Newspaper Page Text
CUBAN CONSTITUTION DEFECTS.
THE INSTRUMENT ANALYZED AND DISSECTED BY AN ABLE CUBAN EXPERT. PROVIDES TOPHEAVT SYSTEM— POWERS OF PRESIDENT One of the ablest Cuban experts In this country has examined and analyzed the Cuban constitution. His official position precludes the use of his name in connection with this anal ysis. What he has to say is worth reading, whether one agrees with him or not. His dissection of this historical document is here given without prejudice or amendment. He finds three se rious objections to the constitution: First—The practical fiurre-nder of all provincial and municipal power* to the Insular €••***••• Second— Tne appointing power of the President extending: to every appointment in the Island. Third— ''•• Byntem of provincial ami municipal tariffs, parulyzlnK to commerce, ex- Bklve to adjninUter, productive of fraud and foreign to the spirit of the n«e. WHAT CONSTITUTION PROVIDES. Washington. Aug. 30 (Special).— The Constitu tional Convention of Cuba, pursuant to a call or an order of the Military Governor. Major-Gen ral Leonard Wood, dated at Havana. November 8 1900, met for the purpose of drafting: a con stitution for the unborn republic, and continued their labors •** more or less regularity until February 12. 1001. hen the constitution was adopted. The instrument is a long one. containing about efcfct thousand words, divided into 115 articles. til temporary provisions and an appendix com posed of the eight articles known as the Platt jsfnfimerX Like the island it is Intended to govern, the constitution is long but narrow, and M examination of its provisions shows that It will scarcely accomplish all that patriotic Cu bans desire. To a person raised under Anglo-Saxon influ ences and traditions, whose bill of rights runs back to Runnymede, their definition of human rights seems to be a work of supererogation, for. after the fashion of most Latin-American con stitutions. In thirty articles, in themselvts long er than the original constitution of the United Btates. the document defines certain inalienable rights, which appear to be so inherent in any form of government that they ought to be as sumed as an Integral part of the organization of society without specific mention in written constitutions. Such fundamental rights as equality before the law. the denial of the power to imprison without due process of law, the right of the accused to be informed of the charges against him. the accused not being obliged to testify against himself, the Inviolability of cor respondence and of domicile, the liberty of speech and of the press, the right of petition, freedom cf conscience, liberty of worship, as well as the denial of the power to impose the penalty of exile or confiscation of property for political of fences, are all carefully defined. Yet many of these rights, the birthright of freemen every where, may. under certain conditions defined by the constitution, be suspended temporarily by a decree of the President when Congress is not In session, and It would appear from a reading: of the Instrument that the decree may be con tinued Indefinitely by paid body. While It ls true that the embodiment of these principles In a written constitution does not necessarily weaken it. yet it la rather a sad comment upon the government under which Cubans formerly lived, and is evidence that they flo not feel sure of any rights not specifically nominated In the bond. LEGISLATIVE POWERS OF GOVERNMENT. The legislative powers of the government are to be exercised by two bodies, a Senate and a House ot Representatives, the former being composed of tour Senators from each of the six provinces of the island, and the latter of one representative for each twenty-five thousand In habitants or moiety thereof- Senators are to be elected for a period of eight years and Repre sentatives for four years. It will be seen that counting five persons for each voter, and as suming that there would be two parties nearly equally divided, any person who can secure con trol of twenty-five hundred votes can be elected or name the Representative to Congress, and among a people with so large a percentage of Illiterates, and with no clearly defined political principles to segregate them Into parties, election contests will be to a great extent personal strifes, which among people of Latin descent are not as a rule conducted along peaceable lines. The House of Representatives can accuse, and the Senate, sitting as a court, may try, the President of the republic for any alleged crime against the external security of the State, a vio lation of the constitution or for attempting to Impede the free operation of the legislative or Judicial powers. It may suspend the President during the progress of the trial, and Impeach him if found guilty. Cabinet ministers may also be tried in the same manner. Upon an accusa tion by the President or by the provincial coun cillors, the Senate may also try the Governors of provinces. The Senate also has power to confirm the ap pointments made by the President of the Chief Justice and associate Justices of the Supreme Court, the diplomatic representatives, the con enh and other officers whose appointment is, by laws yet to be enacted, subject to such approval. It Is also one of the powers of the Senate to ratify the treaties negotiated by the President •lth other powers. The House of Representatives has power to accuse the President and Cabinet officers as stated when two-thirds of its members agree thereto, and this is the only special prerogative of the lower house. Congress Is required to meet twice each year end must remain in session at least forty days. It may also be called in extra session by the President whenever In his Judgment there is occasion therefor, but during such extra sea •too only 6uch subjects may be acted upon as •*»• mentioned In the call. The Congress has •ower to enact all codes and laws of a general character, and the same shall have force throughout the territory of the republic with authority, also, to prescribe the manner of Meeting Congressmen, Governors of provinces and the officers of provincial and even munici pal corporations, and may prescribe the pro vUlons necessary for the regulation of provincial •ad municipal organizations. ONLY A CENTRAL GOVERNMENT. Tnus H is thit the proposed government Is raore than a strong central government, it is the only government. The provinces, corre <lWains; to the States of the American Union. Practically are without power. They have no JKfaUtuTe, but simply a provincial council, a £ rigle body whose powers are limited to cor- r «pond somewhat to the duties of county com ¦¦¦loners as denned In many States of the ( _uon. The jrm of government Is an imitation the American system, not one growing out 'local conditions. Even municipalities are at £* mercy of Congress. This Is a degree of cen "*K*atlon never before attempted by any suc j**«nl government. Such a plan presented to eonsiitntlonal convention which framed the PALACE i:i,KVAT«HK. Th« •1.