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New-York tribune. (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, May 24, 1903, Image 26

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r« the Editor of The Tribune.
Plr: Paterson. th« third city of New-Jersey, stands
rre-eminent as a h:ve of industry. From its earli
r?t settlement up to tli. present day Its fame as a
manufacturing city has not been hampered, and
Jrom far away France a name has been wafted
over the wavinc billows, and now whenever spoken
of Paterson is called "The Lyons of America
J'aterson had as its founder a man of letters, a
valiant soldier for his adopted country's cause, and
■who. mi doubt, would have risen to the highest
office in the land had not a bullet from Aaron
Burr sped him on to death. That man was Alex
ander Hamilton, one of the greatest Federalists of
his day. the friend and counsellor of Washington
and the father sf our financial system. Hamilton
was born hi the W<st Indies, and after his arrival
In New-York recognized that the young republic
had natural resources which, If taken advantage
of. would result In lame and fortune. His keen
«=yee saw the possibilities that lay in the vast sup
j ]\ of water power, and his first move was to or
ganize a society of prominent men upon whom be
could depend to give their time and money to mak
tnt the almost barren wilderness useful for manu-
IsWlsMlns. purposes. This society was called "Th«
Society fer Establishing Csefol Manufactures."
Th«- legislature looked favorably on this new so
liUJ. and on November 22, IHI, the ompary was
Incorporated. Its capita! stock was put at JIOO.OOO,
»nd it was permitted to hold $4,<K"J,000 In real estate.
Tho building u;> of the city of Paterson commences
from this day.
It is. however, related thai the finft white settler
within the boatndary of the city was one Simeon
Vau Winkle, who is credKed w ; th coming here in
37iS. i; Van Winkle was prominently identtted w^th
the building of the city under •"The S. C. M.," hi.=
tory does not recount it.
Alexander Hamilton ■jfsjM have justly claimed
tho honor of naming the city after himself. But he
<Vi>} not. The charter given h!m to incorporate thc
ko, iety v.-as plgned by Governor William Paterson.
and after him was named the new settlement. The
first step of the society was to make use of the
great volume of water which fell from the Passalc
]\i!ls, the miniature Niagara of America. Channels
or raceways wen constructed, and the water beds
which run through the northwestern portion of the
city are monuments of the great and laborious, as
well as expensive, work accomplished in those early*
The population hi to-day approximately 110,000
iniiabitantj- and the. city covers an area of eight and
'.-half square miles.
The Srk BaUroad, the Delaware. Lackawanna
aj:d Western Railroad and the New- York, Susque
iiatina and W« -!■ Railroad furnish splendid facil
ities for transportation; the fastest trains, of which
th. re sn a gr*at number, consume but twenty-live
minutes m reaching New-York City, and thousands
of commut<rs have taken advantage of these ex
<-ellent facilities. The rreight rates between Pater
son and iew-Tork and other points are very low,
and commutation rates to New-York for passen
gers amount to about $T> per month, allowing the
holders of the tickets one ride each way for every
cay i;. the month.
The electric railway system is of modern date.
• The .Main-it. lir,« extends through Pasaafc to the
. CJarfkld Bridge and to Newark, the Oranges, Jersey
City and Elizabeth: another line rtei da from
Singac to ETobolten. a distance of fifteen miles; the
'•ntire electric system \f under the control of the
.fersey City, Jloboken aiid Paterson Street Railway
Patersoii has been remarkably free from con
tagiorj. und th-; eo"rl health of its people Is a
mtume of mucb pride. The city iias provided an
:s-olatio:i hospital for the treatment of contagious
diseases. This hospital is situated on the itskirts
■ of the city, and thus presents a proper place foi the
. treatment of contagion, protecting the community
from the spread of any disease and. at the same
■ rime affording the patient the best possible care to
effect a cure.
The tax rate is t2 5« on a two-third to three-quar
ter valuation, and the assessed \aiuation In lf««l
. »as *49.0J3,70b. The city has expended $521,tt>) for a
Dew city ha!l aj;d has IS9JDM invested in public
school buildings. Th»- city's obiisatlons have al
ways been promptly met, and our bonds are eagerly
sought after by various financial - itiona The
| Sinking Fond Commission, aiced for the pur
j.-ose of takhig up maturing bords Issued for perma
nent street work, has already acquired a large
♦ialanee; and in this way the bonded indebtedness of
the city will be eventually greatly reduced.
Paterson can well feel proud of 2t-s king Insti
tutions. They stand to-iiay on a par with any
financial houses in the United States: we have thr'
national banks aiid hix safe deposit and trust com
panies doing business in the city.
Paterson is distinctly th" silk city of America by
vittne of the number of its mills and the extent of
„ i'_s output. Here fume «.f the earliest and iTKrst
determined <ffort>s at silk working were made.
The history of --iik working in Paterson is largel '
:he history of the American industry, for from th:s
<fTitre of activity came forth many of the men
1 v.fco carried the growing industry to other cities.
