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v ot - ifla—.ir 20.159. DANISH ISLANDS CEDED. TREATY SIGNED AT STATE DEPARTMENT. THE T'MTED STATES TO PAY ABOUT $4,.m0n0 FOR THE KET OF THE CARIBBEAN-ISLANDERS TO BE CONSULTED. [BT TELEGRAPH TO THE TRIBUNE.] Wafhinerton, Jan. 24. — The treaty ceding the Danish West Indies to the United States was Fisr.fd at 10:90 o'clock this morning by Secre tary Hay and Constantta Brun, the Danish Min |Bfeer nnd v^ill be transmitted to the Senate next Monday. This consummation of protracted ne gotiation?, which will put the United States in possepsion of the strategic key of the Caribbean and relieve Denmark of a steady drain on her resources, came unexpectedly after hope hc.fl a'. een abandoned. The convention was tally aprepd upon over a month ago in Washington, as announced in The Tribune at the time, but popular opposition developed in Denmark, and until Mr. Brun received authority to sign by cable yesterday fears had become fairly well grour.dfd that the Danish Government would fail to carry out the compact. The convention follows closely the terms of the Treaty of Paris of IS; <S between the United States and Spain as regards the status of the Inhabitants of the island?, their property and citizenship, and it is understood that the compensation to Denmark amounts to $4,500,000. The ratification of the treaty must be delayed until It has had the ap proval of the United States Senate and the Dan ish Rigsdag, and until an appropriation of the purchase money is made by Congress. It Is be lieved that thtse formalities will be completed in the course of a few months, and that the trans fer of sovereignty can be- quickly accomplished. Congress will be asked to legislate for the isl ands along the lines of the Foraker act, and it Is contemplated that eventually the Islands and Porto Rico will have a common territorial gov ernment. It is regarded as a strong point by the fram ers of the treaty that the people of the islands are to have a voice in the question of cession. The treaty kself contains no reference to a plebiscite, but the Danish Government has given notice that before it ratifies the treaty it will submit the question of cession to the people of the islands. Not much objection is expected here from these people, as the treaty is so framed that they are not called on to surrender ihe'.r Danish allegiance, and they may remain Dar.es in fact and in name while enjoying what ever advantaces in a commercial way may re eult from a transfer of the islands to the United States. The plebiscite will not be controlled in any 6ense by the United States. It is said dis tinctly that the Danish Government will take ■teps to ascertain the inclinations of the people of the islands before the final steps in the transrer are taker.. ST. THOMAS. ST. CROIX AND ST. JOHN. DESCRIPTION OF THE ISLANDS CEDED BY DENMARK. The Danish West Indies comprise three islands, St. Thomas, St. John and St. Croix. all within sight cf each other. They cover about 127 square miles, and the population is estimated at about 20,000. Denmark has been . the possessor of the Islands dace 1671,' but they have never been a great source cf revenue, and for many years it has cost Den mark much money in excess of the revenue, to maintain them. Charlotte , Amalie . is ; the largest place on the island of St. Thomas. There are com paratively few whites on the Islands, not more, than 15 per cent of the population. The blacks are of a superior class, and. have the same rights and privileges as the whites. There is no such thing as a color line there. Education is compulsory, and all in*- children, white and black, go to school be tween the ages of seven and thirteen. In the churches there Is also an absence of all distinction M to color, and there is no line drawn in business. Intermarriage between natives and whites is noth ing unusual, and clergymen of the various denom inations never refuse to perform the marriage cere teor.y between white and black men and women. There seems to be a misunderstanding as to the language used by the people in the Danish West Indies. The fact Is that everybody speaks English. ar,d. although the official language Is Danish, Eng lish is used in the schools as well as in the court of Justice. St. Tnomas has little agricultural Importance. A few onions and other vegetables are raised there, but not enough to supply the ten thousand inhabi tants, and nearly everything that is used at the table is sent from this country. Charlotte. Arnalle has a fine harbor, large coal wharves and a dry dock, and among its larger buildings are the gov ernment house and a hotel. The stores arid shops, as well as the houses of the inhabitants are nearly all one story buildings. The old structures are built «f stone, but the modern houses are of wood, and all are of the old Spanish style. The roofs are tiled *n<3 flat, and bo arranged that they shed the rain Into cisterns, where it Is kept for drinking purposes, there being no other water