-iator. tor King- Edward's ******* were made In (bis city, ""•era are others in „«- | v Xew v »rlt houses which equal tfa,-ui. ¦EB TUB KIXIIAY HUH! M" TO *o&aow. i constitution of the United States would not have had a patient hearing. The foundation principle of one of the great parties in the United States is the necessity of guarding with jealous care the rights of the States, even as the Colonies were jealous of preserving absolute control of their local affairs. No question of State rights, or, rather, provincial rights, can ever disturb the councils of the Cuban Republic, for they have been delegated without reserve to the federal, or insular, government. The instrument is a State constitution, rather than a federal constitution: indeed, there is no federation, and a single State with six counties and 131 townships, or municipal districts, pro poses to exercise all the prerogatives of sov ereignty. It expects to have an army and navy, a diplomatic corps, a consular force and all the expensive machinery of an independent govern ment. The plan la topbeavy. It is an effort to put new wine in old bottles, which in place of improving with age is more likely to turn to vinegar and set the people's teeth on edge. There is nothing in the past history of Cuba calling for this particular form of government, but it Is a theoretical adaptation or the Ameri can system which was the necessary outgrowth of previous colonial history. Its practical appli cation under other conditions and by another people will develop difficulties which will call for calm, wise and disinterested leadership, which, It must be said, is not at present in sight. Congress must approve the annual budget, consent to loans and the issue of bonds, and in the same article is charged with levying taxes, which become a part of the fixed charges and provide a Finking fund for the gradual redemp tion of insular obligations. The usual power to coin money, fix its value and fineness, regulate the system of weights and measures, promote domestic and foreign commerce, control postal and telegraph lines and public means of com munication and organize an army and navy are granted to Congress. No provision for di viding these duties in any way between the two houses is made. Either branch may take the Initiative. Any law or code of laws may be introduced In either house, as also any bill that may come before Congress, but all measures must be approved by the President or be passed by a two-thirds majority of both houses over the President's veto, except in certain cases pro vided for by the constitution. GREAT POWERS OF PRESIDENT. The constitution is remarkable for the power ft grants to the President of the republic. He muet sanction and promulgate the laws enacted by Congress, must see that they are executed and provide regulations for their observance in case Congress fails to prescribe such regulations. He can call Congress In extra session, or the Senate alone under certain conditions. He has power to suspend the sessions of Congress when the two houses cannot come to an agreement as to the time for adjournment. He must present to Congress at each pension a message setting forth the conditions of the republic and make such recommendations as he may deem proper. He must present an annual budget and furnish Congress, whenever called upon, such reports as may be asked for by that body. He can ap point and remove Cabinet ministers, nominate Justices of the Supreme Court, diplomatic and consular representatives. But the greatest power is conferred by Section 10 of Article 68, which Bays: "The President shall appoint for the discharge of the other du ties created by law the proper officers, provided that the appointment thereof is not specially delegated to other officers or bodies." This sweeping power Is limited by only two lines in the constitution. Section 7of Article 99 grants to the Governors of provinces the power to appoint the employes of their offices, and Sec tion 3 of Article 110 grants to mayors of munici palities the same privilege. Therefore, every office and place In the republic except those of Senator, Representative. Governor, Provincial Councillor, Mayor and Councilman are In the hands of the President. There is no way pro vided for limiting this power, and any legisla tion looking to that end must be submitted to the President for approval. History Is witness to the fact that rulers, be they royal or repub lican, do not surrender their powers readily, and a President ambitious to continue at the head of the government and with power to appoint every employe, from clerk to chief Justice, all customs employes, all Internal revenue and tax officers, to fill positions In the army and navy, and name all clerks and stenographers. In short, the per sonnel of the entire government, has an oppor tunity to perpetuate his authority, dictate legis lation and order changes in the constitution it self as has been done so often in other Spanish- American countries. There is no civil service list to which he must confine himself, but he Is absolutely unrestrained by anything but the policy which he may please to adopt. The re sult of the exercises of this power, there being no principles of government to separate the peo ple into parties, will be to divide the country into the "ins" and the "outs." Those in place or power will try to keep in. and the "outs" will unite and subordinate whatever differences there may be among them for the purpose of over throwing the party in power. CONSTITUTION CAN BE SUSPENDED. The President can, under certain conditions, suspend the guarantees provided for In the con stitution, as has been done in Venezuela and the United States of Colombia while these lines are being written, and can suspend the acts of provincial and municipal councils. He can, under certain limitations, suspend the governors of provinces, offices to which they have been elect ed by the votes of the people. He is also the commander-ln-chlef of the army and navy, and is charged with the defence of the country against foreign and domestic foes. Articles 77 and 78 state that "all decrees, or ders and resolutions of the President of' the republic shall be countersigned by the secretary of the proper department, without which requi site they shall lack binding force and shall not be observed. Secretaries are personally responsi ble for the acts which they countersign, and, furthermore, are Jointly responsible for those upon which they together agree or authorize This responsibility does not exclude the personal and direct liability of the President of the re public." It must be confessed that this pro vision is rather vague, and the object thereof la not clear, nor is It easy to Imagine what pro cedure would obtain in the event of a secretary refusing to sign any certain bill; but any gov ' t-rnment not strong enough to suppress all pub lic criticism of its acts would find in these pro visions a fruitful source of Irritation, and they are liable to produce complications easier to foresee than solve. The constitution provides that the provinces shall have governors and a provincial council elected by direct suffrage, the latter being com posed of not less than eight nor more than twenty members. It has no power to make laws, but may provide for the fiscal needs of the province, may borrow money and levy taxes to NEW-YCVRTv PATTY TRIBUNE. SATURDAY. AUGUST 31. 