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New-York tribune. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, August 21, 1904, Image 13

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PART 11.
TWs rlty t» confronted ■with an Italian problem
Sfltfr wtfeta at the present time It seems unable to
„—. Citizens are waking up mornings to read
«n< a i*V Hand" letters demanding extortionate sums
> jrcner, to be deposited in some out of the way
* dezvcu* or else a pistol shot or dynamite bomb
W ;U end their day*. Some of these letters have
j^er turned o\-er to the police, but It Is believed
tjjiit net tenth of them have been made public:
g,.«idrs such threats, there have also been acts of
vio'.er.cc and even of death. Boys have been kld-
v ~ e A and held for ransom. Homes have been
landed with dynamite on the failure of their
itf-nta to pay blackmail, and not long ago an
y'l'an was murdered and his body thrust Into a
/_.,., ar.d abandoned because he had aroused the
veaP?« nee ct .-. ang of conspirators.
, n J...S efforts to grapple with these forms of
Jljne the Police Department has shown Itself
MMC&uly Incompetent. Officers make a series of
tijeatrical arrests, only to.be compelled to let their
nnioners go. Mysterious witnesses are unearthed,
mfto. after many dark hints, leave Police Head
oaancrs as mysteriously as they went there. In
jjie casf of the •'barrel murder." alter the city had
r.e |o great cost in "scouring the 'East Side." in
t'restlr-jj 'alleged cutthroats" and In "giving them
the tMrd degree." It was at last requited by see
;- ? the whole Rang go free. In much the same
tray the police allowed the kidnappers of nine-year
eld" Antor.io Mannlno to slip through their fingers
•trhile following- clews which led one moment to a
wi-buii slum and the next to a Hoboken cave.
As the police have shown themselves more and
nor? helpless, the criminal Italian element has be
come bidder, until the better class of Italians have
btH-ome thoroughly alarmed. Meetings have bean
&e!<l by seme of the more prominent Italian citi
zens to devise some way of purging the Italian
of the obloquy -with which certain vicious
ixiem'jers of their colony have defamed it. and a
jew have taken special personal precautions against
tho kidnapping of their children. In one Instance
% n Italian banker ser.t ail of his children to a re
mote part of this State, and has caused them even
.hc-e to be guarded by a corps of nurses and de
The Italian Chamber of Commerce, which num
b-rs asiong Its members the most prominent Ital
tas merchants ur.u financiers of the city, has also
taien action.
A ineetirg was held last Thursday.
Resolutions were adopted calling on the Italian
ciuiens of this city to lend the police every assist
ance in apprehending and punishing tae guilty
persons. In speeches made at the meeting the
jj!«nbers of the board showed t-iat they were most
titter against the blackmailers. Some of them
favored hiring special detectives to gather evi
dence for the police. One of the members also
hasted for some time that the chamber should
tuid a mass meeting to denounce the kidnappers
cxi blackmailers who have disgraced the Italian
Among those Itallar.s who bead th»» movement to
, chtck the present spirit of lawlessness among their
■^■intrymen there la i strong belief that the police
force is greatly to blame. Some go so far as to
cay that the detective bureau is more or less a
larce. and that many of ■■ - members have secured
positions there r.ot by merit, but by political pull.
They say that Giuseppe Petrosini has been for a
long time the only Italian detective at Headquar
' v»~*, and that he has shown skill and courage, but
bus been £0 overwhelmed with work that his efforts
■fc?.v«! been seriously impaired.
There should be more Italians on the police
for:*." said James S. March, the Republican leader
<>! the Ylth, or Italian. District. "At the present
:.ib# r.c&riv one-tenth of the population of the city
tJj"li£Ein. and yet only one-rive-hundredth of the
IV-llce Department is Italian. Of the &.IZI police
men, only seventeen are Italians."
Antonio Zucca. president of the Italian Chamber
<rf < onanerce, said that the police ought to have
greater authority In eieamng out the slum districts.
"In Italy," he said, "the police have the tight to
arrest all idlers found in the streets after a certain
h'jcr at right. Th^y may examine citizens at any
time and learn what is their business. This land
| has too great liberty for the criminal class, and
*er that reason many find it easier to write black
mailing I-'tters than to work."
