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New-York tribune. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, August 25, 1901, Image 14

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CONDITION OF THE JEWS TO-DAY
THEIR POSITION IS THE LEADING NATIONS OF THE
WORLD AFTER CENTURIES OF PERSECUTION.
ZIONISM WILL NOT SOLVE THE JEWISH QUESTION.
BT RARRI MAT'RICE THORXER.
I was Bitting one day last September in Rome
before the Triumphal Arch of Titus, which the
Rorflan Senate had erected to the con of Ves
pasian in honor of his victory over the Jews.
"With intense interest I studied the bass-reliefs
on the Interior. There was the hero of it all —
Titus, sitting on the triumphal quadriga, driven
by the Goddess Roma. The seven branched
candlestick and trophies taken from the temple
were here represented. And there were the cap
tire Jews bringing up the rear of this triumphal
procession. I noted their bowed heads and de
jected countenances. But something about these
prisoners of war made me feel they had been
vanquished In everything but spirit. Despite
their lot, they looked proud as a Maccabean,
serious like the Moses of Michael Angelo.
The day was fast fading, yet I lingered on the
•pot. for everything here was rich In historic
associations. Yonder stood the Colosseum,
¦which once ran red with the blood of thousands
of Christian martyrs, who died for the religion
the Jews had given them. In the distance rose
the dome of St. Peter's, symbolising, a* It were,
the spirit of Judaism triumphant over pagan
Rome. Further on lay the Appian Way, along
which came "the little Jew" Ft. Paul, a prisoner.
to Rome. The Forum stretched before me — I
could see the Roman populace assembled; I
could hear their shouts of Joy at the news that
Jerusalem hail fallen. Near by was the hill on
which stood the palace of the mighty Caesar*,
those halls of splendor and crime now crumbled
In ruins, the hiding place of bats. Yet that very
day had I not seen near the Portico of Octavia.
In the old Ghetto, the same race that had fought
mighty Rome? It Is strange, this story of the
Jews; it Is dramatic. Interesting and pathetic.
THE DISPERSION OF THE RACE
For thousands of years this race, whose history
Is bound up with that of nearly every nation of
antiquity, has survived. On the monuments of
Egypt and Assyria we find them. Cyrus and
Alexander knew them, and the story of Jesus
and Christianity. Mahomet and Islam forms also
part of the story of the Jews.
And what are they doing to-day, the descend
ants of the captives sculptured there on Tituss
arch?
Scattered all over the earth, we find the Jews
to-day playing a more or less Important role In
the destinies of the nations among which they
live.
Fully three-quarters of all the Jews of the
world, or about eight million, have found their
permanent abode In Russia, Austria and the
Balkan States. In Russia the Jewish question
Is not merely one of religion and economics, but
also of race and nationality. The whole fabric
of Russia's power Is built on a racial, national
and religious basis, uninterruptedly developed
for many centuries. The introduction of . a
heterogeneous Jewish element into Russian na
tional life was bound to meet with a violent
repulse from the sovereign autocratic power, as
well as from the people. The only European
country (excepting Turkey and the Netherlands)
which during the Middle Ages gave the Jews
sufficient breathing space was the former king
dom of Poland. When, with the partition of
Poland, this great and solid mass, constituting
almost one-half of the world's Jewry, became
subject to Russia, the latter had at once to
irrapple with a question for the solution of
which it was less prepared than any other civi
lized country Hence the adoption In rapid suc
ression. on the part of the autocracy, of such
extreme and diametrically opposed policies as
was that of enforced assimilation under Czar
Nicholas I on the one hand and of cruel ex
clusion under his recent successors on the other.
In Asiatic Russia there are forty-seven thou
rand Jem's, chiefly descendants of such as have
beer, settled from time Immemorial In Caucasia
and Bokhara when these were still In the hands
of ancient Scythians, Persians and Mongols.
Being indigenous long before they came under
Russian sway, the latter power Is wisely treat-
Ing them on an equality with the other natives
of its comparatively recent acquisitions. In
•trange contrast to Its conduct toward the Jews
of Holy Russia proper.