available. On the Island of St. Crolx. Fredericksted and Chrlsiiansted are the chief towns. These places have a population of about one thousand each. They hive stores and shops like those of St. Thomas, and the population is made up of the raise elements. There are Episcopal, Moravian, Catholic. Dutch Reformed and Methodist churches *n<i a synagogue, and there are two Masonic lodges In the island, one French and one English. In each of these there are as many black as white members. One of the deacons in the Dutch Re formed Church is a fullblood negro. Denmark has maintained an army on the Islands ■ about two hundred and fifty men. These are volunteers recruited from the veteran corps in the home country, and sent to the islands for a term of six years. There are thirty-two sugar estates on the Island « St. Crolx. the product of Which goes to one con «*rn in New- York. But in order to protect grow er* who are not in this combination the Danish Government established sugar stations, where growers bring their cane for sale. It is ground In mills, which were built and operated by the Danish Government, and the producer receives pay based on the New- York prices. . A sail of half an hour from the east end of St. Thomas takes one to St. John, which has a popula tion of about seven hundred. There la much grazing kn^l on this island, and with a email Investment Profitable stock farms might be established there. The inhabitant* of this Island are nearly all blacks. The chief judge of the Island fills several other important offices. He la the chief of police, the P&atmaster. the head of the truant school which is fc'ta&ied on the island, and wharf master and cus toi house officer. The police department over * lch he presides has two members. P COMMERCE OF TUB ISLANDS, A report to the State Department Includes the Allowing brief description of the islands: . *t Thomas Is one of the so-called Virgin Islands ■_ latitude IS' 30" north, longitude 66' west. The £VU!atlon Is twelve thousand, nine-tenths of whom . • colored or half caste. The principal industries ita raising cattJe for home consumption, steamers tar ** r "hlpa; also bay rum,, hides, goatskins, etc., Ji? fj^Poru The exports to the United States are (j" 11 compared to the Imports, and the people are cor^ r nt on us for all food supplies, such as flour J«»t«ii. bran, salt, provisions of all kinds, In \Lt'hl tanned meats. fruits, vegetables, etc. All tr£V r . BUca a« hard and white pin*-, spruce and .cornea from the United States. The climate Is. ii?;- During my two and one-half years' resi- V'nd •r'' re n ** been no contagious disease of any I n«rreometer In winter ranges from 70 to S) AT**,!*' and in .- ........ i from 60 to SO degree*, tiv'.^n reeirjenta. five. St. John Is but little .-;;!- EttSSr&i *• Crf 'i*. the largest. Is ferltle and well fian rr, I .' Rising large quantities or sugar and a«.To' r ££" °. which goes to th United States; but "«tnr.a.uiy it has no cafe harbor, whereas St. 1 ontluufd on third pn«-r. fo'4a^° UN ' D! POLAND!! POLAND.!! . . / w «ter, first among nature's remedl«C.— AdvL THE DANISH GOVERNMENT OFTICES. At St. Thomas. JURY BLAMES N. Y. C. OFFICERS. EXONERATES WISKER AXD THE COROXER DISCHARGES HIM—PRESIDEXT NEWMAN TESTIFIES. DISTRICT ATTORNEY IX A WRANGLE WITH FRANK MOSS. We further find that the said engineer. John M. "Winker, OTrinß- to the !i. ni i atmos phere, dne to weather conditions, together with the presence of lnr K p bodies of otenra and ■moke escaping from trains passing? over the various tracks in said tunnel, obscuring said signal, wan unable to locate said danger signal. Wo farther find f unity management on the part of the official* of the Nevr-YorU Cen tral and Hudson River Railroad, and -we hold said ..ill. i : « responsible for the reason that daring: the la*t ten years said officials have heen repentedlj- wnrnod by their loco motive engineers and other employes of the dangerous condition* existing In said tunnel. imperilling; the lives of thousands of passengers, and they have failed to remedy said conditions; and also for the reason that certain Improvements In the way of both visible and nndihie signals could have been Installed, and the disaster thereby have been avoided; and for the further reason that no regulation of speed at vrhlch trains should run In said tunnel linn been enforced, thereby allowing engineers to exercise their own discretion.