I show at the Barge O0 •- I

The Italian problem ia peculiarly hard for tho
American to solve, because Its roots go far deeper
Ih2n American boIL The crimes of the Italia-. quar
ter have a character more in keeping with feudal
limits than the present age. and they reflect certain
evis conditions In Italy at the present time which
have b*en inherited from a lawless and semi-bar
b^-lc past- The barrel murder, for instance, has
«II the stamp of the Mafia, and the kidnapping of
tie MasrJ::o boy has the very thurebmarks of
tie Caacrra,
Of the four hundred thousand Italians who now
fora part ol New-York's four millions more than
tiree-fourths are from Southern Italy and Sicily,
where the italian government has been least able
•> enforce law and order. In Sicily the Maria la
r^azgsT to-day than in many a year, and In the
■loss of Palermo the Mafiosl are still celebrating
th* victory cf Palizzolo. their chief. In having es
caped from a lifelong imprisonment after he had
"*i tri<i(i and convicted of a notorious murder.
*2 Itaiy knows that Paiizzolo is the head of th<»
"**« ir, Sicily. He was charged, more than ten
Teaa ago. with killing the Mortyais Notarß
« Italian senator, mayor of Palermo, governor of
ti* Eenk of Sicily, and one of the island's must
liiifiT^i tnnii men. On becoming mayor Notarbar
toio aroused the enmity of Palizzolo by forcing him
resuir* to inc. municipal treasury large sums of
■"fcey which Palizzolo is said to have stolen dt-
uhiie city treasurer. The mayor inves
tjaied BUS further, and • arned of other frauds
*£d forjeries . >.-trated by i'alizzolo, and he per
•cvered, in £j>ite of the letters ho continually re
pw«d thrtaterar.'g him with death. At length the
"°lt fel!. The marquis waa murdered on a train
*h!]e on his way to procure tie papers la the
ca **- Palizzolo was arrested. The State spent
r.earljr a million lire In the prosecution, and at
kjt o&tain<"l the conviction of the Mallan chief.
But the MaJlosi brought pressure to bear on cer-
officials, threatening them with death unless
'filizzo'.o was released, and only the other day. as
v> * result of a third trial, a frightened Jury found
t:m not guilty.
M XBsabeth-at between Breeeaa and Spring sis..
1 "'oabittfi nearly wholly- by Sicilians, and many
rt ihta at home were members of the Mafia. In
«"n*uny wwin. n an Italian detective a Tribune re-
Jpn^r ma«Je *. tour of tl)!» part of the cit;-, and
that certain inhabitant* of the dis.rlct
a ° LI " n.»w fctorfkeopcra or liquor dealers were
**■ «nly liaai^i on the other *lti<; of the Atlantic.
™t - h -;t(i committed various murders at the dlrec
r"* c ' thct criler. Xi» jury, however, dared to con
, ur -- fcr t^krr over th^re," - lid the detective.
''^Jti^s t«J a. .Eul. half-starved looking man leal -
„* a »aii»!t a. :ign sbaped like a baby's coffin,
romirfctcd Jour Burden in Slc«!y. Thouch ha
•-ear^ to r>ury h<-re only tho»<; who die from natural
■*■•*• >"' v.. j, aye BUHpf^cted him of foul work
X aew ■•.m- - - Oa that other corner, when you sec
tfbort, thick tot fellow. with the bushy mus
ellt: - '■'■ another member of the Mafia, and i un
"^ r *«-i". tha.t be was high up in the organization.
- • Ptttrorifcife hia saloon, yet he seems to , DTO*
'• We base thousht era! times that he ecu
£ «-uai.- by blackmail, but we can prove nothing."
*c polic« /Jl 3 rrec:it the belief that Sicilians who
■ fc^t mt ' 7nt -«T« of the Mafia In their native land
t?35 r*o^g^niz»-dr *o^g^niz»-d n»-r<?. atthouasi such an act would
j-^*** 1 ffwjrt* ami easy. Hut whether or not the
__°"* *^ye transplanted their organization to
BE/JjJ rCa ' th " y bavc -. ■. iv.ti hero neat of it--;
P"»r*° n "' ri<! '° ara HMsM of their proverbs: "Tho
It.^ „^* crt '" force, fools resort to law." "Take
H^jj/*".? ° ; whoever oaken you lose the ine:ini» of
*t!n+- y ' <3lc l wfU '"" k° rl * d ; if I live, you
v<i- "*.' . 'La n<Jt =9t*sc ••' what Coca not con.-em
-*'■*' '' ■^"f.t.'-bn cr cvi!."