The number of Mlk establishment! in Paterson to
day U approximately, ■ *•• hundred, with an invest
ed capital of 55.00Q.00Q. The number of operatives
•■-mployed is about twenty-eight thousand and the
r.nnual wages paid nearly 512.000.0UQ.
In addition to the silk industry we have three
• other very large industries — cotton, flax and iron.
The age of the iron industry dates from .". and m
* Ihll was established the Bog< r> Locomotive Works,
•o-day one oT the best known of its Und in the
United States. The Cooke orks. which are now
operated by the American L'Kromotive Company.
■ iiave a capacity of one finished locomotive per day.
The Passaic R:\er rOn« through the city, and is
navigable lrom the Dundee Dam to the Broadway
Mridt; From low the dam to New- York Harbor
. the United states Government has expended large
sunib of moiMV to make the river navigable. A
survey <jf the river has l>een made by T'r.lted States
«-cgineers, who have pronounced the work of mak
'T.p the river Bavsjahta to the heart of this city
reasllile. 'and have recommended it* being done as
sasa as the suit now before the State court* to de.-
Hde the rights of the public to navigation through
the Tnir.dee Canal, from Passalc to Dundee Lak», is
]ina!lv determined.
The people of Paterson embrace all classes, from
the sturdy mechanic to the well-to-do business
man. In the • '.. m eectlon of the city many hand
<-"rr»'" residences are found, while fiats arid tene
ment houses are fitted up to meet the demands of
ftM wb^«- «-arti«-r« at a cost ranging- from US M
SaO per month. The cost of living is moderate, and
i* flu" undoubtedly to the close proximity to the
New- York *rark«ts. t»n market days — Tuesday,
Thursday and Saturday— a larce numn*-i of farm
ers oriv to the dty and plate on *ale a great
rariety of foodstuffs and products of the soil at a
prire within the reach of hI!
The public school system of Paterevon has been
pronoun<-ed by distinguished educator* to b« the
•<jual of sny i.-i the country. We have twenty
*ch<x<! buildings, including a normal and a high
school, with tt Keating capacity of ii,of«). The pub
lic school system Is under the jurisdiction of the
CV-umlssloners of Public Instruction, and is divided
rs follows: Primary. gTammar. hlirh, normal and
■nanua.) trainiJCg. Kindergarten cUuntes axe atUch«4
to the primary department. The Catholic choots
are another important branch of the city's his
tory Th'\-f schools are under the immediate super
vision of the priests of the church to which the
schools are attached. St. John's Farochial School
is one of the oldest of the cltv. The Brothers? of
the Christian Schools are in charge of the high-r
grades, while the primary departments are und' r
the care cf the Sisters of Charity.
There are seventy places of worship in the city,
embracing all the prominent Henomlnations.
Paterson has two parks, of which her citizens
feel Justly proud. They are unequalled, in size and
natural advantages, by the parks of any city in
the country of similar eize and population. East
side Park "consists of 60.42 acres and cost the city
$75 00) The park occupies a commanding situation,
and from It can be enjoyed an unobstructed view
of Bt-rgen County, until the eye reaches the Pali
sade Mountains. Looking westerly and southerly
the view covers the whole of Paterson and the ter
ritory lying between it and the Oranges. est
side Park consists of thirty acres a:.d the site
C '*n February 9of last year Paterson'a entire husl
ness centre was wiped out by the largest tire the
East had ever known. Fifty-nine city blocks fell a
prey to the flame?, and scarcely had the tir»- sup-
Bided v-h- n tn* Passalc River, swollen by an early
thaw, overflowed Its banks, and the entire north
en section of the city was completely inundated.
Scores of people were rendered homeless, and the
country at large hastened to extend aldto our grief
stricken people: but a proper spirit of pride and
independence prevailed, and all offers of outside
aid were respectfully declined. The restoration of
the city was immediately commenced and dunns
the past year upward of IMM.6M has been expend
ed in Tiew : buildings, which sum represents approxi
mately what was paid Cor losses by the various
insurance companies, it Is conceded that a large
amount of property destroyed by Ore and flood was
not Insured, bo that the total loss by these two
elements February a year ago can be safely put at
$10,000,000 New building contracts are being made
daily and by the expiration of the present year
even' vestige of ground in the burned district will
be built upon and the complete restoration ol the
city aecomplisfu
Paterson. b^ing distinctively a manufacturing
city has at different times in t*ie past been ta-
Fc-r'ne of strikes and many demonstrations between
capital and labor; however, with suitable laws that
have Just been enacted, enabling employer and
eir-plo>e to irbitrate their grievance In Btrxke mat
ters, fabor troubles should not occur again In this
cit v*
Arr.nnz the finer buildincs of the city might be
mentioned the new City Hall, new County Court
House <jus=t completed at a cost of $359,000). Post
office First National Bank. Second National Bank,
rnited Bank Building. Hamilton Trust Company,
Hamilton Club and several laree derartment Mores.
The late Garrei A. Hoburt, Vice- President of the
United States was a resident of this city and did
much to advance Its Interests. Ex-Attorney Gen
eral 'Jrigz.s slfo • Fides here.