— FßOM THE VERDICT OF THE CORONER'S JURY OX THE PARK-AYE. TUN NEL, DISASTER. W. B. PARSONS TESTIFIES. SATS AX OFFER MADE BY THE RAPID TRANSIT COMMISSION WAS DE CLINED BY THE CENTRAL. I The State Railroad Commissioners, Colonel Ashley "W. Cole, Colonel George "W. Dunn and Frank M. Baker, yesterday continued their In vestigation of the Park-aye. tunnel disaster, holding a long session In Parlor DR of the Fifth Avenue Hotel, and examining several witnesses. Without completing the investigation they an nounced an adjournment to next Wednesday. One of the witnesses who save testimony : which the Commissioners seemed to regard as Important was William Barclay Parsons, chief engineer of the Rapid Transit Commission. While he said he had made no technical ex amination of the tunnel in Park-are., he ex pressed his belief that the tunnel might be made safe and comfortable for travel, either by re moving the top and making it an open cut or by abandoning steam and substituting electric ity as the motive power. Air in the tunnel, he said, was constantly viti ated, and no scheme of forced draught ventila tion would help matters. Bo far as he had ob served, the system of signals in use in the tunnel was about as good as any he had ever seen, but he added: "So long as you Introduce the hu man element, a signal system like the present will prove at times ineffective." Q.— you aware of the character of the pro posed Improvements decided on by the New-York Central? A.— Only in a general way. Q.— Would this plan be a desirable one? A.— Yes, it would be a step forward. Q.— Would it reduce the burdens of operation 50 per cent? A. Yes, it would. The liability of danger, the witness said, would be reduced one-half, too. He spoke of the pres ent plans for the rapid transit road, and of the efforts to have the New-York Central practically operate the subway. The plan, he said, involved rights beneath the property of the New- York Central, and more particularly beneath the Grand Central Station. He said an offer was made by the Rapid Transit Commission, but it was declined by the New-York Central people, both in writing and verbally. The reason given for not desiring to enter into any compact with the commission was that the New-York Central people did not wish to give away rights beneath their property that might subsequently interfere with their expansion. Mr. Parsons said the Rapid Transit Commission reserved the right to build an East Side line under Its own control at some future time, and that if such a line were built and made to connect with the main line in the neighborhood of Thlrty-nlnth-st., then it would not be feasible to connect with the New-York Central's proposed suburban loop. Mr. Parsons thought danger existed at all times on railroads, and in tunnels, particularly where steum or vapor existed. For this rea son he admitted that danger would lurk in the centre tunnel even after the proposed improve ment went into effect, as through trains would be run through the centre tunnel with steam power. For steam locomotives, he said, he was in favor of a dark tunnel, as he believed it would be far more satisfactory to engineers than a lighted one. Superintendent Platt. of the New-Haven road, was asked if he knew of any case where fires were fed with soft coal when the engines were in the tunnel. He declared that he knew of no such case, that the engines were not fired in the tunnel, but were "coked" before leaving the Grand Central, and after leaving Woodlawn, according to the rule of their roads. William P. Appleyard, master car builder of the New-Haven road, exhibited blue prints of the cars wrecked on January 8 In the tunnel. He described the construction of the cars, and how the shock of collision was distributed. "To my mind," said the witness, "there was an im pact in that collision of ."iOO.OOO pounds from a train gblng twenty miles an hour." The witness said no car could have withstood such an impact, although he admitted that with coaches constructed of steel frames, the loco motive might not have been able to make- so I complete a telescope of the car. William N. Folger, United States Lighthouse Inspector at Tompkinsvil!e, testified that the lighthouses had lights that could be Feen for a ' distance or six or seven miles. He said there ' were times when smoke made the atmosphere more dense than an ordinary fog. He said he thought the rays of an oil lamp would penetrate a fog better and for a longer range than a lamp run by electrical power would. NEW-YORK. SATURDAY. JANUARY 25. 1902. -SIXTEEN PAGE£L-.,»SS&US THE CLOSE OF THE INQUEST. DISTRICT ATTORNEY JEROME SH-.WS UP NEWMAN ON RESPONSIBILITY IN CENTRAL MANAGEMENT. Th* coroner's Inquest to fix responsibility for the Park-aye. tunnel disaster of January S ended yesterday with a verdict which practically ex onerated John M. Wisker. the engineer who ran the Harlem train past danger signals, and placed responsibility for the death of seventeen pas sengers in the New-Haven train upon unnamed New- York Central officials, as toM In the fore going. The verdict was announced at f>:.'ir. p. m. In formal language the verdict declared at the outset that William Leys, one of the victims of the disaster, came to his death by a fracture of the skull on January 8, when ho was a passenger In the rear car of the New-Havoa tniin in the tunnel, because the locomotive of the Harlem train controlled by Wisker ran into an-1 partly demolished the car. The verdict declared that the collision was due to the failure of Wisker to stop his locomotive at the danger signal at Fifty-nlnth-Bt., which was set properly and in dicated that the New-Haven train was in the block. Then followed the passages quoted in full. After th«» verdld was read the members of the Jury, answering to their names, all declared that they agreed to it. Coroner Scholer thanked the Jurors and discharged them. Th<? coroner then discharged Wisker and K. C. Frier, Wisker's fireman at th<- tinin of the accldr-nt. Both had been held in bail, Wisker In .?lo.