'■ J 1 '" a friM>s v P«r;istr«:trd in tho Sic.lian
" tijo police ted in i.iii-^iu.-:U tccu!:-rly
\eV #**«V *w* — « _
dumb. Even the oldest Italian detectives are like
ly to meet with only shrugs and grunts in answer
to their questions. The more ignorant, even though
absolutely" innocent. seem to reel that they must
keep silent or else they will be drawn somehow
Into the net. At home they dreaded the police
because, if they helped an officer, some relative of
the pursued murderer mltrht assassinate them as
they slept Loyalty Is still stronger than law In
most Darts of Sicily.
It is estimated that more than one hundred thou
sand persons have settled here from the southern
end of the Italian peninsula, and many of them
have brought along the teachings of the <\imorra.
which until recent years prevailed In the provinces
near Naples. At one time the Camorra -was simply
organized blackmail levied on rich and poor alike.
Until a generation ago the Camorra thrived. It
had members both among the poor artisans and
the high officials of state. It undertook the trans
portation of smuggled goods. It contracted for the
commission of theft or murder. If one wanted an
enemy slain, he hired the Camorra. It extorted
tribute from storekeepers, or, if they refused, boy
cotted them or set :!re to their shops. It com
pelled professional men to pay blackmail by threat
ening them with financial ruin or death.
At the time Italy was reunited the Camorra be
came so powerful that It got control of the poll
tics of Naples, and ran the city much according
to the principles of Tammany Hall, only more
openly. Offices were bought and sold, and the
municipal treasury robbed till It was empty. At
last the Italian government suspended the munici
pal administration of Naples, and In UN it ran the
city itself. in 1901 the "Honest party" won the
election, and Instituted many reforms. The Nea
politans have settled here principally in Mulberry
st and in East Ustb-St.
That Italian immigration contributes more than
any other to the criminal element of this city may
be seen from the records of Sing Bine prison,
which is recruited chiefly from the metropolis.
Although the Itailans. according- to the. census of
1900. rank third In the population of the city, they
rank first among- the foreign born Inmates of Sing
Sing. The census records 275,102 New-Yorkers who
were born In Ireland. IKJB in Russia and 145.133 in
Italy. At Sing Sine 151 of the !.!!£ prisoners are
natives of Italy, 60 of Russia and 02 of Ireland. At
Auburn prison 49 are from Italy. 31 from Ireland
and 10 from Russia.
Th% "black hand," which has appeared on a
number of threatening letters recently exposed, is
of Sicilian origin, and is frequently used by those
members of the Mafia which still terrorize the
province of Syracuse. Such a letter was recently
received" by S. J. Polise. a tailor in Th!rd-ave. It
threatened Polise. his wife and child, with .Lath
unless he handed t~'*< to a "man wTC a black
■mustache and wearing dark clothing, with a white
Bilk handkerchief." at an uptown rendezvous. At
the end of the letter there was a poorly drawn
hand, which was blackened with ink. Although
Poiise said it was a Joke, he has, nevertheless, oh-
OF THE POLICE. '■**■%•»'
talr.ed a permit to carry a revolver. Another let
ter having- such an ominous emblem for a signa
ture, wa? received the other day by Joseph Bruno,
the fourteen-year-old son of a Newark fruit doaler.
It was as follows:
"Dear Sir: If you don't send $100 In 3 days we
will kidnap you. Leave the money under a brick
under the railroad on th«« right hand side. If you
<2on't look out for yourself. Only a warning.
A «ii drawing of a heart transfixed with a dag
ger decorated the lower left hand corner of the
P Th* emblem of the Mafia has also appeared on
many blackmailing- letters. It '■• a crucifix on the
arms of which is written the victim's name.
