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TEN PAGES. ITALIAN CRIME AND POLICE INCOMPETF.NCE. DETECTIVES OF THE FORCE SEEM UTTERLY UNABLE TO VSEARTII BLACK BAND" CONSPIRATORS. TWs rlty t» confronted ■with an Italian problem Sfltfr wtfeta at the present time It seems unable to „—. Citizens are waking up mornings to read «n< a i*V Hand" letters demanding extortionate sums > jrcner, to be deposited in some out of the way * dezvcu* or else a pistol shot or dynamite bomb W ;U end their day*. Some of these letters have j^er turned o\-er to the police, but It Is believed tjjiit net tenth of them have been made public: g,.«idrs such threats, there have also been acts of vio'.er.cc and even of death. Boys have been kld- v ~ e A and held for ransom. Homes have been landed with dynamite on the failure of their itf-nta to pay blackmail, and not long ago an y'l'an was murdered and his body thrust Into a /_.,., ar.d abandoned because he had aroused the veaP?« nee ct .-. ang of conspirators. , n J...S efforts to grapple with these forms of Jljne the Police Department has shown Itself MMC&uly Incompetent. Officers make a series of tijeatrical arrests, only to.be compelled to let their nnioners go. Mysterious witnesses are unearthed, mfto. after many dark hints, leave Police Head oaancrs as mysteriously as they went there. In jjie casf of the •'barrel murder." alter the city had r.e |o great cost in "scouring the 'East Side." in t'restlr-jj 'alleged cutthroats" and In "giving them the tMrd degree." It was at last requited by see ;- ? the whole Rang go free. In much the same tray the police allowed the kidnappers of nine-year eld" Antor.io Mannlno to slip through their fingers •trhile following- clews which led one moment to a wi-buii slum and the next to a Hoboken cave. As the police have shown themselves more and nor? helpless, the criminal Italian element has be come bidder, until the better class of Italians have btH-ome thoroughly alarmed. Meetings have bean &e!<l by seme of the more prominent Italian citi zens to devise some way of purging the Italian of the obloquy -with which certain vicious ixiem'jers of their colony have defamed it. and a jew have taken special personal precautions against tho kidnapping of their children. In one Instance % n Italian banker ser.t ail of his children to a re mote part of this State, and has caused them even .hc-e to be guarded by a corps of nurses and de tectives. The Italian Chamber of Commerce, which num b-rs asiong Its members the most prominent Ital tas merchants ur.u financiers of the city, has also taien action. A ineetirg was held last Thursday. Resolutions were adopted calling on the Italian ciuiens of this city to lend the police every assist ance in apprehending and punishing tae guilty persons. In speeches made at the meeting the jj!«nbers of the board showed t-iat they were most titter against the blackmailers. Some of them favored hiring special detectives to gather evi dence for the police. One of the members also hasted for some time that the chamber should tuid a mass meeting to denounce the kidnappers cxi blackmailers who have disgraced the Italian none. Among those Itallar.s who bead th»» movement to , chtck the present spirit of lawlessness among their ■^■intrymen there la i strong belief that the police force is greatly to blame. Some go so far as to cay that the detective bureau is more or less a larce. and that many of ■■ - members have secured positions there r.ot by merit, but by political pull. They say that Giuseppe Petrosini has been for a long time the only Italian detective at Headquar ' v»~*, and that he has shown skill and courage, but bus been £0 overwhelmed with work that his efforts ■fc?.v«! been seriously impaired. There should be more Italians on the police for:*." said James S. March, the Republican leader <>! the Ylth, or Italian. District. "At the present :.ib# r.c&riv one-tenth of the population of the city tJj"li£Ein. and yet only one-rive-hundredth of the IV-llce Department is Italian. Of the &.IZI police men, only seventeen are Italians." Antonio Zucca. president of the Italian Chamber <rf < onanerce, said that the police ought to have greater authority In eieamng out the slum districts. "In Italy," he said, "the police have the tight to arrest all idlers found in the streets after a certain h'jcr at right. Th^y may examine citizens at any time and learn what is their business. This land | has too great liberty for the criminal class, and *er that reason many find it easier to write black mailing I-'tters than to work." i hamlaTaat I show at the Barge O0 •- I ■ The Italian problem ia peculiarly hard for tho American to solve, because Its roots go far deeper Ih2n American boIL The crimes of the Italia-. quar ter have a character more in keeping with feudal limits than the present age. and they reflect certain evis conditions In Italy at the present time which have b*en inherited from a lawless and semi-bar b^-lc past- The barrel murder, for instance, has «II the stamp of the Mafia, and the kidnapping of tie MasrJ::o boy has the very thurebmarks of tie Caacrra, Of the four hundred thousand Italians who now fora part ol New-York's four millions more than tiree-fourths are from Southern Italy and Sicily, where the italian government has been least able •> enforce law and order. In Sicily the Maria la r^azgsT to-day than in many a year, and In the ■loss of Palermo the Mafiosl are still celebrating th* victory cf Palizzolo. their chief. In having es caped from a lifelong imprisonment after he had "*i tri<i(i and convicted of a notorious murder. *2 Itaiy knows that Paiizzolo is the head of th<» "**« ir, Sicily. He was charged, more than ten Teaa ago. with killing the Mortyais Notarß « Italian senator, mayor of Palermo, governor of ti* Eenk of Sicily, and one of the island's must liiifiT^i tnnii men. On becoming mayor Notarbar toio aroused the enmity of Palizzolo by forcing him resuir* to inc. municipal treasury large sums of ■"fcey which Palizzolo is said to have stolen dt- uhiie city treasurer. The mayor inves tjaied BUS further, and • arned of other frauds *£d forjeries . >.-trated by i'alizzolo, and he per •cvered, in £j>ite of the letters ho continually re pw«d thrtaterar.'g him with death. At length the "°lt fel!. The marquis waa murdered on a train *h!]e on his way to procure tie papers la the ca **- Palizzolo was arrested. The State spent r.earljr a million lire In the prosecution, and at kjt o&tain<"l the conviction of the Mallan chief. But the MaJlosi brought pressure to bear on cer- officials, threatening them with death unless 'filizzo'.o was released, and only the other day. as v> * result of a third trial, a frightened Jury found t:m not guilty. M XBsabeth-at between Breeeaa and Spring sis.. 1 "'oabittfi nearly wholly- by Sicilians, and many rt ihta at home were members of the Mafia. In «"n*uny wwin. n an Italian detective a Tribune re- Jpn^r ma«Je *. tour of tl)!» part of the cit;-, and that certain inhabitant* of the dis.rlct a ° LI " n.»w fctorfkeopcra or liquor dealers were **■ «nly liaai^i on the other *lti<; of the Atlantic. ™t - h -;t(i committed various murders at the dlrec r"* c ' thct criler. Xi» jury, however, dared to con «*tW , ur -- fcr t^krr over th^re," - lid the detective. ''^Jti^s t«J a. .Eul. half-starved looking man leal - „* a »aii»!t a. :ign sbaped like a baby's coffin, romirfctcd Jour Burden in Slc«!y. Thouch ha •-ear^ to r>ury h<-re only tho»<; who die from natural ■*■•*• >"' v.. j, aye BUHpf^cted him of foul work X aew ■•.m- - - Oa that other corner, when you sec tfbort, thick tot fellow. with the bushy mus ellt: - '■'■ another member of the Mafia, and i un "^ r *«-i". tha.t be was high up in the organization. - • Ptttrorifcife hia saloon, yet he seems to , DTO* '• We base thousht era! times that he ecu £ «-uai.- by blackmail, but we can prove nothing." *c polic« /Jl 3 rrec:it the belief that Sicilians who ■ fc^t mt ' 7nt -«T« of the Mafia In their native land t?35 r*o^g^niz»-dr *o^g^niz»-d n»-r<?. atthouasi such an act would j-^*** 1 ffwjrt* ami easy. Hut whether or not the __°"* *^ye transplanted their organization to BE/JjJ rCa ' th " y bavc -. ■. iv.ti hero neat of it--; P"»r*° n "' ri<! '° ara HMsM of their proverbs: "Tho It.^ ^* crt '" force, fools resort to law." "Take H^jj/*".? ° ; whoever oaken you lose the ine:ini» of *t!n+- y ' <3lc l wfU '"" k° rl * d ; if I live, you v<i- "*.' . 'La n<Jt =9t*sc ••' what Coca not con.-em -*'■*' '' ■^"f.t.'-bn cr cvi!." '■ J 1 '" a friM>s v P«r;istr«:trd in tho Sic.lian " tijo police ted in i.iii-^iu.