Paterson has many miles of permanently im
proved street* and the drives In the Buburbs over
macadam highways are delightful.
A Great Silk Dyer, and the Monumental
Works His Genius Reared.
The people of these United States, tl.c most in
dependent thinkers and tne least precedent tram
meiied of all the earth's fifteen hunUreO million.-.
are yet bovnd— to an extent— by tradition. In the
very moment of outstripping the civilization that
gave birth to a particular idea >r industry, they
>•:• -as to a superior— an inferior's unquestioning
respect and deference, and only when the outside.
world turns to them, v to those who havex-chieved
the. leadership in a given fk'ld of human endeavor,
do they awaken to the fact that they have sur
passed what they have been accustomed to regard
as the standard. Thus, long after they thtm
selves were making the best cut glass, Lhey were
asking In the stores for "tiie European"; long after
they were making the most elegant and tasteiiil
Jewelry, they were seeking "the French"; lansr
after they w.-re manufacturing the best silks they
would buy only that labelled "imported": , ■.
And when, eventually, they do recognize their
own superiority, they, like the rest of the world,
are slow to place the credit for their triumph
where it justly belongs.
To-day we lead the world In the silk industry;
that Is. while abroad they produce some superior
fancy fabrics, we, on the whole, make better goods
— ours are fully as good in appearance, and w«-ar
better than those made abroad— as we <;<• better
looms and better "throwing" machines; and yet,
although our women ar. now taking the goods on
their merits, without asking If they are foreign or
domestic, no one has traced to it- true source
the secret of our sueecaa -the supremacy <■! Amer
ican dyen the achievements of whom have
eclipsed thi ag^-taught methods of their foreign
competitors. They are the quiet, Inconspicuous
forces that have enabled our silk manufacturers
to wipe out tr;i.ilt:i>'t. and to make "American
.•-iiks" at least equal oompetitora with th>; for
<ig:; products.
The colors of the artl '-•!;.■ are to the woven
silk what the clay image of th< sculptor is to the
marble effigy hewn by the artisan. . Lacking the
Initial artistic Inspiration, the machine's product,
like th< artisan's handiwork is dull, cold and an
attractive — shapeless noi worthless, 'tis true,
but lifeless; for the d>. is the iif. the spirit, of
the silken fabric. The silkworm spins the cocoon
nature; tli- "throwing" mach!n« spin: the thread
and the loom weaves the fabric— mechanics; the
dyer gives light, and life, a.nd color— art! To that
art tin cbenust's science is handmaiden.
And tht dyer Is born, noi made: he cannot "pick
ii up" or •'•in.-.k. a choke of it." as with most
trades and professions, because, perchane* one has
some aptitude for or "leaning" toward this or that.
The color sense and sight, which stamp him "ar
tist," are his Inheritance from generations of dyer
ancestors. And. a? with evolutions of ■.th.r kinds,
the products of these generations vary In degree
and stature; thus, there are dyers who can match
all colors, and all shades of colors, unerringly. Of
these tht-ie are few In the world to-day. And th'*r«
are dyers who can match some certain colors ai><
shades with equal certainty. Of these there ait>
many. It may be explained here that the manu
facturer furnieb.es the (Iyer with the raw silk and
the samples of the colors he wishes to obtain, and
thr.t that's where the artist's eye comes In; that
the dyer has got to get the lustre and preserve, tho
strength an.] flexibility and the workable quality of
the silk, so that when made Into the fabric it will
be -<ft and shining, and that that's where t.i«
chemist's science is required.
The suLj.ct of this sketch. Mr. Jacob , Weldmann—
for "Jacob Weidmann," the "Weidmann Silk Dyeing
Company" and that truit of a lifetime uf thought,
of research, of labor and of a splendid natural gift
for organization, the famous works that bear his
name, are synonymous— was born in a dyehouse.
which, though It was a. big dyehouse for thos«i
days, employing £M workmen, was also the family
residence. So. beeiaes coming into , the world
m lipped, mentally and physically, with peculiar
gifts that, ■ deeceadtnjr Ucm air* to *-u L . had' detj»»
ened, strengthened and broadened wit l each suc
ceedlns generation, his mind received Its earliest
Impressions, his senses their earliest training In
an environment that would necessarily connnn
Upon a the foundation here laid, Mr. Weldmann,
through earnest study, and keen, . practical In
vestigation of the processes and methods employe^
by the craft, travelling for years In his quest, and
visiting all the centres of the Industry, laborlously
built up the knowledge which has given form and
substance to the 'works that have proven of sucn
incalculable value to this country in general, and
to Paterson In particular. This exhaustive and
practical study has resulted— viewed from the
standpoint of the n^chanic. the chemist and the
artist— ln the excelling and comprehensive proc
esses of theso great works; and but for his
thought and labor American silks would, most
probabl" ptill be quoted as "inferior to the Ku
ropean." and would still be sold In home markets
only through the subterfuge of foreign labels—
whereas there is now very little of the foreign
Imported, because at least two-thirds of our goods,
the rejrular lines, are superior to those manufact
ured abroad. His example has spurred the kindred
trades, and. thus, the "throwing" of 8 Ik is better
done here than abroad, and its machinery Is ac
knowledgodly superior, and Is being exported, as
are American looms.