IN SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE.
It was under the guiding spirit of Disraeli's
diplomacy that the recognition of the independ
ence of the small Danublan principalities, creat
ed by the treaty of Berlin in 1878. was con
tltioned upon the full emancipation and enfran
chisement of their Jews. While Servta and Bul
garia, with their twenty thousand and five thou
sand Jews, respectively, faithfully carried out
their pledge In granting them equal rights the
forty-fourth article of the Berlin treaty re
mained a dead letter In Rumania. There antl-
Eemltlem Is assuming its acutest forms. Its
organized movement started aa early as 1802.
on the alleged ground that rich Rumanian Jews
did not contribute toward the raising of an
army to fight against Turkish supremacy.
Tr Greece, too. the situation of the Jews Is
unsettled. Modern Pan-Hellenism Is a hybrid
creature, born of a dream of its devotees to re
vive ancient classic Pan-Hellenism, originally
fathered by English liberalism for commercial
and ideal reasons, and subsequently aided and
abetted by Pan-Slavists who have learned to
look upon it as a useful and helpful annex to
their own Imperialistic aspirations. Two of these
elements, the classic dreamers and the Pan-Slav
let partisans In Greece, are decidedly anti-Jew
ish, whereas the Anglophiles are more friendly
disposed from combined motives of expediency,
Justice and humanity The six thousand Jews
of Greece (the majority of whom live in Corfu),
are politically enfranchised since 1849.
In Austria-Hungary, owing to the noble spirit
and enlightened mind of Emperor Joseph
11, the emancipation era began to dawn
for the Jew* as early as 1783, a decade before
the outbreak of the French Revolution. In that
year Joseph II abolished the ' Lelbzoll." an ig
nominious poll tax. universally extorted from
Jews in mediaeval Christendom to brand them as
pariahs and outcasts With the early demise
of the Emperor and the beginning of the reac
tionary movement In Central Europe, following
close upon the Napoleonic era, the political lib
eration of the Jews was suspended until 1867.
when their last disabilities were removed by
the co-operation of a liberal government and a
popular representative Diet, though already in
1848 an Austrian Diet, created and moved by
the revolutionary wave of the times, had elected
a Jewish preacher. Josef Manhelmer. as its
president.
TREATMENT IN* GERMAN STATES. -,
We turn now to the classic home of modern
anti-Semitism. Germany. By virtue of her cen- |
tral position, »he was. In respect to the treat
ment of her Jews, influenced favorably by the
politically more advanced French and English
people* and unfavorably by her semi -civilized
Eastern no-lgnbora. Of nearly one-half million
Jews In Germany, two-thirds live In Prussia,
and by far the greater proportion in the quar- j
tern formerly belonging to the kingdom of Po
land. It was from these quarters, including the
present provinces of Posen. Silesia and Prussia
proper, that th« progressive Judaism, inaugu
rated by MDtri Men3els»ohn, drew its vitality ,
and gained its impetus. It la rather strange
that often among Jews a higher intellectual nnd
spiritual life has gone hand 1n hand with polit
ical oppression when such was not immoderate
enough to crush out all national hope and in
tellectual vigor.
For th» West German Jews Frankfort-on-the-
Maln had beon a religious and intellectual cen
tre for several centuries. Many an embryo
BGrne or Heine first saw the light of day. and
breathed his last in the Frankfirt "Judengasse."
as ha* many a renowned mediaeval Corypheus
of Talmudlc lore and Jewish learning. The
revolution of IR4R brought also to the Frankfort
Jews a br»ath of freedom, and most of the
Western German States and principalities ad
mitted them to citizenship. Prussia soon fol
lowed the example of South and W»st Germany
respecting her Jews. Between IWM> and IW>9
Frederick William IV and the later Emperor
William I removed all Jewish disabilities, and
In the German imperial constitution, largely
framed and consolidated by Jewish parliamen
tarians, among whom Lasker was most con
spicuous, there was left no trace of the medi
aeval legal status of the Ghetto Jew.