<KK) and Fyler in $8,000, to await the result of the Inquest Fyler was present when the verdict was an nounced, and the coroner discharged him first. Wisker Lad gone to his home, accompanied by his wife, soon after the jury retired to agre" upon a verdict. Frank Moss, his counsel, reply ing to a question by Coroner Scholer, said he could not produce Wisker last night, but that ho would produce him in the morning, if he was wanted. "But on this verdict," Mr. Moss continued, "I move that his bail be discharged." "That Is Just what I intended to do," replied the coroner. "Whisker Is discharged." Mr. Moss was in a happy frame of mind. "It was a righteous verdl' t." was all that he would say by the way of comment. Coroner Fcholer was asked whether he con templated the arrest of any official of the New- York Central. lie said: "Under the verdict rendered, I can take no such action. It is now up to the District Attorney to take Ruch action as he may think proper. It was a very intelli gent Jury nnd a good verdict." District Attorney Jerome had left the Criminal Courts Building when the verdict was rendered. REPORTS DESTROYED. When the coroner's inquest was resumed yep t> rday morning Joseph EL Franklin, the New- York Central's superintendent of terminal, was recalled to the witness stand and asked about reports of engineers about running past .signals in the tunnel previous to 1901. He had been asked to bring such reports to the inquest, but he said they had been destroyed. District At torney Jerome spoke of the presentment made by the grand Jury after the tunnel accident in 1801 that the signal system in the tunnel was inadequate, and asked: "And still you destroyed the records which could show whether the changes made subse quent to the presentment had remedied the evil?" C. C. Paulding, of the New-York Central's law department, objected to a question that might tend to put such a construction upon the fact that reports of engineers had been destroyed. Mr. Jerome said: "I want to show that these records were de stroyed in order to conceal whether the new sig nal system was as deficient as the old one. And Continued on third |m»f. POLAND! POLAND!! POLAND!!! Bottled at the Famous Poland Scrlng, Me.— Advt. THE TOWN OF ST. THOMAS. DANISH WEST INDIES. DEATH BLOW TO OLD BOWERY. CROSS MAKES MANY RAIDS OX ITS LOW RESORTS—EX CITED THOUSANDS WATCH. BEGINNING OF PLAN TO MAKE STREET RESPECTABLE. Raids were made last night on more than half a dozen notorious resorts In the Bowery by nearly one hundred policemen under Inspector Cross. Thirty-two prisoners were taken. All the ijesorts are in the Eldridge-st. precinct. It ha 3 been many years since the Bowery has seen before such excitement as that of last night. That thoroughfare was crowded with thousands of people, squads of policemen, a dozen detec tives and three patrol wagons. Patrol wagons w*-rr- backed up against the resorts, and before the people inside were aware of what was tak ing place, they found themselves under arrest. The large number of the policemen prevented any outbreak of violence, and there was little difficulty in getting the prisoners to the EM rldge-st. station. The raids Indicate the doom of the old Bowery, for they are said to be the preliminary step to the thorough cleaning out of that famous thoroughfare. The places on which raids were made are at Nos. 1. 9, 18. 2.1. 119 and 121 Bowery and No. 308 Broome-Bt. In nearly every raid the pro prietor of the resort was arrested. The women found In the places were also bundled into the patrol wagons and driven to the station. The first step toward this campaign was taken on January i. when Commissioner Partridge issued a general order to inspectors and cap tains to clean out and exterminate ail low places in the city. This order was repeated a few weeks ago, and then a plan of action was de ci'lfHl upon. Captain Walsh'p precinct takes In the lower part of the Bowery, the district most infested with crime .and certain kinds of vice. Inspector Cross, who was In command of the Eldriiige-st. station years ago, knew well that the lower end of the Bowery should be first cleaned up, and, accordingly, the plan of action centred there. In many cases It has been almost impossible for the police to get evidence against these re sorts, but great precaution was taken last night in conforming to the law, with the result that the attack on vice was successful. CONSULTED WITH JKROMB. ■To avoid any friction Inspector Cross had consulted with District Attorney Jerome, anil the latter had heartily indorsed the plan of ac tion mapped out. With his