The works— said to be the largest of their kind In
the world— are located at Riverside, about three
miles to the northeast of Paterson's business cen
tre. They cover an area of nine and one-half acres
fnd are divided, for some SOO feet, by the tracks of
the Erie Railroad, beside which lie their own pri
vate "skUnss." Here are employed nearly 1.400 men.
who handle some nina thousand to ten thousand
pounds of silk daily-for theso works dye for the.
whole country, even as far away as »an FVancisco.
The officers and directors of the Weldmann Silk
Dyeing Company are: Jacob Weidmann. president
and treasurer; A. Hunzlker. Ph. D.. vice-president,
and James Rogers, secretary.
The scope of this article will not permit a de
tailed description of this mammoth plant nor of
the processes and methods there employed. When
Mr. Schwarzenbach, of Zurich Switzerland the
largest silk manufacturer in the world, visit
n p, works, b« exoressed thr- liveliest surprise
both at the speed with which the work was done
and the excellence of the product; and on his re
turn homo cabled thnt he would be clad to have
Mr Weidmann establish a branch there on tho
American plan, but the latt.-r could not he
tempted, for. aside from the fact that his im
nv-nse interests here absorb his entire time and
attention, he has a good reason for declining—
eldest brother runs the old establishment in Zurich
which employs 1.000 bands and is the second
largest dyeing establishment In Europe and lie
could not be induced to enter Into competition -with
him The broth.-rs are constantly in touch and
are thus enabled to k«ep Informed of everything
which makes for progress In the dyeing industry
in both hemispheres. In consequence, they do a
large part of the world's dyeing.
When asked, "What did Mr. Schwarzenbach mean
by the American plan." Mr. Weldmann answered:
"We use more machinery and have better facilities;
we don't waste so much, an<J we work more quick
ly; besides, wo make 'men' of our workmen, thr.
more responsibility upon them, give them greater
opportunity, arouse their ambition, and hold out
to them the prospect of earning more than a bare
living and of eventually becoming masters tnern
selves To explain: Where In Europe the colonst
would have charge of one box. here a capable and
promising man may be given ten: bo. Instead of a
mere machine, he becomes a thinking man— lnstead
of working like a mere automaton he begins to
try and see how he can 'cut his cloth to advantage
and accomplish the best results." Despite the op
portunities offered, however, so well are Mr. Weld
mann's men satisfied with his paternal care and
treatment numbers of them remain with him as
long as they are able to work at all-pne work
man, seventy-five years old. has followed the fort
unes of the Weidmann family aince first entering
the trade In his childhood.
A description that would in any way do justice to
the plant, its machinery, appliances, tools, utensils
and auxiliary plants, and the delicate and complex
processes employed there, would occupy many col
umns of The Tribune, so It must content itself
with giving- the reader textnaQy a "bird's-eye
view." trusting to these few glimpses to hint of
its scope and magnitude, r.nd the beautiful in
genuity as well as the intricacies of its workings.
Of the many buildings which comprise the plant
there arc only fiv which are two stories in height,
the "office and stock receiving" building— this is
fireproof— the "machine shop," the "tank house,"
the "finishing building" and the "stables," for, ow
in« to the \Hst quantity of water used, the floors -
there is enough flagstone used in these mammoth
buildings to furnish sidewalks for a town of con-
Biderable size — are always wet, and the water or
dyestuff would speedily leak through upon any
thing stored or handled beneath. Besides, sufficient
light could not be had. and a flood "f it is re
quired, thr- roof of all the buildings being largely
tii ken up by skylights, and their Interiors, kept as
dazzling! y whlt.» as constantly renewed oats of
whitewash can make th^m. It is hard to imagine
anything brighter, daintier <«> more pleasing to the
< ye than th--HP vast dyeing rooms, with their chaste
White walls, their prism covered roofs, their gllsten-
Ing copper vats, their shining machinery, the
variegated color of the dyes and th<- many hued
Mlks. the latter whirling In the Ingenious anct
costlj machines that extract surplus moisture, or
suspended frum wooden arms to be shaken out
a-id dressed, or Iridescent und»>r jets of water
undergoing the cleansing spray to which they are
subjected aft<r each operation.
The machinery and paraphernalia of the plant
are gathered from far and wide, for they muat
possess peculiar properties to serve In an indus
try which hand'es what is. at the same time, the
most fragile and th€ hardiest of textiles— silk; It
will withstand the attacks of adds that sim
plj eat metals, will pass through washings
aiid boilings which would seemingly wear out
anything else, but it will not stand the slightest
abrasion. For example the wooden "sticks." upon
which the silk Is suspended in the vats, are the
product of a peculiar thorn found In the Swiss and
French mountains. Th« bark has been stripped
from these, but the knlf.- has never touched their
Inner surface, which remains smooth and hard as
ivory, and Is not affected by moisture; eacli color
has its own "sticks.*' and these are never used for
any other; and two hundred thousand are consumed
annually. The wooden lining of those vats.