However valuable to the Prussian dynasty in
particular, and to political German imperialism
In general, the services rendered by Bismarck
may have been, to higher German progress and
culture the Russophile attitude of his policy.
with its anti-liberal and narrow Protestant
clerical spirit, provd a serious obstacle and
hindrance. It opened the door to anti-Pemit
lsm. spreading from Russia and Rumania over
Austria and Germany, counteracting the tide of
liberalism that had pwept over Central Europe
from the west, and even investing the Occi
dental strongholds of advanced thought with
its retrogressive and barbarizing tendencies.
Ftlll. the agitations of the Stoeckers and Ahl
wardts are fast losing their hold upon the Ger
man people at large With the disappearance
of Bismarck's personal prestige, true German
culture and spiritual advancement once more
is asserting itself, and now bids fair to regain
tr.e influence it lost with both people and gov
ernment since the advent of anti-Semitism In
the eighties of the last century.
ENGLAND A HAVEN OF REFUGE.
As to so many other heretics, so also to the
Jews England has be^n an ancient haven of
lefuge. Under the mild and popular Anglo-
Baxon rule, a considerable number of Jews
(exceeding ten thousand In 1200). had made their
home in Great Britain, and lived In peace with
th»lr Christian neighbor* The Norman-French
and their Papal coadjutors bnught with them
the Continental epidemic of persecutions, and
fair Albion became Infected. In 1290 the cru
sade against Jews reached a climax with their
total expulsion from England, to which the
"peculiar people" were not readmitted until
almost four centuries later under Oliver Crom
well. Though placed on the same footing as
Catholics and other Dissenters from the Estab
lished Chur«*h. they were in their economic, so
cial and religious pursuits left in peace and al
lowed to work out their own salvation. And
coon we flnd them recovering the foothold they
had lost through their expulsion by the priest
ridden Edward I, and asserting themselves in
th» social and commercial life of the people.
The career of Sir Moses Morteflore <17**4-
IKM) particularly exemplifies the assertion and
rise of Jewish influence in modern England.
The Jews of England were practically emanci
pated by popular consent long before Parlia
ment gave Its official sanction thereto. Ben
jamin Disraeli HftOß-'Si), though baptized by
his father when still an infant, never failed to
take pride jn his Jewish descent, and public
English opinion, far from resenting this pride,
honored and respecte.l him for his racial fidelity.
After J»ws had held minor municipal offices in
important English towns, Mr. Solomons was
fleeted in UH, the first Jewish Lord Mayor of
London In IWR th* last political disabilities
against the admission of Jews to Parliament
were removed, and in IKA3 Baron N. de Roths
child was raised to the first Jewish peerage in
England under the name of Lord Rothschild.
Great Britain and Ireland now contains about
one hundred thousand Jews and some fifty
thousand more are scattered all over the Eng
lish colonies. Outside of Cape Colony twenty
thousand Jews have, during the la«t few dec
ades, settled In South Africa, especially in the
Transvaal and Orange States They are chiefly
Russian-Polish Jews. Anglicized in the London
Ghetto, some of whom have made Immense
fortunes in the diamond fields and gold mines.
I EMANCIPATION IN FRANCE.
The recent antl-Semltle movement In France
te merely th» bastard child of the Franco-Rus
; Btan Alliance which, while still In Its embryonic
state, lent a new impetus to the waning feudal
clerical Influences still haunting the French na
tional consciousness. In their mad assaults on
the all-victorious liberal forces of the republic,
these reactionary Influences are fast upending
their vitality and losing whatever ground is
etui left them among the ever decreasing ad
herents of French medievalism. Of the seven
ty-two thousand Jews who live In that country
we find two-thirds in Paris. Though one may
sometimes observe In Paris to-day "ft baa leg
Julfs" written on the walls In public placM, It
would still require the recurrence of many a
Dreyfus affair before Jewish gratitude could
forget the glorious part France has played In
the deliverance of modern Israel from the
mediaeval Ghetto with its misery, degradation
and outlawry— a. hous» of bondage far worse
than that of ancient Egypt. The first Jewish
emancipatory laws In Europe date from the
great national assembly of the revolution un
der the leadership of Mlrabeau (1780-fll). fol
lowed up by the Napoleonic epoch. Since then
the Jews In Franc» have socially and politically
become thorough Frenchmen and have played
an Important part In national affairs. They
have rapidly risen to political and military
careers, occupying positions in the civil service
and the army quite out of proportion to their
small numbers.