1901. - pay the same, but its actions are under certain conditions liable to be suspended by either the Governor of the province or the President of the republic. The constitutional provisions for the organization of municipal districts are much like those prescribed for provinces, with the same limitations, but to them are also granted power to borrow money and levy taxes for municipal expenses. No provision is made to guarantee free com merce between the provinces, nor between dif ferent cities of the same province. On the con trary. It is expressly stated that the tax system of buth province and municipality shall agree or harmonize with the tax system of the State or insular government. A study of the con stitution shows that provincial and municipal tariffs are anticipated. This is a custom which still obtains In some Spanish countries, but which ever has been an.i which ever will be fatal to that progress and development which is the wish of every friend of Cuba. Free com merce between the States has contributed more, perhaps, than any other one constitutional pro vision to the prosperity of the United States. Custom houses along State lines ;•. rf almost, hut r.ot quito, unthinkable, for Cuba is think ing of them. Aside from being rs bad economic policy, it will call for a ix.st of employee and make the collection of provincial Incoinei very expensive: and when to insular and provincial tariffs there is added a municipal or town tariff, making another tax on commerce and calling for another set of employes, the fiscal outlook is not bright. Such a .system will not Invite In vestment. It will so increase th>- cost <>f mer chandise that consumption will be reduced to a minimum. Tt will also be found that when Cuba attempts to secure some reciprocity ar rangements with the United States, looking to a market for her sugar and tobacco. American statesmen will not consider any arrangement or grant any concession of Insular duties which would in effect be nullified by provincial and municipal duties. When Cuban Importations pasß our Federal custom houses they are free to circulate throughout the Union and mingle freely with the goods of the country, and the same freedom will In justice be insisted upon for American goods in Cuba, or any convention that may be reached between the two powers will not r>e worthy of th<* name of reciprocity. WESTLXDfAX TRADE CONTROL RAPIDLY BEING ACQUIRED BY THE UNITED STATES. Washington. Aug. SO (Special).— The rapidity with which the United States Is acquiring complete con trol of West Indian trade la being constantly shown in official documents. The latest illustration of this growing disposition of the adjacent coun tries and Islands, and especially those to the south, to throw all their business, both buying and selling, into American channels is given in some statistics relating to the. commerce of Jamaica Just received at the Treasury Department These are contained In a British colonial report on that Island covering the years ISC'S and 1900. They show that of the ex ports of Jamaica &7 per cent were sent to the United States In 1896, while in 19* the shar« sent to the United State's was (3.1 par cent. To the. United Kingdom the share In UN was 27.6 per cent, and in 1988 19.2 per cent. The report says: The value of the exports from Jamaica which go to the United States continues to Increase in total value and in proportion to the whole amount of the trade. The exports to the United Kingdom diminish steadily. Thin tendency Is largely due to the development of the fruit trade, which has hitherto been almost exclusively with the United States. The increase In exports to the United States has been accompanied by an Increase in the percentage of Jamaican Imports which come from the United States. In UN the percentage of Jamaican Imports taken from the United States was -U.S. anil In 1900 •43; while the proportion from the United Kingdom, which in 1896 was 18.1 per cent, was In 1900 17.2 per cent, in neither Imports nor exports does the trade with Canada show any Increase. Of the ex ports 1.6 per cent went to Cans In 1898 ami the same proportion In 1900. while of the Imports 7.5 pet cent was taken from Canada la 1896, and 7.1 per cent in 1900. The following Statement from the. report shows the movement!) in the more important articles of Imports and exports, and especially tho chare of that trade with the United States: The produpts named w«-re shipped: Sugar, almost entirely to the United States and to the United Kingdom, In the proportion of I to 1. Fruit, almost exclusively to the United Stntt-s. and rum 10 til" United Kingdom. Of the coffee, seven-eighths to the rut ed states, German] «nd the United King dom, in the order named. Logwood, to snvon rouii tries, nearly two-thirds going to the United States and Russia, the United Kingdom taking fifth place. Pimento, about flva-etghtha to the United States and United Klnedom. In thi order named; the remainder principally to Frame und Germany. Lesser products of some importance, whl^h have Increased more in proportion than any of the main staples, are cocoa, cocoanuta und ginger. Of the cocoa nine-tenths ib shlpi ed to Franco, tho United Kingdom and the United States. Cocoanuts almost exclusively to the United States. Most <>f the ginger tc» the ITnltfd Kingdom and United States, in th*- proportion of about two to one. Taking each of the four classes under which Im ports are now arranged, live animals, food, drink and narcotics were valued at £C7»i.3*3. as against £074.094 in 1899. Among anlmala II is lnt.-r.