-:U tccu!:-rly \eV #**«V *w* — « _ dumb. Even the oldest Italian detectives are like ly to meet with only shrugs and grunts in answer to their questions. The more ignorant, even though absolutely" innocent. seem to reel that they must keep silent or else they will be drawn somehow Into the net. At home they dreaded the police because, if they helped an officer, some relative of the pursued murderer mltrht assassinate them as they slept Loyalty Is still stronger than law In most Darts of Sicily. It is estimated that more than one hundred thou sand persons have settled here from the southern end of the Italian peninsula, and many of them have brought along the teachings of the <\imorra. which until recent years prevailed In the provinces near Naples. At one time the Camorra -was simply organized blackmail levied on rich and poor alike. Until a generation ago the Camorra thrived. It had members both among the poor artisans and the high officials of state. It undertook the trans portation of smuggled goods. It contracted for the commission of theft or murder. If one wanted an enemy slain, he hired the Camorra. It extorted tribute from storekeepers, or, if they refused, boy cotted them or set :!re to their shops. It com pelled professional men to pay blackmail by threat ening them with financial ruin or death. At the time Italy was reunited the Camorra be came so powerful that It got control of the poll tics of Naples, and ran the city much according to the principles of Tammany Hall, only more openly. Offices were bought and sold, and the municipal treasury robbed till It was empty. At last the Italian government suspended the munici pal administration of Naples, and In UN it ran the city itself. in 1901 the "Honest party" won the election, and Instituted many reforms. The Nea politans have settled here principally in Mulberry st and in East Ustb-St. That Italian immigration contributes more than any other to the criminal element of this city may be seen from the records of Sing Bine prison, which is recruited chiefly from the metropolis. Although the Itailans. according- to the. census of 1900. rank third In the population of the city, they rank first among- the foreign born Inmates of Sing Sing. The census records 275,102 New-Yorkers who were born In Ireland. IKJB in Russia and 145.133 in Italy. At Sing Sine 151 of the !.!!£ prisoners are natives of Italy, 60 of Russia and 02 of Ireland. At Auburn prison 49 are from Italy. 31 from Ireland and 10 from Russia. Th% "black hand," which has appeared on a number of threatening letters recently exposed, is of Sicilian origin, and is frequently used by those members of the Mafia which still terrorize the province of Syracuse. Such a letter was recently received" by S. J. Polise. a tailor in Th!rd-ave. It threatened Polise. his wife and child, with .Lath unless he handed t~'*< to a "man wTC a black ■mustache and wearing dark clothing, with a white Bilk handkerchief." at an uptown rendezvous. At the end of the letter there was a poorly drawn hand, which was blackened with ink. Although Poiise said it was a Joke, he has, nevertheless, oh- PICTORIAL THHEATS COPIED FROM BLACKMAILING LETTERS RECENTLY SENT TO ITALIANS IN NEW YORK, AND NOW IN POSSESSION OF THE POLICE. '■**■%•»' THE BLACK HANI' ANI talr.ed a permit to carry a revolver. Another let ter having- such an ominous emblem for a signa ture, wa? received the other day by Joseph Bruno, the fourteen-year-old son of a Newark fruit doaler. It was as follows: "Dear Sir: If you don't send $100 In 3 days we will kidnap you. Leave the money under a brick under the railroad on th«« right hand side. If you <2on't look out for yourself. Only a warning. "BLACK HAND." A «ii drawing of a heart transfixed with a dag ger decorated the lower left hand corner of the P Th* emblem of the Mafia has also appeared on many blackmailing- letters. It '■• a crucifix on the arms of which is written the victim's name. Here are a fe-v other evidences of the "black hand" as a symbol of extortion or death. On July I thugs who had •ant threatening letters at tempted to kill Anthony Grerftaldi, a watchman o' a building in West One-huadred-and-twenty eeventh-st. On July 12. George F. Abbott and Frederick Van Buskirk were murdered by "Black Hand" thugs. On July 16 "Black Hand" men set Bra to the candy store of Ernest Curd, at rimer Park Brooklyn. Cure! was suffocated. On August 7 twenty persons were injured by a bomb exploded In East One-hundred-and-fifty-flrst-st. by Vlncenzo Dennetto. who had demanded money. It was on the next day that the son of James Mannlno was kidnapped and !».