Under the regenerator of France after the
Franco-Prussian War, I>»on Gambetta (1838
•B2). himself of Genoese Jewish extraction,
Isfac Adolph Cremteux acted as Minister of
Justice. He had held the same portfolio in the
provisional government after the flight of Louis
Philippe in IB4S. He was an ardent professing
Jew. who, In conjunction with Moses Monte-
More, founded the Alliance Israelite ITnlverftetie.
an International Jewish Institution for the edu
cation and betterment of the condition of the
Jews In the -civilized countries in Eastern
Europe. Africa and the Orient. Since 1848
French Jews have been members of the Cham
ber of Deputies, Life Senators. Cabinet Min
isters and generals In the army. In the de
pendencies. Algiers and Tunis, where about
eighty thousand Jews owe allegiance to France.
French anti-Semites have recently made use of
the religious fanaticism of the native Arabs and
Moors to stir iip anti-Jewish feeling, But the
French Government Is suppressing an agitation
which might ultimately arouse racial and re
ligious animosities against its new supremacy.
IN OTHER EUROPEAN LANDS.
Modern Italian science, literature and art
count many a Je,v among their prominent rep
:sEV~i«>±iK ,/AILY TRIBUNE, SUNDAY. ATKUJST 25. 1901.
resentatives. and In the political field, too,
Italian Jews have signally distinguished them
selves as economic and financial reformers.
Conspicuous among the latter is Luzzatti,
Italian ex-Minister of Finance, whose eminent
ability, skill and Integrity have won for him the
universal confidence of all political parties and
factions In the Italian Parliament.
The history of the emancipation of the Jews
In Italy Is correlative with that of Italy's po
litical unification and its own spiritual emanci
pation from the sway of Papacy. The enfran
chisement of the Jews followed step by step the
ad\-ance of the former and recession of the
latter. Tuscany and I>omnardy set the example
In breaking down the walls of tfceir Ghettos and
liberating their Jews In 190 ft. Naples and Sicily
soon followed in 1W»1. Then came the turn, in
ISflfl. of the Ghetto Vecchlo In Venice, the re
puted home of the much maligned Shylock, and,
last of all. Rome itself, the Holy See. the centre,
for a millennium, of religious persecutions and
spiritual thraldom, opened the gates of its dingy
Ghetto. In all of Italy's dominions Jews to-
day are in possession of all civil and religious
rights and liberties. Of its fifty thousand Jews
the majority live In the northern and <»«ntr,il
parts
Switzerland. Belgium. Holland and Prandl
navia have ne*n largely Influenced In the treat
ment of their Jews, numbering about 125,000 In
all, by their mightier BtlghsOW, Austria, Italy,
France and Germany. These minor countries,
having often themselves been victims of oppres
sion at the hands of the greater powers, had
been taught the 'esson of toleration sotnswhai
sooner than th>> rest of medlieva! Europe, so
that their Jewish population, particularly that
of the, Netherlands (about l«»t.<»»», attained
their freedom at a comparatively early date.
Unfortunate Spain, the birthplace of Jesuit-
Ism, once the home of Jewish and Arabian
poets and p.ires. had been turned Info the dismal
stillness of a churchyard by the body and sou]
crushing policy of the church. Its Alma Mater,
to which It has so long sacrificed Its best and
highest interests. After Spain had lost nil of
her glory and had been compelled to cede suc
cessively the bulk of her world empire to her
bitter enemies. Portugal, Holland, France and
England, she appeared, at last, to awaken from
her stupor, and since IW>S a new liberal spirit
is gradually asserting Itself.' It wan In that year
that the decree against the admission of Jew*,
In force since the age of Torquemada, wag an
nulled. Since then about 2,. r »00 Jew* have made
Bpaln their home, coming mostly from Portugal,
whither, owing to Its smaller commercial and
industrial opportunities, but few Jews have been
attracted.