-Hting to note In connection with beekeeping, a rising in dustry which the Jamaica Agricultural Society haa taken great pains to foster, that bees to the value Of £2.G54 were Imported, as against £1.063 In the previous year, while there were no importations in 1S&8. The placing of bees on the free list two years ago has evidently given a stimulus to the industry. Importations of stock, especially of sheep, have decreased considerably, owing, probably, to the heavy duty now laid upon th^m. Farinaceous foods, especially wheat and other meal, also peas and beans, showed a fair Improve ment over last year, while less salt fish and more salt beef and pork were Imported; also a smaller quantity of alcoholic liquors. Importations f>f man ufactured tobacco fell oft from 128,429 pound* to 48809 pounds, and from £11.2:::. to £2.180 In value, while those of tea slightly Increased. There was, on the whole, a diminution In the Importations of luxuries, and an Increase In those of necessaries not locally produced or else not in sufficient quan tity. Raw materials Imported were valued at £75.944, as against £03.286. an Increase of £12,638. Over £10,000 of this is due to the Increased importations of coal, which made up £fi0,369 out of the total of £75,944. Coal for the Lint two years has bt en Im ported In greater quantity from the United States than from the United Kingdom, owing to the ad vantages both In cost and freight offered by the former market. The quantity bought from tho United States was 37.000 tons, in ISSD-1900. as against 24.400 tons from the mother country. Of the manufactured articles textiles were Im ported to the value of £417,454, as against £40.675 in IH>B-'99. Th« influx of cotton goods from th« United States brought to notice by the Collector- General as a characteristic of the previous year was Increased in i-r*io.i -r*io. Thus. .'oti <inH from the States, including hosiery, were valued at £40,829 in 1898-99, and £'(VV"7'< in 1899-1900. Metals Imported were valued nt £153.125, against £230.066 in 1898-'9B, the large decrease being cniefly due to the completion and equipment of the electric car system at Kingston. Lumber Imports diminished greatly both In qual ity and value, pitch pine and whlto pine being valued together at £3-I. SIT, as against £42,206 in l£?8-'99, indicating restricted building operations. Oils, of which kerosene Is the chief. Increased in Imported value from £27.961 to £35,430. XEW A\TI POLICY LAW TO-MORROW. P. NORTON OOr>l>AKP THINKS IT WILL RESULT in rjtuvura tut. shops out op existence- The anti-policy law passed at the last session Of the legislature will go Into effect to-morrow, and T. Norton God.lard, who was largely instrumental in getting the law passed, believes that he will now be able to clean the policy shops out of lite city. The new law makes the possession of policy slips or policy playing paraphernalia sufficient evidence of crime to secure a. conviction. It will bo no longer necessary to catch a man In the act of writing policy or accepting a bet in order to convict him, as at present. The law specifies a maximum Im prisonment of two years and a line. For nearly four years Mr. Goddard has been try- Ing to suppress the policy shops, but the law and the manner of its enforcement have been against him. He feels strongly on the subject. Be said yesterday: I want to clean out the policy shops because policy is the bane of the poor people. It n™** 3 the poor poorer. It destroys their life an.i pre vents them from ever rising above their l" I^' r, .; I mean to clean out the shops and get ray 1 '1' on the coldblooded, despicable tehee who bacK me g Under the new law I believe this will be possible. Under the old law it could not be .lone, because we could arrest only the employes In the shops, aim their sentences were light— generally a small nne, at the most. The backers of the game pal.i th« line and the employes did not care. But now the men arrested will bo imi>ris«Mie<i. an.i men an not like Imprisonment. I believe that when we begin imprisoning the employes they will inform on the men behind the came. If they do not. then v.c will make raids on the backers. , .. m ,n, n I know who they are. I have a list of^ them in my office here now. Unless they take their busi ness out of this State they will certainly be ar rested and Imprisoned. Mr. Goddard thinks that the mere going into effect of the new law will close many of the policy shops without arrests- or raids being necessary. H« believes that the chance of imprisonment will frighten the employes and make them leave the business. '•-•"' -*- ¦ ¦-- Are you loeinf? n«»!-., and feeling generally "run down"? Dr. D. Jayne'n Tonic Vermifuge will correct that. It 1* a. «tr«n«tlw*tver. . • GREAT NAVAL GROWTH. RECORD OF WHAT THE NATIONS OF THE WORLD ARE DOING IX PROMOTING SEA POWER. Washington. Aug. 30 (Special).— The United States Navy annual, "Notes on Naval Progress." for the year ended July 1. 1901. issued to-day, shows with what rapid strides the nations of the world are acquiring sea power and putting them selves In readiness for any contingency that may arise beyond domestic confines. It is a volume of 500 pages, prepared from authoritative sources by the Office of Naval Intelligence, under the expert direction of Captain C. D. Sigsbee. and the thor oughness with which the work has been done in dicates how sharply American officers are watch ing developments abroad among the great colonial powers whose interests may some day clash with those of this continent. A glimpse of the new feat ures which have received special attention is gained from the following extract from Captain Sigsbee's introduction: The question of sheathing ships having been much discussed during the past year, some foreign practice in regard to sheathing Is given. There are presented some excellent records made in coaling foreign ships, and some interesting results of the special training of gun pointers. The discussion of water tube boilers now in progress in England is referred to. with the conclusions reached. Under wireless telegraphy, the tuned and the multiplex systems are discussed, and the Increase in range IS given. Certain European nations, alive to ' the necessity for sea power, have been greatly assisted in securing naval appropriations through the work of navy leagues. The efforts of these so cieties In certain countries have been rewarded by large and steady Increase in naval strength, systems of navy leagues are described. An article on the transportation of the German expeditionary tone to China is given. Also graphic tables which snow- the naval strength of nations compared with the interests which they are expected to protect. From the vast fund of general and detailed in formation collected the following brief abstracts of the various chapters are selected as giving the most comprehensive view of the naval tendencies and accomplishments: CONSTRUCTION ABROAD. The various powers continue active in building up their fleets and the budgets show that there will be no relaxation in the coming year. A large number of vessels have been launched and many have had their trial trips. he list of ships laid down contains all ships that are known to have been laid down, but there are many others that have been authorized and ordered and probably laid down, though informa "2" to that effect has not yet reached this office. There has been no marked change in designs of ships. Proposed changes in armament are the put ting of 11-inch rapid fire guns on board the new German battleships, and twelve 8-inch rapid lire ins on board each of the new Italian battle shliis. The , reconstruction of the German ships of the Siegfried class is going on, and all these vessels will be quite up to date when completed, and tneir efficiency much increased. The subject of submarine boats has been much discussed, and England Is about • to acquire live or this type of vessel France is already committed to their use by planning some forty-two, built, building or proposed. Germany has had the sub ject under discussion, but the latest report is that their efficiency la not yet proved, and that the rnment will await further developments be f"re taking action. Italy is about to resume ex periments with the Delfino. a submarine boat of about 107 tons, built in ISO 6. and. it Is reported has ordered twenty new ones built, while th.