approval detectives an 1 plain clothes men from the Kldridge-st. station went to Kssex Market police court yesterday morning and obtained warrants for tho arrest of the proprietors of the resorts and the women who frequent them. For the last two weeks detectives have been practically doing nothing but getting evidence against these places, and it was so strong in each case that Magistrate Zeller, in the Essex Market court, readily issued the warrants. The evidence was corroborated, approved by Mr. Jorome and the raids resulted. Inspector Cross displayed good generalship in mapping out the course pursued by the police men and the detectives. The uniformed policemen wore divided into seven squads, each squad under the command of a sergeant and a roundsman. With each squad there was a detective, or plain clothes man, who had the warrants for the proprietors and the inmates of rcsnrts. The patrol wagon of the Eldridge-st. station left shortly after 9 p. m., loaded with policemen. It drove to No. 1 Bowery, backed up to the curb, and the policemen then surrounded the place. A detective entered, found the reputed proprie tor, Thomas licarman, thirty-eight yean old, of N'u. !M Juhnson-st., Brooklyn, and then sig nalled the policemen to enter. Everybody in the place was taken completely by surprise. Before they had time to stir from their seats they were prisoners. The men who were in the place were driven to the street, and three women arrested. The wagon then drove to No. 9, where William McJLaughlin, twenty-nine years old, of No. 47 Catherine-st., was charged with being the proprietor. He and four women were taken in that place. MORE PATROL WAGONS ARRIVE. Mean time the patrol wagons of the Oak and Madison sts. stations were working down the Bowery and cleaning out the places that had been marked out. At No. IS Bowery, which is known as "The Lit tle Atlantic Garden," three women were taken, bet the proprietor escaped. At No. 'Si three women were arrested, and at No. 119, which is known as "Little Jumbo." the alleged proprie tor, Joseph White, thirty-five years old, of No. M Madißon-st., and five women were arrested. Flynn's saloon, said to be one of the most notorious that has ever existed in the Bowery, was next visited, and the proprietor, William J. Flynn, twenty-three years old. of No. 57 Sutton Place, and five women, were taken to the station. Aii'ther ptaoe, at No. MM Broome-st., was en tered, and the alleged proprietor. Morris Du binskv.. thirty-eight years old. of No. iaS For POLAND! POLAND!! POLAND'!! Greatest Natural Medicinal Water Known. -Advt. sythe-st., was captured. Three women were ar rested in his place. THESE PLACES LANDMARKS. The majority of these places have been land marks in the Bowery for many years. Most of them have been known as places where "crooks" congregated. The places were all dives, the po lice say, and were frequented by the worst classes ' of men and women. The police have been handicapped time and time and again in getting evidence against these places, for many of them have been run by politicians who. if raids were made, would antagonize the police and make it warm for the captains. Some of these resorts were the most repulsive in the city. In the front were saloons, where the worst kind of liquors and beers were served. Walking along the Bowery, one could hear the sound of a piano and the yells of the revellers in the rear. In spacious rooms were scores of men and women seated around tables drinking. . Young girls not out of their teens drank with men and smoked cigarettes In these places. Many of these girls were lured from good homes. ' ALL NIGHT REVELRY. These places have kept open all night, and the revelry has kept up until after daybreak. Anybody who looked "all right" could enter through the side door to the rear room when the festivities were at full height. Women, the police say, robbed the men who visited these places, and paid the proprietor or the manager for the privilege of "turning the trick." Inspector Cross, at the Eldridge-st. station, looked after the arraignment of the prisoners who were brought in. He said: We have made bona fide raids, but we took our time about it. With the evidence we obtained we could have made two hundred arrests and made* a bigger display. But this Is just the preliminary, and the old Bowery Is doomed, for we mean to clean it from end to end. Every disreputable Joint will be exterminated, for there is nothing to save them. If the policy Commissioner Partridge has out lined is carried out in a very short time the Bowery will no longer have atractlons for sight seers, as it will be as clean as most other streets in the city. Inspector Cross said that he would ask the courts to break the licenses of the pro prietors of these resorts. A year ago Captain Walsh made raids on the Bowery, and took 183 prisoners. The evidence was good, the prisoners were held, but they were released on writs. No matter how many arrests were made, the resorts would be in full blast the following night. Backed, it is said, by political heelers and ward politicians, the places ran In defiance of the police. M ' CA L L FOR RECIPROCITY. CONCESSIONS TO CUBA WOULD NOT HARM THK BUR SUUAR IN DUSTRY, HE SAYS. Washington. Jan. 24.