Throughout Spanish America, whither Jews
could more easily repair and live unmolested by
the Church of the homeland, over four thousand
have gradually formed commercial settlements
and appear to prosper. Upon the planting of
the United States flag in the Philippines, both
Anglo and Spanish-American Jews seized the
favorable opportunity of Installing themselves.
At present they constitute a community at Ma
nila already amounting to a few hundred souls.
Satan In the disguise of St. Torquemada, when
he sowed the storm of the Inquisition In the
Spanish Church militant, little li*.aglned
that four centuries later Jews would Invade
Spanish dominions amid the victorious shouts
of "Hall Columbia."
CONDITIONS IN THE ORIENT.
And now a glance at the Jews of the Orient.
"Whatever atrocities the "Unspeakable" Turk
may have committed against his rebellious or
seditious Armenian. Hellenic or Slavic: subjects
or vassal States, he has always treated the Jews
under his sceptre with humane consideration,
and never denied them a shelter when knocking
at his doors, stripped of their all and hounded
to death by mediaeval Christendom. In the flour
ishing era of, the Oaman regime Jew» held bi<th
Imperial positions.- and several of them acted as
grand viziers, the most renowned among whom
'vas Dor. Joseph, or Vussuf Nassi. a Portuguese
Jew, nominated by Sellm II <l'>24-'74) as Duke
of Naxos. The Jews of Turkey enjoy the same
privileges of representation in the Divan, or
Imperial Council of the Porte, as the Greek and
Roman Catholics, although they have no power
ful foreign Influence to back them. The
present Sultan's Jewish sympathies ar.? well au
thenticated, and may be testified to by the two
Jewish Ministers who have successively repre
sented the I'nlted States at Constantinople since
IW*7. Nevertheless, the three hundred thousand
Jews of the Turkish Empire, whereof about two
fiftha live in the Eur >pean part, have econom
ically and spiritually degenerated simultaneous
ly with the decay of the once so energetic and
promising Mahometan power.
The extension of French and English influence
over North Africa has been a strong uplifting
power also for the Egyptian Jews, who had
long suffered by both Christian and Mahometan
fanaticism. To-day they are commercial}- very
TIIIT COAST SIRVEY YACHT BAGR&
Now at work on the Hudson River
acthr* and serve as valuable agencies to the
civlllzatory missions of the great European
powers In North Africa. They number about
twenty-five thousand.
Palestine, th<» land of ancient Israel, the bat
tlegroun] of th»» bloodlesi raHi! and religious
¦w.irs known In history, prase ntl a deplorahls
picture, also. In repard t>> its Jews. Having
tlm" and again bsen exiled from and forbidden
I - to their native country by Invaders and
mnquerors of almost every rare and nationality.
only fort) thousand ar. 1 BOW found upon their
¦nclenl mother soli Christian religious Jeal-
Ottsl**, ev*n more than Mahvnetan, have been
ar.d Still are «t Wofk perpetuating the stag
nancy In the development of a strip of land
that appears to have no earthly value, nor to be
of any material Interest to any but Its own
or'glna! Inhabitants Their economic status Is
of the very lowest. We see there about twenty
t\o thousand huddled together In the dirty
Jewish quarters of Jerusalem, wasting their
llf»" In i'He religious lip service, and supported.
In a way. by the charity of pious Jews from
nil over the world. But since IRSO a change
OVER TFTE DRAUGHTING BOARD.