- Nor wegian government proposes to add six of these boats to the Beet and has ordered built one of about 120 tons. a design of a submarine boat of " i l JJ l ° tons is under consideration i.v the Swedish government, and It Is reported that an electrically propelled submarine boat is building Tor the Russian Government. Omitting all antiquated vessels and converted auxiliaries, the tonnage built and building of the leading maritime powers is given as follows: _ , Tons built. Bu'Uitnir Knclanil „ 1.275.428 4»1.426 I •'¦•inp* 543.291 '.37.771 ;•""*!* 820.678 222.870 I nltM States 2n>> 910 2!< s ."»7!l Ot-rmany 91.873 HDiV.'.o Ita 'y -J4'.'. 50.422 •'«P»n 215.700 X">.7:V« SHEATHING OF SHIPS. It appears that the practice of sheathing steel ships with wood and copper, which had In recent yean become so common, especially in England. Is on the point of being altogether abandoned; the ex cessive, cost and practical complications due to galvanism and th« difficulty of repairs far offset the advantage gained by the device. Th« Ger mans have found that recent Improvements In antl fouling paint will render it unnecessary to dock a jihlp oftener/ than once a year, and have discon tinued the copper protection. Italy, too. has de dded to sheathe no more hot Unships or armored crulsem. hut will continue to sheathe small vessels destined for distant service, In regard to ordnance and armor the report says: Opinion abroad Is tending to the reduction In the number of calibres, it is the belief that too many calibres, too • lose together, exist. This Idea has be»-n especially agitated In Prance, but has also been expr< >l In England. The multiplication of calibres makes It dtfiV -it In war times to efficiently supply the many classes of ammunition, with their multitude of accessories. It is also recommended In this connection that not more than three classes of guns tie a110w..) on any vessel, and that these be uniform for the same class as far as possible. The British advances In ordnance Include new 1-- Inco wire wound gun* of greater length than the old guns. The guns are being delivered and mounted in the Formidable .-lass of battleships. The new 0.2-tnch guns are being mounted In the Creasy class of armored cruisers. This gun is to be the heaviest weapon carried by tha twenty new armored cruisers of this class; two to be mounted on each vessel. The ".."-Inch rapid tire gun has been successfully tried and approved. The Weiin breech screw has b< en adopted for the 5-Inch rapid tire gun. The old .'.-inch and t>-lnch guns are being converted Into rapid tirers. The efforts of the- Brit ish are being exercised toward a large reserve of guns and ammunition. The magazine rifle is still being developed in sev eral of the navies of the world. Several of the existing rifles have been Improved, and some new ones have arrived at the Issuing period The Boers have established the efficiency of the German Mauser of seven millimetres carried by them. Although several inventions have appeared to adapt the recoil Idea to the revolver, notably the. Fosbery. it appears that revolvers are bring Anally displaced by the magazine pistol, at least for war purposes. Tho German officers are armed with the self loading Mauser pistol, but the Bergmann auto matic pistol is now under trial. The calibre of this arm Is 7.t!5 millimetres: it has a detachable magazine, carrying 10. 30 or 30 cartridges, and has a . ass which, like tha Mauser, forms a stock. At twenty metres It penetrates ll^i inches of iir. It can lira 120 shots a minute, and is of simple, manu facture, easily dismounted and assembled. DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD GUNS. According to the views ot a noted German ex port, the development of modern rapid lire guns for Held artillery is the most important problem confronting the military authorities of all coun tries. It Is said that the British forces in South Africa were on some occasions attacked at range* of over 11.006 yards, and with some effect, so tna the question of Held pieces of greet accuracy on extreme ranges is held to b« Important. A great foreign Held artillery maker said recently that his great aim at present was to construct a field piece Which at 10,000 yards would be capable of attain- Ing a very rapid rate of fire and of placing all the rounds within a 10-motre square; the gun. after recoiling, to return exactly to its position, 6O that little or no sighting should oe necessary. The studies undertaken in Europe to fulfil these conditions have resulted in numerous solutions. Every nation has either recently changed or la now changing Its field piece. It was at the time thought remarkable that -the Boers should have been so well armed but When war was imminent they purchased extensively in Europe. The most heard of field piece, and one which seems to have remarkably demonstrated its efficiency, has been the so-called "poic-pom." This piece Is the 37 millimetre Maxim automatic gun. using metallic cartridges similar to those used in small arms, throwing a shell weighing one pound. TARGET PRACTICE. The, question of good shooting is now regarded as of paramount importance by every nation which possesses warships. Naval battles are decided by the accuracy and rapidity of firing more than by aiiythln* else The accounts of the battle of San tiago and of that of the Yalu show the terrible effect of modern ordnance when the deadly shell finds its mark. Fires are started wherever shells strike the woodwork, and men are driven from their batteries by the hail of projectiles from the guns of the secondary armament. The leading navies of the world are paying- great attention to the subject of target firing, and vari ous plans and schemes are evolved to better the results and also to make conditions conform to those of actual combat on th© sea; actual hits only count, and rapidity of fire figures largely in the result. „ In the French navy long range target practice has been the rule for some time. French officers long ago realized that battle* In the future will not be fought merely at 2.000 yards— the favorite practice range— hut at the very utmost limit. Their idea, according to the technical ipapers. seems to be that it Is doubtful whether ships in the future will ever get inside 2.000 yards, save by accident, that being the torpedo zone and also the zone at which armor is likely to fall: that at 6,000 or 8.000 yards the heavily armored ship will fetl the advantage of her armor, and the fast. lightly protected craft get most benefit out of her speed; and that it is at long range that the lucky shot will be made, and the lucky shot Is not the product of chance so much as of skill. To acquire i that skill, practice is necessary. The navy of Great Britain has held an elaborate series of prize target firings, and the results lira said to show a steady improvement over those of previous years. Telescopic sights have recency been introduced in the British navy, and have much Improved the recent results The entire fleet Is now being rapidly provided with tneso sights. THE ARMOR QUESTION. Thft struggle for supremacy between guns and | armor still continues..