•» ransom demanded. The mania of blackmail has even spread to chil dren, and among several boys who have been ar rested for this crime are Henry Hebbner, ■ seven teen-year-old lad. and William Dekuski. eighteen yean old both of Brooklyn, who Bent a letter de manding IMb of Dr. Truman Nichols, of No. 95 Rodney-st. A decoy packa.se was placed at the specified rendecvous, and the boys were nabbed when they came to lako it. A LITTLE TOO DARING. Julius Kruttschmitt. of San Francisco, the general manager of the Southern Pacific Rail road, recently gave out the largest single order for steel rails that the business world has ever ItnOrTIL a reporter. In discussing this order with Mr. Kruttschmltt, called It a "daring" one. •No," said the railroad magnate, smiling, •there was nothing daring about it. Daring things are those that have in them something risky, something insecure. For instance, you might term 'daring* the well known action of Hanks, the milkman, in the millionaire's house." "Hanks, the milkman?" said the reporter, puzzled. "Yes. HuiUvs. the milkman. He one morning forgot to water his milk. In the back hallway of his best customer he remembered thia omis sion. A huge tub of fine clear water stood on the floor by his aide; there was no one to spy on him. and thrice, before the maid brought up the Jugs Hanks diluted his milk with a large measure filled from the tub. Then he served the young woman calmly and went on. "As he was bellowing down the next area, the first customer's footman beckoned to him. He returned, and was ushered into the presence of, the customer himself, a millionaire. "'Hanks,' said the gentleman, "I prefer here after to water my own milk.' "'Well, sir.* said Harks, 'it's useless to deny the thing for I suppose you were watching me While "•>:o: «a!-J th« millionaire. 'No <>•■ ■ v.;>s watchln* you. Put the f;u l if. Hanks i;: ' chil dren are taking medicinal baths, ' '" : th t tub in tee r«.r hallway was full «* «a "rater- ITALIAN DETFXTIVE, DISGUISED AS WORKIXGMAX, IXTERHO GATIXG YOUTH WHO KNOWS THE MANNINO FAMILY. THE HUB AUTOCRAT. "Judge" Emmons Keeps Boston Guessing "What Next?' Boston, Aug. 20 (Special).— "Sh: Sh: It's Emmons." The orchestra at the Palm Garden stopped in the | middle of a note, the violin going off Into a squeak ; as the startled player turned his head. Every »ye \ was focused on the door. Beer glasses were hast- ; ily set down. A woman smoking a cigarette over A " BARREL MURDER" REMINDER. in th« corner quickly >'.r<>pt»*.i it to the Boor, while ••ipar.ions uf a , quirk ly hushed him up. "Judge" Emrnons the boats man." chairman of the Board of Police Cbmmlaetoners, was there. He had merely dropped in on his usual Saturday night sprint around the drinking resorts, amuse ment plai-es and dance halls, and at his h<-els was a horde of reporters, while crowding behind them waa a mob of small bo>'9. loafers and curiosity s^ekfrs. He had Just given the proprietor permis sion to have music. The "Judge" stepped briskly Into th« room, his thin, good humored face lighting up with a nmllo as he shook hands with the manager, a^ut ha took a seat at a table. A man who wanted to show the crowd that he was "veal" to the Commissioner came up and shook hands. "Won't you have some thing. Jedge"" r "No, thank you." "But won't you have some lemonade or a ginger ale?" "No, thank you." "Well, don't you want me to (TO with you as a sort of bodyguard?" "No. thank you. 1 can take earn of myself." Then a woman sitting at the next table leaned over and queried: " Judge' Emmor.s. do you think there's muslo In hell".- "I don't know," replied the embarrassed "Judge." "I've never tv en there He then made his exit, and started for a dance hall on his list that he wanted to investigate. In the dance hall the "dash." "spiel." "slide," "glide." "hop." "sprint" and "double shuffle" went. In fact, everything went except fighting. Then* was the young man with his "steady," the girl with the half-nelson grip and the novice, painfully lugged, around by her partner, all mixing up to the strains of "Peggy Brady," "Hiawatha," and "Up the Street." "What are those people doing with their hand* up In the air," asked the Commissioner of a re porter, as 8 couple resembling the Bartholdl statue on wheels came whirling by. "Why, that's tht* new 'society' way, 'judge'; ever seen It before?" "Can't say that I have." Sulem-Bt. was alive with Its usual cosmopolitan Saturday night crowd, and the markets were crowded with buyers. A "drunk." trying to steady himself by an