On the after deck of the Eagre.
for the better Is being effected through the rise
Of the Zionist movement, that received Its chief
momentum from Russian persecutions. The
progressive Jewish element UMrjbj Introduced
Into E'aU-stlne at once began to cultivate the.
land that had lain waste for centuries. By
the aid of Jewish philanthropists whose Interest
had been enlisted in the growing movement
several agricultural colonies have been called
Into life. They contain at present about four
thousand so Us. originally hailing from Russia,
Rumania and Oalicla.
The seventy thousand Jews of Arabia. Syria,
IftfopotMßta and Persia live in a precarious
state, which is being relieved by the gradual
advance of European civilization Into these
oacc glorious homes of ancient culture. The
same Is true with Morocco*! two hundred thou
sand Jews. Much cultural work is being done
then* through the educational efforts of the
Alliance Israelite Unlverselle.
In the middle of tho last century about thre*
hundred thousand Jews, called Falashas. most
likely descendants of Jewish-Arabian tribes that
flourished before Mahomet, were discovered
among the natives of Abyssinia. Again, some
Jesuit Tilsalonarles chanced upon a ftw hundred
native Chinese Jews at Kai-FVng-Fo, the ancient
and now to be rendopted capital of the Celestial
Empire, in the Hoo-Nan Province. But for the
efforts of Anglo-Jewish residents at Shanghai
In rescuing this castaway remnant of Israel
It would have fast become extinct.
LIBERALITY IN THE WESTERN WORLD.
And now let us follow the wandering Jew
Into the New World.
Through the philanthropic efforts of Baron de
HAnc.h the republic, of Argentina hits grown Into
considerable slemlflcance to the Jews of Russia.
The Jewish Colonization Society, founded by
h'm and endowed with his millions, has since
th» eighties succeeded in transferring about ten
thousand Russian Jews to the agricultural settle
ments in Argentina under a special contract
with the government. The gr-»at difficulties of
Importing large numbers of so radically foreign
an element into the sparsely settled country
appear to have been overcome at last. and. ¦
r»cent reports are to be trusted, the Russian
Jewish farmers are becoming rapidly acclimated
In Argentina, and are doing good work In de
vf>!npinp: their new homeland.
The status and economic position of the Jews
In the United States peculiarly reflect the feat
ures of the westward march of progress. Of
the one million Jews in the United States one
third inhabit New-York State; Pennsylvania and
Illinois have about ir?O,o<tO; Ohio, 5O.000; Mary
land. 35.000; California. SMoWj New-Jersey.
IMOtt Missouri, 25,0n0 ; Massachusetts. 20.000.
and the rert are distributed in the other South
ern and Western States and Territories, in pro
portions closely following the historical develop
ment and cultural advance of the various sec
tions of the country.
On the ladder of political distinction, too. Jews
In the United States are rising quite out of
proportion to their numerical strength. They
are holding municipal offices, have been State
Governors, are Congressmen and United States
Senators, and occupy a considerable number of
higher or lower seats on the judiciary bench.
THE ZIONISTIC MOVEMENT.
And lastly, a word on Zionism.
Intoxicated by their sudden political emanci
pation and rapid material and social advance
ment, a goodly number of Jews soon lost their
moral moorings, cast their national and re
ligious history to the winds, and played the re
pulsive part of upstarts. Slumbering religious
and racial animosities were soon aroused, finding
their expression in anti-Semitism. It Is to this
cause chiefly that modern Zionism owes lt.s
origin, though more profound and ingenuous
Jewish thlnkfrs. like Samuel David Luiatto, of
Padua: Moses Hess, of Frankfort, and Dr. Ed
ward Pinsker, of Odessa, had already, in the
sixties and seventies, before modern anti-Semit
ism came to the foreground, boldly anticipated
the new Zionist programme by declaring the
practical realization of Jewish national aspira
tions, so long and so Intimately bound up with
Jewish religious faith, to he the only historically
consistent aim that politically emancipated
Judaism should pursue In the Diaspora.
Modern Zionism, however, in Its present phase
will hardly solve the difficult problem presented
by the universal Jewish question. Conducted,
as the new movement actually Is. by emotional
enthusiasts rather than by men of action and
practical Insight, and counting now among Its
chief leaders such as had long been out of touch
with the Jewish masses, religiously and socially.