— The Republican mem bers of the Ways and Means Committee are be ginning to line up for the fight over Cuban reci procity. Representative McCall. of Massa * husetts, is the first to declare himself openly in favor of reciprocity. He made the following statement to-day as to his position: Our beet sugar industry is a rapidly growing one. and should not be injured, but it Sr-enis clear that it would not be affected at all by a mod erate reduction in the duties on Cuban sugars. So long as we import, in addition to Cuba's « rop. ■ great m:iss of sugar, paying the full duty, raw Cuban sugar in New-York will bring the foreign or Hamburg price with freight and full duty added. Either that or there would be two prices for the same grade of sugar in the same market. The full benefit of a moderate reduction would inure to the Cuban producer. The prime ground for a concession is not to secure an increased trade, but that we may in augurate the new Cuban government under the most favorable auspice*. The success of the little republic la highly Important to ourselves. It will mark the noblest result of the war with Spain, and also aid us to solve righteously our insular problems In another part of the world. flliAX DELEGATES IN WASHINGTON. Washington, Jan. 24.— F. De P. Machado, J. F. Jiminez. Octavio J. Smith and J. A. Piedra. a delegation of Cubans engaged in the production of sugar, have arrived in this city to present the existing conditions in Cuba to the authorities of the United States, especially the Ways and Means Committee, and to do all they can to ob tain a reduction of duties on Cuban sugar and tobacco. They had a conference with Secretary Root, at the War Department, to-day, and thanked him for the efforts he has made to se cure trade concessions to Cubu. ISRCLY CA\APIA\ TROOPERS. Halifax. N. S.. Jan. 24.— The military authorities declare that the reporta sent out from, here that a number of the Canadian Mounted Riflemen had planned to mutiny on the passage to South Africa are not Justified. It is admitted that the discipline at the concentration camp is very strict and that there have been murmurlngs among ' the men against it. but the officers do not anticipate serious trouble. Up to date it 1.-4 said that fifty-six men have been given their discharges, many of them f..r minor offences, and last night nine troopers wan placed under arrest, but they were paroled to-day The commanding officers state that they expect no trouble on shipboard, and declare that strict db. i-ipline will be maintained. YORK COMMANDFRV BALL. Full report In Masonic Standard iu»d i\ News dealers. Five cents.— Advt. PRICE THREE CENTS. THE RECIPROCITY FIGHT. BEET SUGAR LOBBY GROWING DESPERA FR DESPITE ITS EFFORTS, HOWEVER. CON GRESS WILL PROBABLY GRANT CONCESSIONS TO CUT. A [BT TILEGRArH TO THE TRIBCX*.! Washington. Jan. 24.— Increasing desperation en the part of the beet sugar magnates charac terizes the closing hours of the hearing by the Hous? Ways and Means Committee on the sub ject of tariff concessions to Cuba. To-day tnehr lobby promulgated a story to the effect that the sugar manufacturers favorable to liberal con cessions to Cuba were anxious to •compromise," but the magnates indignantly had declined to consider the proposition, and had about Induced HM Ways and Means Committee to agree to re port a bill for the abrogation of the differential duty on refined sugar. The differential tariff is the extra duty between raw and refined sugars, established originally for the protection wt American refiner. Including, of course, the beet refiners. The beet men are now saying that tile measure, designed in part for their protection, has proved their undoing, as according to their statement it has enabled the American Sugar Refining Company to get more for its product In the East than in the West, which should from their point of view belong to them. If this differential is removed, the beet root people de clare, the Sugar Trust can no longer control the market. Continuing their argument along this line, they assert that the proposed abrogation would benefit the Cubans, as it would enable Cuban sugar producers to sell their clarified yellow sugars in this market if the trust endeavors to beat down the price of the raw product. They assert that Cuban sugar growers can make clarified yellow sugar very easily, and thus es tablish a new industry. This new move, how ever, has had no appreciable effect upon the situation. The fact seems to be that it has only confirmed the belief among the members of the Ways and Means Committee that conces sions can be made to Cuba without doing: In jury to any Industry in the United States. Moreover, it appears certain that the greater light being thrown upon the beet root industry In this country only tends