elevated station, fell under the gaze of the Commissioner. He was evidently trying to keep to th« right, but the right lay directly in the Commissioner's path, and the latter quickly stepped up to a police officer, who had been conveniently looking tho other way. ordered him to gather In the "drunk" and ring for the patrol wag-on, sacri ficing: some of his "beauty sleep" Monday morning to appear hi court as prosecutor. With tho reporters «t!ll with !iir... the "Judge" strode up Washinston-st.. the crowd following becoming blfrstr and bigger as he went along. The word was belns rapidly passed along- ahead of him by telephone, runners, cabmen and dozens of Interested "tipsters." so that as he neared a barroom or a policeman's port he .found things In apple pie order! A barroom, a lodging houao and a number of cisns engaged his close attention, but as he paused In front of another cneap lodging house tho crowd became so large that an ofilcer had to dear the sidewalk. Ila peered Into several barber nhoi;^ to see if the law was being enforced resardtng Sunday shaving. It was nearir.s midnight now. and the "judge's" promulgation that thero must bo no shaving one second after midnight was causing considerable trouble to those who were, In the habit of putting; off the necessary part of the toilet till %i\e last minute. He potto one shop at 11:43. Here ■ cus tom, wa i klcklaj^ljt^axuc they wouldn't ' Rive him a sl::i.T.?no .u'ter tis ijhave. . " 'JuCk«' Kmmons ba uiaw«U." be was saviaz. "1 'spos« if the clock struck 12 with only on* side of my face scraped you'd turn me out Into the cold world, wouldn't you. to go home looking like Jo-Jo, the dog-faced man. I guess nit. This is a bum town, and I'm going to take the first train for N" Y.iwk. Me for the wide open town, where I can get a drink without having to hire room and wait till Monday morning. Say. what kind of a place is this, anyway? Regular Jayhawk village up ii. Bq .••ilunk. by the way things are run here." The "Judge" chuckled quietly to himself as he heard this tirade, and stepped quickly back Into rhe street. It was midnight, and th»» town was quiet. Only the "owl" cais end a few lonesome looking pedestrians laden with Sunday dinners were out and DAGGER THROUGH HEART only the chirp of tho tret»-toads on the Common waa to be beard. "Judge" Emmons could now go home to his coutrh in East Boston on the nlsht ferryboat, conscious that he had done a gu«d night's work and emiihusiz^d his opinion that all respectable citizens should b» abed and asleep by midnight. This was an average Saturday night with the new Police Commissioner. William Henry Harrison Emmons. popularly known as "Judge" Emmons. because when h«? was appointed chairman of the Boston Board of Police Commissioners he was a police Justice in the East Boston Municipal District Court. is a shining ex ample of paternalism m the government of th« good city of Boston by the Commonwealth of Massa chusetts. "Paternalism and reform nor.* to seed ' is the term applied to the present regime of th* •ATToCRAT OF THE HI'B." V~. H. H. Smmon*. ••hairmnn of Boston's Board of Police < 'oromissloners. Boston Police Board. "Judge" Emmons is a con scientious offlcehold»?r. No one accuses him of "graft." His sole aim. avowed and practised, is to enforce the laws of the State and the ordinances of ' the city a«i he finds them, without regard to whom they hit or how they came to be passed. His methods of enforcement and his administra tion of hi 3 office have been freely criticised by per sons of high and low degree; by criminals* and "grafters." naturally; by Just. as. earnest reformers as himself, .and by staid., conservative citizens. None deny his honesty and earnestness, but some believe that earnestness' is of too strenuous a sort, ill advised, perhaps, and not always tenip<*r»*d with discretion. His frequant interviews in the news papers, manifestoes and touring about we State in the winter'- months, giving lectures upon police work and the reforms accomplished by his ad ministration and by himself, the lecture illus trated with' blackjacks, handcuffs, fark lantern.-, the pistol of a murderer, the brass knuckles of a thug, mementos of Jes3e Pomeroy. th* boy flend. and other arewsesae relies, savor, of the opera boufCe. .. ; ' * Even some of the "Judses" best friends deprecate . tl:i3r feature, of lls lifl '!':-.