Zionism for son.c time to come cannot be ex
pectart to make any considerable headway tow
ard thh* consummation of Jewish national hnp^a
and dreams. Religious and even racial Judaism
haa never been dependent for its existence upon
Jewish nationalism, but vice versa. History
shows that religious revivals were strongest
among Jews while In exile <>r when their na
tional unity was rearing Xl dissolution
COSMOPOLITANISM t »R NATM >NAM3M"
The Jews of to-day are lacking many of the
advantages necessary for their national regen
eration. Their very cosmopolitanism stands In
the way of their nationalism. Instead of having
given a centre, a solid geographical and politi
cal foothold, whence the movement could draw
its \'ltal powers and where Its efforts >f unifica
tion could converge, there is given a large num
ber of politically and Beographlcally disconnect
ed sections of a circle held together only by an
historical and spiritual central force. The ever
potent Issue of "To be or not to be." it would
seem, resolves itself for Jewish nationalism Into
the alternative of either a narrow uncompromis
ing and self-absorbed spirit, indifferent to other
and larger world interests, the assumption of an
attitude of selfish national egotism on the one
hand. or. on the other. th-» final and irrevocable
adoption of a policy shaped by the iron logic of
Its history, a broad all harmonizing Ideal cosmo
politanism, ready even to suffer national anni
hilation if necessary for a world's redemption.
Xcto-3frocn d&ufr!i»emrnts.
if£W/yy&^
Monda^Sept 2,
on which day,
„- ... from 6PM to 11 P.M.,
the Public will beaffoT-cLed, ,
an, opportunity to inspect •
Our Beautiful New Home.
l£ ffiorvughly fireproof,
"Perfectly Appointed^,
A Monument to Enterprise .
Up to August 312* we<shall |
be turning out ftourlyx-** *j|
Unmatchable Bargains *
in Herns furnishings oim<L
Personal Supplies.
DonTmi&s ih\s,ihe greatest
of all Bargain Weeks of
New Jerseys history. I
mtNE&co
CHARTING THE HUDSON
WORK OF THE EAGRE. THE OLD YACHT
MOHAWK. NOW ANCHORED
OFF OSSININ , * ::^ 1
Passengers on trains of the New- Cent?,!
and Hudson River Railroad have recently nm^«
near Ossining a blue flag with a red triangle \ a
white circle, flying from the foremast of a ku *
schooner yacht. That flag, according to the »tat
ment of a conductor, has excited more speculatl
and caused more questions to be tsked than any!
thing else seen along the line In the last war
It has teen mistaken for almost everything, tram
a yacht club pennant to a signal of distress' it k
the flag of the United States Coast and Georfet!
Survey, and flies from the Treasury Department
yacht Eagre, which for more than twenty y. ar ,
has been sailing the waters along the AtUatl'
coast with a party of government engineers wC^
sole business it Is to chart the waters and tta
adjacent land for purposes of navigation. T a9
ship has an interesting history. It was once tha
flagship of the New-York Yacht Club. Its nsia
was then the Mohawk. In 1877. while lytna ml
anchor with all sail ret in a dead calm o« atLu.