In which acids are not used, is of the en
during cypress from the swamps of * lorloa.
the boards being In one piece and fifty feet
in length. Like th« "sticks." the cypress wears
smooth and hard, Instead of roughening, or swtii
ing, under the action of heat ajd moisture. Certain
of the centrifugal machines have perforated metal
sides, and the silk before being placed in these ifl
wrapped In cloths. In others, the sides are lined
with rubber, for in them the silks are on the
"sticks." In fact, throughout the dyeing processes
one remarks the utter absence of sharp edges, acute
angle? or rough surfaces. The piped that convey
the water to the. vats are of copper, for no rust
must be introduced Into the coloring matter
throughout ail tne departments, suspended like
Mahomet's coffin, between heaven and earth, there
1b a perfect forest of those steam and water pipes.
These are fitted and repaired in the great work
shop, where general repairing is al?o done, and
where the vats and new machines are made.
Tt has been said that the silk will stand almost
anything If well handled. Here's the evidence: In
the processes required for a blue-black, the silk is
first dyed yellow, then blue, then green, then black,
and finally a blue black, at each Mage It is sub
mitted to some powerful chemical action— the dark
shades, especially, have to be dyed In copper tanks.
as nothing else will stand the dye.
Besides a laboratory, presided over by a chemist,
who had held Important positions In the universi
ties abroad, there are works in which are made ai!
the chemicals used, except th« acids; In the former
are analyzed for manufacturers the colors of the
fabrics it is desired to Imitate. In order that they
may be reproduced: and it is hardly necessary te
say that, as this laboratory is one of the component
parts of this up-to-date plant, it k.-.-pn abreast the
In the soap factory, which Is equipped with all th<»
Ir.t-st devices, not only for making noun nnd while
it makes low prade soaps for certain purposes, !t
turns out a better grade of castll*- than can t>f
purchased in any market, this castlle beins used
for the fine grades and light colors. In its manu
facture is employed only the highest grade of oliv«
oil -but for reducing and saving the soap fats, to
again make soap.
Every edge, cuts in this factory!
Thus, when the silk is required to bo -weighted,
the surylus Is caught, precipitated by lime, put
through a baking process and then smeltered. and
a large part saved. The weighting material
is mainly tin. which comes from India In b'.oeks; in
Its molten state It Is thrown into cold water, wh'ch
opens It up into a feathery mass that Is more easily
acted upon by the acid. This tin Is placed in vats
with the acid, and, with the addition of chlorates,
the mixture stirred and blended by compressed
air. produces, under the chemist's supervision, a
perfect weighting medium, and of the Ntrenerh de
sired. Tli e fumes which arise from this chemical
process are c-.-riod off through huge wooden
draughtways. Here fifty barrels of nitrate of iron
are made, to be used as the first mordant of
the black dye. at an operation. The fumes of the
nitrate are convoyed into earthenware "receivers"- ■
the pottery Is imported— and condensed, thus savin?
the add. "and the workman's lungs. The liquor Is
run off to the dyeritoms through hard rubber tubes
— It would destroy any other kind;
The soft water required Is obtained from thre*
sources — from artesian wells within the grounds,
from the Pansalc River and from a two-acre reser
voir that lies beyond the river and is connected
with the works by a 30-Inch main. The filtering
plant, which is the complement of this soft water
supply, has a capacity of six million gallons a day
—It Is not only necessary that the works have an
ample supply of soft water, but that water must
also be absolutely free of foreign matter. All this
vast voiume of water is utilized through a pump
ing station having a capacity of over ten million
gallons daily.
The power for th<? works is furnished by a battery
of thirteen huge boiler^— lt looks like the battery
of an ocean greyhound— the furnaces of which are
equipped with automatic stokers and "Green" fuel
economizers, and yet consume c=!xty tons of coal a
day! The works have their own coal yard, in
which there are at present stored some thirty
five hundred tons of selected smokeless coal; for
soot is regarded by the proprietor as great an
enemy as dust. Here also :ire stored the oak and
chestnut wood, cords of which are consumed
dally in the manufacture o* pyroUgneoos acid. us<»d
in making Die black dyes— the older this wood is
the better, anJ, therefore, it has to be kept in vast
That =i hu£-*> warehouse is required for the storage
of materijil goes without saying. If one adds to the
cost of the many supplies in this warehouse, and
the great quantities in active service in the works,
the payroll of nearly fourteen hundred hands, and
tlie allowance of lv per cent for merely the wear
and t.'ur of the metals of the machinery, the tools,
the utensils, in fact, all except the copper — and even
ihat Is eventually eaten up— he can form a vapue
idea of the mammoth proportions of this enterprise.