* 8tru«l» in which. (h»r* have been many remarkable vicissitudes, the I triumph of the one being quickly followed by such ! improvements in the other as to once more disturb the balance of advantage and urging modern In- ; genuity to renewed efforts. The histories of the I gun and of the armor plate may be sal l to be in separably connected. At present the armor plate ' holds the advantage, but the recent increase of ! Initial velocity of the modern gun shows that armor i makers must continue the race to retain their slight i advantage. The 6-inch armor plate is the ordinary protection of the broadside guns. This thickness of . Krupp armor will now keep out a 6-inch Holtzer ; armor piercing projectile. The change of distribution In the last score of years is well shown by the designs of British bat tleships. The desire has been to increase protec tion, as much as other necessities would permit, by i increasing the length of the broadside belt and i widening It. while at the same time improving the \ protection of the guns and gunners. Fifteen years j ago. the armor protection of a ship consisted of a I short water line belt, which was not greater in ! length than one-third, or about 40 per cent of the I total length of the ship, while the main guns were protected by pear shaped barbettes, the secondary armament having only shields of from two to three Inches in thickness. It will thus be seen that not only was the part above the armored citadel in the centre of the ship unprotected, but also the ends of the ship before and abaft the citadel. This is the main feature of the protection of the vessels of the 1830-'BS date. Then the main belt was increased in length to 65 per cent and in thickness to 18 inches. ¦ and a supplementary armor of 5 inches constructed above the main belt, carrying the armor to the height of the main deck, 6-Inch casements also inclosing the 6-lnch main deck guns, and 6-inch shields for the upper deck 6-inch guns. The next step, upon the introduction of the Harvey armor process, was the use of 9-inch armor for the broadside pro tection, this being found equal to the old 15-inch compound plate: thererore it was found to be possi ble to give a 9-inch broadside armor of 55 per cent length and in height from below the water line to the main deck, with the 6-inch supplemental armor above. In the next stage the side armor was reduced to 6 Inches and extended in reduced thickness to 2-Inch nickel steel to the bow. on account of the liability of the bow being punctured and thus de stroying the handiness of the vessel, and also for the purpose of strengthening the ram. In the latest types the bow armor tapers from 4 inches to 2 inches, while aft there is 1 inch of nickel steel over the shell plating. The 7-inch Krupp cemented steel plate has taken the place of the 9-Inch Harvey plate. EXPLOSIVES NOW USED. In the last few years all the great powers have begun to abandon the nitroglycerine smokeless powders on account of their destructive effect on the bores of modern rifles, and all are tending to some form of nitrocellulose powders. At the pres ent time the powders used by the several govern ments are as follows: Germany uses the nitro cellulose in all guns except field pieces and mortars. France an.l Russia use nitrocellulose entirely. Eng land and Austria use cordite; and Italy and Norway u.-e bali?tite. The initiation of modern explosives has made it possible to more than double the energies of guns as compared with the days of black powder, bring ing into the arena of practical warfare long range lighting by land and sea, such fighting bring ren dered accurate by the use of telescopic sights, range finders, etc. It has also rendered a very great rate of fire possible owing to the smokelessness of the powder, the object fired at being practically visible at all time*. Furthermore, there is practi cally no residue left in the gun. Therefore, as soon as one cartridge Is Bred another can be put in with out the elaborate sponging, etc.. required with the old powders. This also facilitates considerably a rapid rate of fire. These two advantage of higher energies and more rapid rate of tire are due to the Introduction of smokeless powder. In field opera tions, even more than at sea. the strategical ad vantages of smokeless powder are obvious. Since the last annual report there has been lit tle advance in machinery except in further trials o torpedo destroyers driven by turbines with re sults which are thus summer! up: increased speed, efficiency in coal consumption near designed speeds, absence of vibration from main engines. Increased stability, increased safety to engine room force owing to absence of recipro cating parts, perfect balancing of engines, reduced weight* and cost of attendance, smaller diameter of propellers reducing racing in a .«ea way and facilitating navigation in shallow waters, are the principal advantages claimed for the turbine, and they may cause its use in torpedo boats and fast merchant vessels; but the increased coal consump tion at low speeds will probably prevent its use in large vessels of war. where the ordinary cruising is done at about one-half the full speed. Foreign governments continue to use and experi ment with liquid fuel to about the same extent as was reported in the last annual. According to the press the British admiralty Intend to renew their experiments with oil fuel on board the destroyer Surly. Borneo oil will be used, however, as the experiments last year with American petroleum were unsatisfactory owing to th* thick black smoke produced. Th* French battleship Jena has completed very satisfactory trials with liquid fuel. When oil and coal were used In mixed combustion the engines passed from 4.