasional frold pens for those
who could afford and who fancied them, held com
plete sway for almost llfty years. Then for the
nrst time the typewriter began to make Itselr felt
as a practical substitute for the more laborious and
slower implement. The idea of a typewriting ma
chine Is not a new one. The records of the British
Patent Office show that en January 7. 1714. one hun
dred and elghty-sevei. years ago. a patent was
Krunt .. to a certain Henry Mill for a machine
intended to do writing. It is described as a device
"for the Impressing or transcribing of letters, singly
or progressively, one after another, as in writing
so neat and exact as not to be distinguished from
print." Nothing ever came of it. however, and
with the death of Mill the secret. If any existed.
was lost in 1784 a machine was invented for em
bossing on paper printed characters for the use of
the blind. This, too. came to naught.
The first typewriter ever constructed in America
was the invention of William Austin Buri. of De
troit, who In IS2» took out a patent for It. Al
though a working typewriter. It was ex.w<J.\gi*
crude In design and rough in construction Both
the patent record and th«» model were destroyed
by a fire In the Patent OfhVe In IS3«. Undoubtedly
to Kurt belongs the hones- of betas; tie uv.-er.tor
of the first American typewriter.
Several other abortive attempt* in this direction
were made, both In Franc* ai»d Kngii!i«.>. th?n» be
ing an additional Incentive In th«- il.-i:,u'u tor a
typewriting machine for use In connection with the
telegraph. Not until 134 i was a really complete
machine invented. In that year Charles Thurber.
a resident of Worcester, Mass. secured a patent
for a typewriter which, although very slow, was
capable of fairly good work An interesting fact
shown in the model Is that the letter spacing was
acomplished by the longitudinal movement of the
platen, a principle surviving in all modern ma
chines.
At the World's Fair in London, in 15..1. a blind
Frenchman. Pierre Foucault. gained applause by a
machine* that printed, very successfully, raised let
ters for the blind. In 1850 Oliver Eddy, of Balti
more, secured a patent for a machine sa!d to have
been very Ingenious and to have turned out good
work, but exceedingly cumbrous and Intricate
Eddy died In poverty after years of labor devoted
to perfecting the machine. Several more patents
were taken out. none worthy of mention here, ex
cept that of A. E. Beach, dated UK In this ma-
KKMINCTON NO. 1.
chine the characters were upon dies arranged m
pairs In a circle in.l swinging to a common centre
much as in a common typewriter.' After this pa
tents were Issued in 1858. MW. I*o and so on tin to
JS'-s or lbi>6. but none of them showed practical re
sults or furthered tho advance , tho typewriting
machine.
This long list of failures, disappointments and
reverses brings the story of the typewriter up
toward the time when success began to dawn upon
it. During the winter of lses-'ST. two friends C
t^atham Sholes and Samue! W. Soule. were engaged
In the city of Milwaukee In perfecting a machine
for numbering the pages of books which they had
Invented. At the suggestion of a third person; also
an Inventor, one Carlos Gild. l. m m,. i turned nsido
from this work to experiment with the production
of a writing machine, associating Mr. Glidden with
them in tho enterprise. -,-.»- z-.
At that time they were not aware that anything
of this, sort had ever been attempted before " Some
progress was made toward constructing a model
machine when they were spurred to renewed
efforts by a newspaper article describing the at
tempt of another Inventor in London to produce a
machine for the same purpose. Some editorial com
mlnt»mlnt» upon this article alluded to the Immense
Held of usefulness for a practical machine of this
character.
tember. 1867. In It are was completed about Sep
tember. ISC7. In It are fount! sorno or th»> <=nll^nt
features which exist I -. the Remington typewriter
of to-day. midden's ,-hief share In th. matter wan
the value of the general suggestion „,...i . Soulo
suggested ''"• pivoted types set In a circle. ' whl t
Sholes .1. v. i, .;....! , -„. letter spacing, mechanism
'I'll- machine was n success in -.. far as it w-is
••««•«'< I- or writing accurately with a fair .1. tnv of
speed, but ii still fell far short of perfection. \
long process of l^.-!oon-;.-,,, followed. M0.1.-l ji'ft^r
model was banged to piece- by the severe tests
made v practical workers, stenographers ami
others by whom they wprcuwl to determine th"
valu* of the, machine. Soule and Glidden lost la
••- nnd tinully dropped out or t'.jr. f.n:*rmi<.- ¦„
othnrs beoarne i,«-o,:i.,trd with. tho principal In'v.'n
tor. ShnW. In the pro-ess of the further d.-v Ho
p of the machine. Even the patience of Sholes
himself was -„.... b>- thi --,-.; exalhiri-.
of practical defect* rVveafwi by th- u.^ of each In?.'