ton, Staten Island, her officers and crew a a d
Commodore Garner and h!s family all below th*
yacht was struck by a sudden squall and caj)si z .i
The commodore, his wife and his niece W(tl
drowned, but the other members of the famll*
and the officers and crew were saved. The Melt
was soon afterward raised and was sold th»
Treasury Department purchasing her for th* Coast
Survey service and renaming her the CanT
which means the tidal wave. She Is one of fa*
sailing vessels in the fleet of about a sbbbb
ships engaged in the service. She has spent the
last two winters in surveying th* waters on the
east coast of Porto Rico, and came North about
two months ago. After some surveying in Ch«sa
peake Bay she was sent to New-York Ha-bor*
and having lately finished a survey of the waters
about Shooters' Island was detailed to chart th«
Hudson near Osslnlng. Interesting as Is the Via
the work of her officers and crew is even raor« in '
The Eagre carries eight officers, all trained en
gineers, and a crew of twenty-three men whl
serve In the ordinary capacity of sailors In a voy
a*e and assist In the work of surveying whL
that is In progress. The present commander Is
J. B. Boutelle. assistant engineer of the Coast an,i
Geodetic Survey, and the executive officer Is WML
lam B. Proctor, who will soon be detached froa
on%h« KMK M £5.1 W1 " ** a"*™-* l » «»%
on the Matchless, new engaged In the survey of
Chesapeake ay. Frank Alnsworth Is a watrS
officer; RMcD. Moser. deck officer; A C L
Roeth. deck Officer: B. F. Tiiton. aid; J. E»SaeS
herd, surgeon, and J. H. Ullrich. assistant
geon. The post to be vacated by Executive &£»
Proctor will be filled by O. W. Ferguson «*!?&
engineer of the Coast and Geodetic 3urv'evTE
are a cook and steward for the officers' mesa Mi
a separate cook and steward for the crew
The quarters of the officers are neatly but Dl«i«.
V furnished, and each has his own tecfafcai
library aboard ship. All are appointees undertZ
regulations of th* Civil Service, and promotion
are governed by Civil Service rules. The crew tl
enlisted for three years. The government c - ro
visions the shin, and supplies the uniforms V.
both officers and men. The discipline aboard '«
similar to that In the navy. The crew turns mt
at 5 o'clock In the morning, and the officers break
fast at 6:30 o'clock and report at the sfttn's alda
for duty at 7:30. They have Is readiness tltasr
luncheons, and continue at outdoor work, tat
weather permitting, until 6 o'clock In the evsntsE
On rainy days office work, such as writing th*
records of the survey- and preparing maps and re
f • rts to be forwarded to Washington, enrage th*
attention of the officers, while the crew is am»
busy cleaning and overhauling the ship. After
working hours all the officers are at liberty «•
cept the officer of the watch, and each member
of the crew, which Is divided into two watehta
has shore leave every alternate evening.
The sun-eying includes three branches—
graphical work on shore, hydrographlc work, with
systematic soundings, and triangulation. by which
objects, ashore or In the water are accurately
placed. Of course, navigation is also an ImporbJst
branch of the service when the ship Is sai'lir
from one assignment to another. On 153
waters, such as those of the Hudson, the hy<lr>
griphlc survey extends from shore to thore th«
water being traversed by a launch or a whale
boat In parallel lines at given distances asm
and soundings taken at short intervals and can*
fully recorded. The same territory Is then ton.
ered as carefully at right angles, with ooundnss
at equally frequent intervals. The map oftka
survey Is. therefore, divided into small squares
with the soaindlngs noted by red dots and th»
depths and character of the bottom accurately
noted. It is plain that by this method the only
obstructions that can possibly escape discovery
are such as are small enough to Me wholly witMa
the parallelograms bordered by the crossed lines
of soundings. The topographical part of the mfc
consists In accurately determining the contour at
the shore and the altitudes of its sky Use for A
given distance Inland, and of the Muffs bordering
the water line at all points.
The Eagre will remain near Os»lning another
month or more, and will then again go South for
the winter, continuing the- survey of Porto Rlcaa
waters for a distance of elarht miles from Us
beach until next summer. Visitors to the st's
generally comment before leaving it upon h*r
orderliness and scrupulous cleanliness. She a) »
pplck and span as any private yacht in the waters
about this city. She Is 1» feet ovtr ail. 10 tat
beam, and has a draught of 9< 3 feet.
Two new steam vessels are under constrnctiet
for the- service — at Port Jefferson. Long Irhzt.
and the other at Shooters' Island.
J 2CriD-.3er.Bfn dbnertisemrnts.
A^kfcMSve.
orzfer
-foprthis week..
¦^gry „
WtaleOerive ha.Oe to
carryover with Usui
i&soiurffeit; Building
tyvffill+be transferred

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