<XK> to 6.500 horsepower in a very few minutes. In April the battleship Kaiser Friedrich 111 ran upon a rock and bulged in the outer plates, in the wake of the "mazut" oil carried In the double bot toms. The oil was forced out through the air re lief pipe and flowed down into the fire room where It caught fire and caused damage requiring re pairs to the extent of nearly a million dollars These compartments were flooded an.l the flames were, smothered under the protective deck The discussion over the relative merits of cylin drical and water tube boilers continues, and espe cially between the various types of the latter class with a notable disposition in all navies to follow t..e> adopted American practice. WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY. The tremendous importance of long distance com munication at sea. especially between warships which have hitherto been wholly unaware of occur rences beyond the horizon, leads the experts of the Intelligence Office to devote much space to the re markable progress of telegraphy through space without wires During the early development of wireless teleg raphy it was soon realized that its use would be largely for maritime and military purposes. The electrical engineers and experts then proceeded with this idea in view and have perfected their in struments for communication between ships, be tween ships and lighthouses and stations on shore, and between islands where the laying of a cable is a difficult operation It is of especial Interest to naval officers, owing to the success with which long distance communication has been maintained ever the water. its great possibilities for navigating purposes and for use on scouting vessels, and Its independence of weather, fog. snow, rain or .lark ness. Great progress has b»en made during the last year, mainly In the following points: tl.> Tuned and multiplex wireless telegraphy. (2.1 In creased distance over which messages can be transmitted. One of the great disadvantages for naval pur poses has been that privacy of messages could not be secured, and in the fact that messages could be rendered unintelligible by working another transmitter within the field of the waves. Mr. Marconi claims to haw succeeded in tuning his re ceiving instruments so that they respond only to tuned transmitters. To prove the success of his system two messages were sent from St. Cathe rine Point, one In English and one in French. The receivers at Foole were connected to the same air wire, about forty feet in length, and each rolled out the message on its tape, that in English on one and that in French on the other. While these experi ments were being carried out. others for the Brit ish Admiralty were taking place between Ports mouth and Portland. These lines of communica tion Intersected each other, but no interference or confusion of messages resulted. When the German squadron, after Its trip out to China, arrived off one of the ports the British ad miral there sent a wireless message for a boarding officer to visit the German flagship and offer the usual civilities. , Upon the boarding officer's ar rival he was informed by the German officers that the message had been read. On another occasion the. officers of an English ship were surprised, while experimenting in the Mediterranean, to re ceive a message In Italian asking as to the position of the ship. This message came from an Italian man-o'-war. and its receipt and the interception of the message mentioned above show the Im portance of tuned instruments for naval purposes. AH of these ships were supplied with the older form of wireless apparatus and were unable to preserve secrecy. These difficulties are now practically overcome, and the extension of the use of various wireless systems amounts to an exciting" race between all the navies and the commercial lines. Among the governments which are establishing systems or contracting for apparatus for naval use are Chili. Denmark. England. France. Russia. Germany. Italy, Japan, Spain and Sweden. POPULARIZING THE NAVY Perhaps the most Important chapter In the vol ume is that describing the navy leagues of Great Britain, Germany. France. Italy and Spain, and making a plea for a similar movement in this country: The Influence of navies on the fate of nations has been growing year by year, until now no na tion, whatever may be its military power or its geographical position, can figure as a great world nation unless it be strong on the sea. To some, of course, this strength is more important than to others. To England it is life. But. no matter what the country, if it falls behind in the race for navul supremacy, it falls behind in the race for greatness. This fact Is realized by all the principal powers, and effort is being made to educate the mass of the people to the same Idea. This task has been undertaken by various navy leagues, and in one country, at least, with marked success. The mod ern navy league Is a comparatively recent institu tion, though we have no trouble In tracing 1 it to ancient history. Athens rose to the zenith of her power after the battle of Salamls— her Trafalgar— and the story of her final fall, caused by neglect to rebuild and reorganize the fleet. Is a story full of instruction to those who read with open eyes. The Athenian fleet that won the battle of Salamls was largely supplied and supported by private con tributions of inaivtdual citizens. But in Rome we have perhaps the first organized navy league and the best example of what a navy league can do. 1-) THEATRES ABE OPE*IJUi. < THEATRES ARE OPKXLXG. I Pictures or popular actors and ' | ai'lrcHrn. .in. l the new plays in ' I which they will be seen. SEE TUB | \ DAY TRIBUXE TO-MORROW. In the year 249 B. C. Roma had already been en gaged for some time in her desperate »trugi?l» with Carthage for the empire of the world, The first part of the war was largely naval, and the Romans were no match for the Carthaginian sail ors. Yet they struggled on, learning lessons by their defeat, until at last the courage of the rulers faltered. In the previous six years they had lost more than six hundred ships of war in battle and storm, and of these nearly two hundred, with eight hundred transports, had been destroyed within th» year. The government gave up. and no effort was made to rebuild their fleet. Then was organized the first navy league. The wealthier patriots of the city leagued together in the year 343 B. C. and built a flVet of 250 battleships on an improved model. These they manned and carefully trained at their own expense, and then presented them to the government. The result is history. On March M of the following ¦ year this volunteer fleet met and destroyed the Carthaginian fleet, and with the fleet the dream of Carthage. To quote Mommsen: •The last great effort of the Roman patriots had borne fruit, it brought victory, and with victory peace." The modern navy league will not likely be called on to build fleets, thougn in some instances they have given material aid. as. for example, the gov ernment of Natal furnishes the British navy an nually with twelve thousand tons of coal free, and Cape Colony is preparing to build a battleship to be presented to the government. But the work of the modern navy league is primarily to educate the people to the needs of a great navy and in that way influence legis'atlon. The expenditure on a navy Sj held to be th.