••;. wish that hf would talk' l 38. lie 1;... been censuced fur devoting his • " ' CoaiiaucU ca testli page. CZAREVITCH ALEXIS- In Line of Succession to the Crotcn of Great Britain. That the birth last we*k of the Czarevitch Alexis, whn is not only heir to the throne of All the Russlas. hut likewise, as a great-grar.d chl!d of Queen Victoria, in the line of succes sion to thi> British Crown, should have been hailed as the beginning of a new era in Russia is not surprising. Superstition is rife in the do mlnions of Emperor Nicholas, and by the vast majority of his subjects the advent of the in fant prince Is regarded as an Indication that Its parents are restored in Divine favor. This they were believed to have forfeited, ar.d every misfortune that has overtaken Russia during the last few years, more especially since the be ginning of the war with Japan, has been ascribed not only by the masses, but also to a great extent by the classes, to the fact that their rulerg were "unlucky" and objects of re lentless anger on the part of Providence. So widespread has been th<» impression that had the Czarina again disappointed the nation by presenting it with a fifth daughter, instead of with the long- and eagerly expected son. there is no knowing but the safety of the Crown might have been endangered by a popular revo lution, designed to remove from the throne sov ereigns so manifestly accursed, and. therefore, destined to bring still further disasters on the people. Then, tco. the birth of the little Czarevitch, by furnishing a guarantee of the continuity of th* Emperor's policy, will encourage henceforth the officials of high and of low degree through out the empire to accord to him an obedience and a loyaity which they have until now with held. As long as Nicholas remained without a direct heir the Tohlnovicks— that Is to say. the servants of the state, from the highest to the low Ast —have been under the Impression that in the event of any sudden demise of the Crown the successors might completely reverse the present autocrat's policy, and regard with dis favor all those who had Identified themselves therewith. That Is why so many of the decrees of Nicholas II have remained a dead letter, and w*hy the progressive and enlightened measures which h« has Instituted have remained still born. The statesmen and officials upon whom he was compelled to depend for their execution were afraid to fulfil his behests, to Incur the anger of his successor In the event of hl9 death The birth of the Grand Duke Alexis changed ail this, for even if anything untoward should hap pen to the Emperor in his boy's minority, lt will he found that he has made provision for in trusting his widow with the guardianship of the new Czar until his majority. EMBLEM OF THE MAFIA. While the word "Czarevitch" means "son of the Czar." yet there have been times when it has been borne by the brother of the Emperor, al though the latter has had several sons living at the time. Like th- dignity of Prince of Wales In dreat Britain, and that of Prince or Princess Of the Asturias in Spain, the title is conferred by the sovereign as an act of royal or Imperial fav<>r instead of heUHJ assumed as a right of birth and inheritance, and the Czar would hay-» HI art had he seen fit. to appoint some other prince of his family rather than his son as Czarevttca. Thus, Emperor Paul, although he proclaimed his eidest son Alexander heir to the throne in t7t»7. conferred the title of Czarevitch upon h!s second son. Constantine. in 1799. to re ■war! his distinguished services in the Italian campaign, and Constantine continued to bear It nor only throughout the reign of his elder brother, Alexander, but likewise during the reipr. of his younger brother. Nicholas, although the latter had no fewer than rhr»e sons, the oldest of them fourteen at th? time of his iConstan tine's) death. The first mention of a Czarevitch tn the his tory of Russia is in connection w!;h the tragic tale of Ivan IV killing, in a fit of temporary passion, his favorite son. the one object that ha loved in the world; and this Emperor, who was so Justly surnamed "The Terrible," Is described as havlnjc become wellnigh insane with grief ar.d despair when he realized that he ha 1 flam h's Czarevitch. Coming down to more familiar days, we find Peter the Great administering poison to his son. tbe Czarevitch Alexis, nom inally aa a punishment for treason, but in re ality because the prince hated the Western ways of h:s father, and