When this great corporation (the American Loco
motive Company) gathered under lta iegis. in
1901, eight of the most renowned locomotive
works of the world, one of the oldest was fur
nished by Paterson. the ( 'ooke Locomotive Works,
established In 1532. under the name and style of
Danforth, Cooke & Co., and, later (In ISfiit, Incor
porated as the Danforth Locomotive and Machine
Company, which name it !»irf until the- death of
John Cooke, In 1882, when it assumed that of the
Cooke Locomotive and Machine Company.
The final location of the Cooke plant is on the
line of the Erie Railroad, where buildings of the
most modern and approved style have been erected,
on a large tract of land— the machine *op belnsr
602 by 120 feet, the erecting shop I*> by 1-6 fest. th«
boiler shop 267 by 91 feet, and th<! foundry 219 by 104
feet. The plant comprises also a forge and smltn
hhop. a woodworking shop, paint shop, power house
and commodious office building— the entire space
covered comprising at least fifteen acres.
Like the other components of the American Loco
motive Works (the Schenecta*ly. Brooks. Pitts
burg, Richmond. Rhode Island. Dickson and Man
chester locomotive works), the Cooke has thosn
comprehensive facilities which, couple;! with tho
long experience, the thorough organization and the
abundant capital of the management of the em
bracing corporation, Insure high class work, and
which enable the latter to conduct Its mammoth
business under conditions the moat economical to
manufacturer and purcharer.
The Cooke Works have supplied every section or
this T T n)on, Mexico, Central and South America and
the Orient with every conceivable type of locomo
tive always adding to its reputation and the glory
of the great manufacturing city of Paterson; and.
like the other companies marshalled under the ban
ner of the American Locomotive Works, it is now
equipped to build steam, electric and compressed
air locomotives of every kind and description, for
railroad, mlnlnsr, manufacturing and construction
purposes — needless to say, in the most up to
date and satisfactory manner.
Americans have long used watches any part of
which can be replaced, but the American Locomo
tive Works, with its complete system of templates
and gauges, can now duplicate every part of the
"Iron horse," and with a speed and precision that
are as astonishing as they are gratifying to cus
It may Interest the reader to know that. in 1902.
the American built locomotives for America. Eu
rope, Asia and Africa of an. aggregate weight of
211(00 tons, and that, with the improvements con
templated and under way. It will have capacity for
the enormous output of 312.000 tons! Perhaps the
reader will better understand the magnitude of this
Immense combination of companies If he Is told
that the latter have turned out. altogether. 27.80")
locomotives— enough to encompass the earth, stand
ing less than a mile apart:
The president's last annual report to the stock
holders of the American Locomotive Works so
forcibly and lucidly demonstrated th« advantage of
such combination it must have a distinct educa
tional value to Tribune readers, as well as furnish
a rebuke to those who indulge In senseless revllings
of such industrial coalitions: "Greatly Improved;
facilities, through the Infusion of new capital,
thereby reducing the direct as well as the Indirect
cost: the utilization of shop space at the different
1 plants to the best possible advantage, thereby ena
bling the company to take orders for future de
livery with better assurance of their prompt fulfil
ment; a minute, constant comparison of manufact
uring processes und the gradual . unification of shop
methods through the Interchange of Ideas; some
steps. :it least, toward the standardization of loco
motive dtsign; the reduction of coat through the
purchasing of material In large quantities: a more
Intimate knowledge of. the detailed cost of engine
construction through the adoption of a carefully
clarified, uniform system of accounting." It may
b»> well to add that, in acquiring the property.
patent rights and goodwill of the companies com
prising It, It hi said the American Locomotive
Works backed up its capitalization of J60.000.000 with
solid equivalents In the shape of marketable values.
A brief .history of the East Jersey Pipe Company,
with works and office located at East Thlrty-sev
enth-st. and Vreeland-ave.. in Paterson. X. J.. and
of some of its achievements, will prove an Interest
ing addition to this sketch of the city. In the year
ISS2 the tlrm of McKee & Mllson was formed and
commenced business In Bethlehem, Perm.. In the
manufacture and placing of boilers, plate, etc., and
flourished from the first. Its success due to a thor
ough knowledge of the business and Its proper
conduct. During the years Intervening between ISS2
and 1530 the concern gradually expanded, becoming
known as responsible and competent bidders for
large undertakings in its line. In the latter year
it submitted a proposition, to the authorized par
ties, for a water pipe line for Newark, N. J.. and
was awarded tho contract for constructing twenty
two miles of 4i inch water pipe and eight miles of
S6 inch. The Newark equipment was a riveted steel
conduit extended, as a continuous rl>eted shell,
from Macoplis intake dams to Belleville r..'3ervolr.
The bettes to prosecute lta operations, the concern
removed to Paterson, where roomy .luart.r. wrre
secured ai;d facilities not heretofore enjoyed added.
In IVJ.J it furnished thirteen miles of 3S inch water
pipe, eiag ' t and 5-lt> inch thick.- for the city of
Rochester, N. Y. Then, a second line being re
quired by the city of Newark.- covering In the ag
gregate about twenty-foven miles. it executed the
task. in this undertaking, the concern found itself
confronted by some grave questions; great care was
required in the construction of the conduit on ac
count of the proximity of the old line, which was
in constant us<". and upon which some four hundred
thousand people depended for their water supply,
and for almost the entire distance the old and new
conduits wen only ll'» feet a^art between centres.