.¦eedlng morT-l Ills associate.*! Insisted. howeVli'
that a machine to be of real value must be so u ¦".
signed and constructed that anybody could use i, C
With this purpose* In view, a raecessrat aff^V- icY
wade early hi 1873 to Interest the great sett mar.,'
fa. turer- K. Remin.'t.r. * Sons, at Ilton, x v % -¦
the manufacture ot the machine. In spite of alf'ts
ingenuity and money that had already been *?»>„,
upon it. the machine still showed many fault.* Vr.
over a year the skilled mechanics of the litmlnsrtn.
factory worked ever the crude device. and Smite
about the middle of the year ISVt. the drat issK
practical writing machine, known on the market a
the No. 1 Remington typewriter, watt offered '£
sale. X somewhat improved model was exhibit 1
at the Centennial Exhibition in 187», and attn 'i i
much attention, although but few . sales w^'
effected.
Thus began th*- history of writing mnrhtnm »
Industry, peculiarly American, which was dr*rip
to work a revolution little short of that eEectef 1 v*
the art of printing, the full effects of which ¦•<£
scarcely gauge as yet. w *«*sj
For many years the history of the develop^
of the writing machine Is the history of thr her
Ington typewriter. The machine naturally toon it"
name from the great factory where it was aS
practically developed, although it was long kas&
also as "the typewriter." in the absence afssa
other machine for a similar purpose. These year
were employed to good purpose in perfecting f£
rnachln^. The rervices of many skilled mechan£,
ami noted inventors wer* enlisted to remedy th
acknowledged defects of the machine. In th-npni
time vigorous efforts to promote the sale si n>
machine were also made. Progress was very stou
at first. The public were more disposed to sssssi
It as a curiosity than as a practical working ™
chine. Few believed it capable of general use. i-,
promoters had faith in Its future and pushed th
KK.MIXGTON N". .. 2
development of the machine mechanically, aa we
as the education of the public as to its capa ••c.-'
with great energy and persistence.
The old No. 1 Remington had one serious Inlain
it wrote m capitals only. The first notable steoin
advance was made when the No. 2 model ofta*
Remington appeared. In this model the skill of th ¦
inventors had succeeded in making the macula*
write capitals and small letters also, and that
without increasing the siae of the keyboard or
complicating the machine. From tiii.s dated a nmr
era; the public began to appreciate their opnor
tunltles. One hundred thousand of the No 2 Ren.
ingtons found ready sale in the course of the year*
following. The process of improvement never
stopped, and in due course of time the No. « model
which wan first placed upon the market in 18M, aih
¦i ' •
The great succes-s of the No. 2 model and th*
fame of this American wonder had in the mean
"in* 3 prea<l to foreign lands, and trade began
which has developed to important proportions %
special model capable of dealing satisfactorily with
the problems presented by foreign languages was
prepared and the manufacturers followed up their
campaign of education across the seas until th*
Remington typewriter was made familiar to all th
nations of the earth This finally required th«
adaptation of machines to many European lan
guages, which has* been successfully accomplished.
and machines are now furnish, d for writrac
French. German. Spanish. Italian. Portuguese
Swedish Danish. Norwegian. Bohemian. Hunga
rian Polish. Russian. Servian. Ore*k. as» wellsw
combinations of several of them together The
Pope, for instance, owns a Remington which will
write any European language which employs tn»
Koman character. Many other strange and un
usual requirements have been ingeniously provide-!
for. among them a recent order for a machine to
write English, and in addition one of the unspeak
able cacophonous click-a-ty-clack dialects of one rt
the tribes of North American Indians located la
Alaska, or somewhere thereabouts.
As may be expected, the development of this
great business has laid the foundation of a great
Industry. From an inconsiderable corner of th*
old gun works at llion. N. V.. to a great factory "f
Its own. occupying over live acres of ground and
employing one thousand skilled men. is the record
or the Remington typewriter industry. This great
plant is equipped with an abundance of compli
cated machinery, much of it speei illy devised for
the work in hand, and not to be found anywher*
else. Even the processes employed and the very
materials themselves are the outcome of the skill
concentrated there. The care for perfection in
every feature extends even to the preparation of
special alloys for certain parts of the machine. In
one of these, largely employed tn the working parts
of the machine, the strength and stiffness of steel.
with the good working qualities of brass, with
some of the lightness of aluminum, are skilfully
blended. This material cannot be duplicated else
where, as the secret belongs to the Remington *»¦-
tory exclusively.