openly proclaimed his inten ttSfl of abolishing, as soon a 4 he came to the throne, all the Occidental reforms introduced by the creator of modern Russia. There are few more dramatic pages in Muscovite annals than those describing the closing scenes of this drama enacted by the Emperor and his son in the dun geons of the Kremlin of Moscow, in the pres ence of the leading dignitaries of the realm. From that time forth nothing more was heard of Czarevitches until the end of the last cen tury, wher. Catherine II conferred the title upon her son Paul. It is almost impossible to de scribe the cruelties to which Czarevitch Paul was subjected by his mother, who hated him. toward the !att-r part of her reign, with such a bitter hatred that his life was in constant dan ger. She repeatedly sought to have him put out of the way. and lefi a wi'l disinheriting him in favor of his eidest son. Alexander, who was her favorite. This document, however, was burned immediately after he' death by Count Kuraliin. a friend of Paul, and the Utter as cended the throne. Alexander 1 -an;.* Emperor without ever having been Czarevitch, that title, as stated above, having been conferred upon hta younger brother. Constantine. as a return for military services, while on the death of Alexander with out male issue it was not Czarevitch Constan tine that succeeded to the throne, but his young er brother. Nicholas I. It Is said that Constan tine's renunciation of his right to the cession to the throne in favor of his younger brother Nicholas was voluntary. F.ut to ih:3 day t :•• entire affair remains shraejOed in th«» densest mystery, ni> une, save possibly some uf tli« SUNDAY. ALGLST 21, too^. THE FAMOLS MARTINI COCKTAIL lADE ONL\ FROM Martini * Rossi ITALIAN Vermouth IN EVERY CIT\ AND VILLAGE IN THE LNITED 3TATL.S SALES 15.000.04)0 BOTTLEi A \ EAR. members of the reigning- family of Russia, and the keepers of the imperial archives, being cos nizant of the true motives that prompt- Con stantine to make way for his younger brother. There has always been a question as to whether he did so willingly or not. for he accepted the oath of allegiance from the Council of the Em pire and from the troops after the death of, • Alexander I. and then withdrew only when th» act of renunciation which he had signed was produced by his mother. Those who declined to transfer their allegiance from Conatanttne to Nicholas were thereupon either banished to Si beria or put to death, literally by the thousands. Nicholas, In fact, may be said to have waded through a sea of blood in order to reach the throne which his elder brother bad for some unknown potent reason been forced to abandon In his favor. It was only after Constantino's death that Nicholas I. by a ukase dated September 10. IS3I. Invested his son Alexander, at that time fourteen years old. with the title of Czarevitch. Alexander ll's eldest eon Nicholas waa mad* Czarevitch at the time of Ms own accession In 1855. But that young prince died eleven years) later at Nice of tuberculosis of the lungs, brought on. it Is said, by a blow from bis broth er in the chest, delivered either In the course of boxing or during some rough horseplay. Just before Czarevitch Nicholas expired at Nice, al most on th» very eve of the day appointed for his wedding, he placed the hand of his betrothed in that of his brother Alexander, entreat - them to -marry. Their consent to his dying re quest was given with manifest reluctance oa both sides. But. to the astonishment of all. the* match turned out ultimately one of the happiest of royal or imperial unions In modern times. The present Emperor In turn became Czare vitch when the assassination of his grand father. Alexander 11. brought his rather. Alex ander 111. to the throne, nearly a Quarter of a. century ago; and when he in turn became em peror he conferred the title of Czarevitch upon his second brother George-, who was afflicted with consumption at the time, and who was to die In such a strange way a few years later by a roadside in the Caucasus, near Tifils. bis bead resting upon the lap of an old peasant worry-in who had found him dying there, alone and un attended. It is doubtful whether Nicholas would have appointed his brother George to ho Czare vitch had he not known that the young prince was doomed to an early death by the malady which had already obtained so strong a. hold uron his constitution, and it is understood that