But It was completed with entire satisfaction to air
parties at interest.
In connection with the T. A. Glllesple Company,
sreneral contractors, of Plttsburg. Perm.. work was
'-..mm-nced and completed on the 42 inch steel rtv
eted conduit from Little Falls to- Paterson. lnclud-.
Ins the pumping station at the fornvr. The
iiulldlng of a reservoir on Garrett Mountain, having
a capacity of 16»MA>0.<*X> gallons, and the construc
tion of the s'. Inch riveted steel force main running
from the pumping station at Little Fal*n to Belle-
Vltte. together with the two branch 48 Inch main
connecting the 51 Inch main with Oarrett Mountain
reservoir, arid furnishing water to Kearny. Bayonne
ftr.d Montclalr. and temporarily to Jersey City, were
other notable achi«v«m«nt».
Expanston of business made it necessary to In
corporate the rtrm. which was accomplished in IS9T..
as the East Jerse-3 Pip* Company, under the laws
of th State ol New-Jersey, the capttansatkw being
tIOn.OOO, with Thomas H. 'Mllson as president and
general manager. Tho company buys Its BSBM
largely from i the .United States 'Steel. Co, .This U
steel, and riveted in thirty foot lengths, which ar»»
subjected to a se-ver» pressure; It Is thcn.Klven
a, bath of gllsonite, a mloerai rubber • fourjj
In Utah. Tho pipe Is deMverM !n r.izmb»r«*l
sections: these fttteo. each to rh*> oth»r, in per
fect union and precision, calked and .«f> r*-^
dered watertiKhf. with frictlonal obstruction min
imized, as this bears* on the pressure problem.
It will thus b« seen that a system rlo??!y approx
imating perfection must, o£ necessity. t>- the rain
spring of this company's undertaking*, at one*
large and many sicieJ. i- well as of taeh exact
ar.ti infinite detail
The present plant consists of two buildings. Zfrx,
110 feet each, the off!'. bein# a structure by its»!f.
The company Is fortiinati in never having had any
trouble with Its labor.
When, in 1807. the thre«> brother* Cooke foundM
the Pa3dal>- Rjlllng Mills Co.. iron was in common
use. but In ISS3 steel came into ur.iver?a! i:s*\ and
the mill was converted from Iron to steel by tho
erection of 4teel furnace?.
r>uri' _ the twenty-four years that the business
was conducted under the olr! name it provej a pay
ing Institution, Mi average r'-t profits annually hav
ing been some 1117,000.
Recently the Passaic Steel Company was formr^
to purchase the Interests of the Passaic HoISSsB
Mill 3 Co.; for Ihl -■ were paid the proceeds— at 35—
from the sale of COOD.OOO out of an authorized Is
sue of J2,5«>J.000 of 5 per cent bonds, made to a syn
dicate ot which the Cltil Trust Co. oi ±'atersoa
was the nian.ig«r.
'rtie plant occupies twenty-five and one-hni; acres
of land. Passing through It are the tracks of tfc»
Erie Railroad, which gives it exuelient shippisjj
facilities and cheap freights to New- York, th-* best
market in the United States— for it is estimated
that fully 73 per cent ot the structural material
used in this country Is sold within a radius of li)
miles of t-iat tuy.
The company is now ir.stali!r.gr. and expects ;<>
have in operation by July 13 next, two additional
lifty-ton open hearth furnaces. The capacity of
their present furnaces, beins only 4510 M tons of
Ingots, is inadequate to> the demai ds of the roiUnc
mill, which can turn out KO.iaxi tons ef material
p<?r annum. To defray th* cost of this great addi
tion the company is disposing of the remainder of
the authorized issue of bonds— ss»>.'>Jo— reserved in
its treasury for that special rpose.
The officers of the company are: A. C. FairchlU,
president; J. B. Cooke. secretary and treasurer, and
Frederick F Searing, vice-president.
As the business has built up a valuable trads
and deals with thfl most responsible business con
cerns in th» United Btai and as it ia one of th«?
six steel mills in the United States that maki
structural material of all sizes. It would seem that
the new company, starting undT such favorable
auspices, would continue the good record of the oil
one. *
The Looschen piano manufactory, which Include*
a finely equipped case plant, haa by liberal, fair
and businesslike metho.i.-i attained large propor
tlonsi. for It covers an entire Paterson block asd
employs some three hundred hands; and Its plant
Is said by the trade to he one of the beat and BMSt
completely equipped Sn the country. It ia not nu
be thought, however, that so Import;; an enter
prise could be build up Iri a day— on the contrary,
the Looschen piano is designed and constructed bj".
and under the supervision of. old and skilled piano
makers, for this is the second generation of.
Looschens In thld craft.