- premium paid on the insur ance of the country, and. in some cases at least, this simile is just. With our appropriation for the next fiscal year of less than ninety millions we pay only about a dollar per capita for this insurance. An Important result of the organisation of navy •cagues abroad is tie increased facilities for recruit ing for the navy, it brings a great many young men .rom inland parts of the country in touch with tne navy and many volunteers for service have re sulted. THE GERMAN NAVY LEAGUE. The Ger-nan Navy I.eaeue. modelled largely after the British, was organized April 30, 1898. Since that time its growth has been almost phenomenal. It has been in keeping with the enormous strides Ger many has made for commercial and maritime su premacy, and in a great measure has been tho cause of those strides. German) has long been con sidered one of the firsr. if do! the first, great mili tary power, but .is a marine power she has ranked only fourth or fifth. Th>s It is realized must be overcome and undoubtedly the standard at which. Germany is aiming to-day ? .. to become as strong as any of her rivals on the sen. But to gain this c™e ™ a preliminary condition must be fulfilled— whole nation must be brought to take an intelligent Interest in its navy, to believe in it and to wort for it. In other words, the nation must be given a naval education. . This, then, Is the work of th* navy league. How well it is succeeding the figures show. The Emperor and the government are strong: supporters of the league, and in nearly every province some German prince it at its head. One can acquire an adequate conception of the) activity of the German league by learning that at it? offices at Berlin forty men are employed la winter .irrl thirty in summer: that every day about 388 letters and 150 parcels are posted; that the con ferences held by its propagandists throughout Ger many reach the enormous figure of 3.000; that 5,000 mutoscopic views have been exhibited in various railway stations of the empire, and that even res taurants and bars have been opened where the at tendants arc dressed as sailors and the walla hung only i with pictures relating to maritime subjects. I he league has laid even jewelry under contribution for its propaganda. Special articles of jewelry have been mads specially for the league: scarf pins. trinket.,, earrings, bracelets and necklaces hava been sold in quantities by German jewellers, who. pay the league a percentage on the right of re production. And Ihu*. even to the very head of the great Con tinental empire, the people— who have never seem the sencenet. who. till a few years ago. had never even dreamed of a great naval power for Germany now speak with enthusiasm and assurance of battleships ar.fl cruisers, of military and naval manoeuvres, both of which they follow with equal interest, and pride themselves as a nation on their great maritime power, which is to be the strongest bulwark of a still "Greater Germany."* The German Navy League can therefor© fully claim to have accomplished Its object: to the State is due the credit of having created a powerful fleet; to the league the credit of having increased that Power and of having rendered it national t The P»enp*l league was organized In 1833. the Italian in 19.'0 and the Spanish this year. Within an incredibly brief period they have stirred ut> patriotism as effectively as if their countries wars engaged in war. ARUY APPOrXTUEXTS. A LARGE NUMBER OF OFFICERS FOR THE ARTIL LERY CORPS. Washington. Aug. 30.— The President made the fol lowing army appointments to-day: Colonel Artillery Corps— JOHN L. TIERNON. Lieutenant-Colonels Artillery — GEORGE. S GRIMES* JOHN M. K. DAVIS. MAJORS ARTILLERY. ALEXANDER B. DYER I ALBERT 9. CTMMTX-v MEDOREM CRAWFORD I HENRY A. REED GRALA.VD N. WHISTLER.! CAPTAINS ARTILLERY. PHILIP it. VTA RD. I ANDREW MOSES. WIN FIELD S. OVERTON. THOMAS Q. ASHBUB.V. MERVYN C. BUCKET. SAM F. BOTTOMS. ERAU D. A. PEARCE. WILLARD D. NEWBILI* ARTHUR S. CONKLIN. | HAROLE E. CLOKE. BENJAMIN M KOEHLER. i SAMUEL C VESTAL. JAMES F. BRADY. [THOMAS H. MINTYRB. H. LA F. APPLEWHITE. RICHARD H. M - MASTER. K. L. CARMICUAEU I FIRST LIEUTENANTS ARTILLERY. GWYNN R. HANCOCK. I ARCHIBALD H SUND3&. DAN T. MOORE. LAND. CLARENCE B SMITH CLARENCE DEEMS. Jr. RUSSELL P. REEDER. RAYMOND H. FENNER, ROBERT F. M'MILLAN. 'C. L. J. FROHWITTER. GODWIN ORDWAY. ! EDWARD P. NONE 3. LYNN S. EDWARDS. | ARTHUR P. S. HYDE. r.EORGE M. BROOKE. I CLIFFORD C. CARSON. HUGH K. TAYLOR. I HARRY E. MITCHELL. GEORGE I»EISS. 1 ERNEST E. ALLEN. ALDEN TROTTER. . | FRED C. DOYLE. SPENCER M. BOWMAN, j PRESSLEY K. BRICEL CHARLES R. LAWSON. ! GEORGE T. PERKINS. G. A. TOCNGBERG. I JOHN MM ANUS. FRANCIS A. POPE. AUGUSTINE M INTYRB. STANLEY B. HAMILTON. JOHN B. MURPHY. WILLIAM P. STOKEY. I FRANK D. EDWARD 3. WM. I. WESTERVELT. I GEORGE R. GREENE. EDWIN G. DAVIS. I ROBERT M ELLICOTT. FREDERICK L. BUCK. THEODORE H. KOCH. JAY P. HOPKINS. I HENRY C. MERRIAM. LEROT T. HILLMAN. I RAYMOND W. BRIGGS. UPTON BIRNIE. Jr. | HARRY C. WILLIAMS. Surgeons, rank of major— EUGENE L. SWIFT. PACT* SHILLOCK. First lieutenants in the Porto Rico Provisional Re^imeß* of Infantry— PAUL WUTTKE. TERENCE HAMILL. SFLF-SArRIFICIS'G JOS I AH Of!' f. HE MAY CONSENT TO LEAD MASSACHrSETTS DEMOCRATS TO DEFEAT THIS FALL. [BY TELEGRAPH TO THB TRIBfME.I Boston. Au;. 30.— Democratic State politics has taken another jump, and a new vista opens before the "distracted minority party. William A. Gaston. after holding the public eye for several weeks as the probable nominee for Governor, is announced as about to bow an 1 retire to make room tor Joslah Quincy. ex-Mayor of Boston. Mr. Quincy Is even, now on the ocean, returning from a protracted stay abroad, and his friends say that such unani mity of support will be spread in array before him on his landing that he will instantly consent to run. Mr. Quincy pops t up as a compromise candi date, and ;;a the best way out of the factional irritation due to the antagonism between Mr. Gas ton and Charles S. Hamlin. XKW BUTCHERS- LAW TO RK EXFORCBD. George Pfaehler. jr.. president of the Tlimi liai— *¦ Association of Retail Butchers, says it is the tB» tention of his association stringently to enforce the new law which goes into effect to-morrow pro- I the sale of uncooked meats on Sunday. The association numbers twenty-.seven hu- - 1 men. every °"c of whom will to-morrow see to tt , that the law is properly enforced. On every swV sequent Sunday. Mr Pfafhler says, there will be seven hundred or f.^ht hundred members of the association looking out for possible lawbreakers. MEN'S HATS.— The •> B«3t "—priced cheaply because we prefer quick sales and lot-- of them. Stylish Alpines, 1.90 and 2.75. Derby S i every new shape i. 1.90, 2.35. 2.75. There is no middleman s profit, which means a saving of a dollar on each hat. THOIIAS E. KtPXER. WILLIAM a DENMARK. kEPNER & DENMARK, LAWYERS, Manila, Philippine Islands. **._..** -* * . Bltti**. ** ~a