to multiply the grow ing doubts in the minds of Representatives and Senators of the adaptability of that industry to American labor conditions. DEBASING AMERICAN LABOR. It has been shown that the tendency of the industry is to debase American labor in a di rect way. The cultivation of the beet root re quires a class of laborers that are not native to the country, or else it demands that the farmer put his wife and children In the field to do the work. If he should employ the labor at hand, the cost of production to him would reduce his profits to the vanishing point. This condition is met by the beet root lobby with the statement that the crop is such that the women and children can easily be employed by the farmers to cultivate it. It is a well known fact that the great bulk of the labor that produces beet roots in Germany and other countries where the industry has be»n encouraged i 3 per formed by peasant women and children. The labor is not sufficiently remunerative, even in Europe, to attract grown people who are not paupers. It goes without saying that this system of child labor can never become established or popular in the United States. In Isolated cases American farmers may keep their children from, school to till the soil, and in other cases the American farmer may compel his wife and daughters to work in the fields, but this custom does not long prevail in any community. I even if families should he brought from France and Germany to cultivate beet roots. It would not be long before these people would become sufficiently Americanized to discard the Euro pean system of child and woman labor In the | fields. It is. therefore, suggested, as a natural outgrowth of the establishment of the beet root industry on an extensive scale in the United States, that eventually cheap labor would be imported from China and other parts of the Orient to keep the cost of production down to a basis of profit for the farmer. It has been In disputably demonstrated by experience that ma chinery cannot be introduced into the cultiva tion of the beet crop. The bulk of this work must continue to be done by hand. The laborer engaged in it must get down on his knees to perform the most of his task. It is pointed out that in this day of the sulky plough, the riding cultivator, the harvester and the other numer ous forms of machinery employed in American agriculture, the farmer? of the United States cannot be induced to revert to the hard methods of their early ancestors in raising a crop that brings small profit to them at the sacrifice of self-respect and large profits to the manufactur ers, who reap all the benefits of the tariff pro tection afforded by the government. Experts frankly avow that the only solution of the labor problem in the beet root industry in this country is found in the hope of an ultimate repeal of the Chinese exclusion laws, so that a horde of coolies may bo brought here to tm the work that the American farmer wH not consent for his wife and children to perform. DUTIES LIKELY TO BE REIMVEP. At the same time, there is no disposition in Congress to interfere in any way with the pres ent employment of women and children in the beet root fields of the West and New fully realizing that such employment is only a temporary fad in scattered communities, and that it will soon run its course. Nor is there any disposition in Congress to injure the beet r<.ot industry by adverse legislation. On the contrary, Congress still desires to encourage tike industry, in order that it may be amply in the United States. But Congress is not yet convinced that a substantial reduction in the Pinsley rates on Cuban sugar will do the least harm to th^ beet root business, and consequently it is entirely safe to predict that provision will be made for this reduction at the present ses sion. ANOTHER SUGAR HEARING. PLEAS FOR AND AGAINST RECIPROCITY* WITH CUBA. Washington, Jan. 21.— The Cuban reciprocity hear ings were resumed to-day before the Ways and. Means Committee with a large attendance of those representing the beet and cane sugar, tobacco and other interests opposed to concessions to Cuba. The attitude of the Hawaiian sugar planters, op posing concessions to Cuba, was presented by Will iam. Haywood. formerly United States Consul Gen eral at Hawaii, and now representing the planters and the Chamber of Commerce of Hawaii. In the course of his statement he said: Hawaii is cot opposed to Cuba being assisted If Congress, in Its wisdom, decides that the United States la morally responsible for Cuba's welfare. To give to Cuba a free market for her sugar will be to give an alien people just as much advantage as American citizenship gives to Hawaiian* and the extra advantage of not being obliged to conform to the stringent laws regarding labor and immigra tion. With annexation Hawaii lost her best source of labor supply— The islands are so isolated that labor does not naturally come to Hawaii bat must be sought. 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