Th* manufacturers' aim and ambit .Is to pro
duce thoroughly good and reliable Instruments. s<»
they do not overtax the capacity of the plant. In
consequence, the Looschen piano has a satisfying.
fine, even tone, and the elegance of its case :»
everywhere remarked, lha veneer being exception
ally beautlf jI. and the varnish having a body that
enables it to retain its finish, and not become dull
and flat looking, as does so much of the work on
the market— indeed, the makers take especial prM*
in their cases and varnish work. an>i have kept
their case designs strictly up to date.
These UiaOumenta have 14 pound imported felt
hammers, the best actions, bushed tuning plr.s.
patent double lever mufflers, first quality ivory
heya, with finished hardw backs and f ill iruts
plates— in fact, first class mater and fittings; as
well as workmanship, are lavished on the Laooseben
pianos. The "Style P." colonial piano, in fancy and
figured veneers, seems particularly to have won
the favor of the public. ju.ii;.'._- from the Uemar.il
for these beautiful creations. All Looschen pi.mj*
are guaranteed for ten years. .«o it would a
cafe thing for dealers to recommend them to their
customers. These pianos have met with the ap
proval of some of the most exacting ;*nd leadin?
musical critics in this country, and are to be found
in tho homes of the most representative people. v
cordjal Invitation is extended to visit the factory.
The factory, office and wareroorrs are situated ca
the block boundi by Eleventh and Twelfth avt**.
and East Thlrty-rirat and Thirty-second sts.. Pater
son, N. J.
Organized in 1543 as the American Hemj Cues
pany. with John Taylor Johnston— then president of
th« Central Railroad of New-Jersey— as Its first
president, this now great manufacturing concern
began operations In a little two story building. VXX
30 feet, equipped with a >» horse power water
wheel, and as irly as 134t> was SSsJBi b th»
making of sail canvas, those belns the diiys befor*
steam had driven the picturesque s;iilir.g ship
from the seven seas. This miniature factory stood
on a raceway, the rights to which were secured
from the society founded by Alexander HamiltOßh*
tho water rights have never since changed owners,
for. except In name, the company Is the same i*sat
made the original bargain, In U6l it was reir.cor
porated as the Dolphin Manufacturing Company.
which name was afterward changed to its present
DolDhln Jute Mills.
The company's mills now occupy a plot cf ground
ICSxtSOO feet in extent, and are driven by ere of th»
largest steam engines In the State, a 1,700 fr.v : »
power Corliss— a far cry from th* old waterw^e^!.
They employ M h inds. ar.i tun sot I-.'T'V"*
pounds of their rtnlshed product— principally carptt
and rug yarn and twine — annually.
T:us company, the growth of which has been and
is steady and c >ntinuc . j supplies the chief carpet
factories of the country, having th-- oliest j'.ir*
inn* and belr.s famed for the excellence of it*
manufacture, the raw material for which it obtains
from India. Its officers arc J Herbert Johnston.
eon of the founder, president: Pierre Mais. BtfN
gi.tn Consul at New-York, vice-president; S. S.
Kvans. Jr.. secretary and treasurer, and IC. X Got*
don. superintendent. Its directors are. tosetlKT
with the foregoing. Robert W. »le l\rest. vt tb*
Tenen House Commission of New-York «'!ty:
Otto T. Bannard. president of the Continental
Trust Company, and Ueruu.l Foster, vupita:!"*-
Kew-Tork City.
Within a year of the completion of the first rail
road In the United States Thomas Rogers estal>
llshed on their present site. In Puter«<on. what l-"»
time grew to be the world famous Koser* locomo
tive Works— ln ISZI. The following year he as^>
elated himself with M.-^.-r- Jasper Orosvenor ar. '
Morris Ketchum. ot New- York, under the iiJirr 1 *
and style of Rogers. N..-vh',.;:i d Urosvenor. whiv-t*
(Irni auct-essfuliy opera) the works until ISio. when
the foander di.-<! and the firm was reorganised am..
made it corporation, th.- title being th* Ko<er*
Locomotive anil Machine Works, with J. S. Uon»r*.
son of Thomaa Rogers, the fo\BH)*r. as pawaUnt
until lS33..when the works were »i>iU to the Roc***
Locomotive Company. R. S Hu^- pnaMeot, w n 'J
remained In charge until the great works iSosea
thHr doors. In lsCl.
They were reopened In May.- vyn. having been
■old to th« present owners, who operate them un
der the name of tho • Rogers Locomotive Works.
and under the management of John Havron. presi
dent: E. Hop.- Nortoi vice-j>resid«-nt; «.rors"» '*■
Hannah, secretary; Frank P. Holran, treasurer,
and Reuben Wells, general ssmsaflsf _ #
Several hundred thousand dofars hay«» bet-n «PJS.
In Improving an.l tno,l^rr.iz the work-*, and vfie [\
these Improvements am completed the Rogers *''*
be abl« to turn out one locomotive tss* every ■■■
Ing ilay In the year. v. j*
The nlstory »t the Ro««rs Locomotlr* \vorw »

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