No surer or more unfailing test of the merits or
demerits of Remingtons, as compared with other
typewriters, can be imagined than the general
verdict of the great army of workers who earn
their bread by using them, to r.nora a good ma
chine may mean butter on their bread, while a poor
machine would leav* even a cry crust In doubt
Take, for example, the iredomlnance of th*
Remington in the principal cities of the United
REMINGTON NO. t>
States, as shown by a census of the Ma* cafe*
buildings. In New-York the Remingtons number
78 per cent of all; In Boston. 63 per cent; In Chicago.
73 per cent, and In Philadelphia, 79 per cent. Nt
the Metropolitan Life Building:, at Madison-are,
and Twenty-third-st.. are assembled more type
writers than under any other on* private roof it
the world. A careful count shows 49) Remington*
to only 2 of all others. This company uses in it!*
own service here and elsewhere 72? Remingtons to
only 8 of all others.
The general offices of twenty-nine leading Ameri
can railroads show 2.9U Remingtons to 553 of alt
others— SO per cent. In London Her Majesty's
Government alone uses over 300 Remingtons to
only 49 of other makes. The United States Govern
ment uses over 3.000 Remingtons— many times over
the- number of all others combined.
It will not surprise the public, therefore, to learn
that .-it the recent Paris Exposition the Remington
received a diploma of the Grand Prix, the highest
form of award. In the two previous Paris Expo
sitions. IS7S and ISB9. it received the high* st awards
obtainable, as it did at recent Expositions at Brus
sels, Luxemburg and Ghent.
All these successes can be the result only of
supreme and commanding merit. The Remington
seems the one machine that represents the sura of
all the experience obtained in the manufacture of
typewriters. *¦&>**
Wherever language is written as well as spoken
on this revolving globe of ours, there is now a
call for Remington typewriters. New fields at
usefulness hitherto unsuspected are opening
every day. both at home and abroad. They
Oil a useful place in a modern scheme of
education, since it la found that they greatly pro
note the ready learning of spelling, composition.
&c. by the child in the primary school, and that
other and even more important advantages follow
from the familiar use of the machine, as the
scholar proceeds further along the path of learn
ing. Remingtons have doubled, some say trebled,
or even quadrupled, the capacity of the 'telegraph
wires, on account of the increased speed with
which the receiver can follow the clicTced-out mes
sage of the wires. A recently invented attachment
opens an almost illimitable Held of new usefulness
for the machine by providing a ready awns
whereby figures In columns can be automatically
arranged In regular columns with as much speed
hj a horizontal line can be written at. and with
unfailing accuracy. This opens to the accountant
and statistician all the advantages so Ion? enjoyed
by the correspondent. The wonderful improve
ments In typemaking employ- a In the Remington
factory enable them to offer a multitude of spe
cially equipped machines for all kinds of purposes.
The engineer, the scholar, the medical man. the
mathematician, as well as the many branches of
commerce and other uses too numerous to men
tion here, ran all be provided with the speci.il
characters which their work demands.
This little, friendly, chatty machine Is found
following at the heels of the wtite man. whether
he goes down to the sea in ship* or plunges Into
Moody war In far off Africa. An army heiidquar
ters without its Remington would be like aisoldier
without his sun. Lord Roberts depended upon
the instrument for hi* .'.Snatch work in the Basr
War. The mighty battleship* of our Navy carry
each at least one of these friends of man. and the
commanding officer in not more solicitous about
the welfare of his engines and chronometer t!ian
about his writing chine.
K As stated la the benlnning of this article. w»
hardly .realise the enormous influence which this
dainty little child of man's Ingenuity has wronphi
for us. Thanks to the opportunity afforded s» Its
oss. tens of thousands of women who porforce
must he self-support in? are tMved from the •*-
whnleson** drudgery and starvation of needlework.
Hui>d"« "Song of th.> Shiit" h»«t never been written
had th«- women of hi* tim« «•*>?** th« ails— ipM
of the {.resent daiv. . The modern poet who shall
sine of bis rair kdssttss of the* K.'minrnnn must
tune his Ur- to „!.;,, .,.,..r m.':tsnr<\s ..ml sine th
>on>; >(.f( .f th« Shirt Wars! or clco the -Sons of the
r II rt

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