the dignity was granted to him rather with the object of pleasing and humoring a dying broth er than with any idea that he would ever suc ceed to the throne. When George was laid tr» rest in the imperial mausoleum In the Peter ami Paul' Fortress Church at the mouth of the Neva. *-c Czar's other brother. Michael, became heir apparent. But it was expressly stipulated in the decree by means of which he was invested with the prerogatives oJid precedence as sueti that he should only continue to enjoy them until the birth of a son to the Emperor. It may be timely at this juncture to nff»r a few words of explanation with regard ti th» laws of succession to the Muscovite crown, about which little Is known abroad, since th**> are to be found in no standard work about Rus sia. They are comprised in the Decree of Em peror Paul, and were published in the -Imperial Gazette" at Moscow on May 12, 1707. with the Intimation that on the day of his coronation his imperial majesty had laid the ukase in ques tion on the altar of the church where the cere mony took place. According to this decree, in nominated as his heir his eldest son, Alexander, vesting the succession in the latter's male Issue. In the default of Alexander and of the larte- I male issue, the crown was to pass to Emperor Paul's younger sons and to their male Issue. In the event of all Emperor Paul's sons dying without male issue, the crown was to go to th* eldest daughter of Paul's eldest son. and to her Issue, male and female, but by preference male, even If the latter was Junior in point of age to the female. In default of this, the crown was to go to the daughters of Paul's other sons, and to their male and female issue, and only in th» event of these lines becoming extinct was th«. throne to pass to Emperor Paul's own daugh ters and to their issue. Czar Paul, In his' de cree, expressly stipulated that In the event of a grand duchess next In the line of succession to the throne being unmarried, whereas her younger sister had sons, the elder and spinster princess should not forego her precedence nor her prior right to the throne, since there was always a possibility that she might marry anal have children. In one word, a younger sister can. in the matter of succession to the Russian throne, never outrank her elder sister, although younger brothers have prior rights to those of their elder sisters It is necessary to bear this in mind In order to understand the positions eft the Czar's four daughters, and of his brother Michael, with regard to the succession to -.;;• crown. Michael, who now ceases to b* heir ap parent, assumes the second place In the line of succession, while the little girls of Finpeim Nicholas will have no right to the throne until all the grand dukes of the house of Romanoit have either died or waived their claims. A very Important feature of Emperor Paul's ukase concerning the succession is that which relates to the possibility of the crown of Rus sia, passing by right of inheritance to a foreign prince, that Is to say. to the issue of a Russian grand duchess who has married a foreigner. The decree insists that in such an event the prince In question must renounce his foreign national ltj*. and if possessed of a foreign throne must, abandon that a* well. In order to become a Rus sian, and to Join the Russian Church. In case of refusal to Join the Russian Church, or. to abandon the foreign throne or nationality. Jfce prince or princess in question- lose?, ipse facto, the right of succession to the Russian throne. Should the crown pass by right of mhertt re* a Russian grand. duchess, and the la:ier hap pen to be married either to a Russian or to a foreign prince, the latter would not • bev.um£ Emperor, but merely Prince Consort, and the reins o,? power would remain in the hands of the Empress regnant. Finally. Emperor Paul de clares that with the view of avoiding any doubt or dispute on the subject of the succession to the throne, each sovereign must on bis acces sion issue a proclamation designating the suc cessor to the crown, and in the event of the death of the heir must at once, without tors than twenty -four hours' delay, nominate some prince or princess In bis or her stead. Nicholas II compiled with this statute when he became Emperor by proclaiming his brother George as his successor, and. within twenty-rour hours of the latter*, death, designating his other brother Ceatlaaed oa teata page.