Here are a fe-v other evidences of the "black
hand" as a symbol of extortion or death. On
July I thugs who had •ant threatening letters at
tempted to kill Anthony Grerftaldi, a watchman
o' a building in West One-huadred-and-twenty
eeventh-st. On July 12. George F. Abbott and
Frederick Van Buskirk were murdered by "Black
Hand" thugs. On July 16 "Black Hand" men set
Bra to the candy store of Ernest Curd, at rimer
Park Brooklyn. Cure! was suffocated. On August
7 twenty persons were injured by a bomb exploded
In East One-hundred-and-fifty-flrst-st. by Vlncenzo
Dennetto. who had demanded money. It was on
the next day that the son of James Mannlno was
kidnapped and !».•» ransom demanded.
The mania of blackmail has even spread to chil
dren, and among several boys who have been ar
rested for this crime are Henry Hebbner, ■ seven
teen-year-old lad. and William Dekuski. eighteen
yean old both of Brooklyn, who Bent a letter de
manding IMb of Dr. Truman Nichols, of No. 95
Rodney-st. A decoy packa.se was placed at the
specified rendecvous, and the boys were nabbed
when they came to lako it.
Julius Kruttschmitt. of San Francisco, the
general manager of the Southern Pacific Rail
road, recently gave out the largest single order
for steel rails that the business world has ever
a reporter. In discussing this order with Mr.
Kruttschmltt, called It a "daring" one.
•No," said the railroad magnate, smiling,
•there was nothing daring about it. Daring
things are those that have in them something
risky, something insecure. For instance, you
might term 'daring* the well known action of
Hanks, the milkman, in the millionaire's house."
"Hanks, the milkman?" said the reporter,
"Yes. HuiUvs. the milkman. He one morning
forgot to water his milk. In the back hallway
of his best customer he remembered thia omis
sion. A huge tub of fine clear water stood on
the floor by his aide; there was no one to spy
on him. and thrice, before the maid brought up
the Jugs Hanks diluted his milk with a large
measure filled from the tub. Then he served the
young woman calmly and went on.
"As he was bellowing down the next area, the
first customer's footman beckoned to him. He
returned, and was ushered into the presence of,
the customer himself, a millionaire.
"'Hanks,' said the gentleman, "I prefer here
after to water my own milk.'
"'Well, sir.* said Harks, 'it's useless to deny
the thing for I suppose you were watching me
"•>:o: «a!-J th« millionaire. 'No <>•■ ■ v.;>s
watchln* you. Put the f;u l if. Hanks i;: ' chil
dren are taking medicinal baths, ' '" : th t tub in
tee r«.r hallway was full «* «a "rater-
"Judge" Emmons Keeps Boston
Guessing "What Next?'
Boston, Aug. 20 (Special).— "Sh: Sh: It's Emmons."
The orchestra at the Palm Garden stopped in the |
middle of a note, the violin going off Into a squeak ;
as the startled player turned his head. Every »ye \
was focused on the door. Beer glasses were hast- ;
ily set down. A woman smoking a cigarette over
in th« corner quickly >'.r<>pt»*.i it to the Boor, while
••ipar.ions uf a , quirk
ly hushed him up.
"Judge" Emrnons the boats man." chairman
of the Board of Police Cbmmlaetoners, was there.
He had merely dropped in on his usual Saturday
night sprint around the drinking resorts, amuse
ment plai-es and dance halls, and at his h<-els was
a horde of reporters, while crowding behind them
waa a mob of small bo>'9. loafers and curiosity
s^ekfrs. He had Just given the proprietor permis
sion to have music.
The "Judge" stepped briskly Into th« room, his
thin, good humored face lighting up with a nmllo
as he shook hands with the manager, a^ut ha took
a seat at a table. A man who wanted to show the
crowd that he was "veal" to the Commissioner
came up and shook hands. "Won't you have some
thing. Jedge"" r
"No, thank you."
"But won't you have some lemonade or a ginger
"No, thank you."
"Well, don't you want me to (TO with you as a
sort of bodyguard?"
"No. thank you. 1 can take earn of myself."
Then a woman sitting at the next table leaned
over and queried:
" Judge' Emmor.s. do you think there's muslo In
"I don't know," replied the embarrassed "Judge."
"I've never tv en there
He then made his exit, and started for a dance
hall on his list that he wanted to investigate. In
the dance hall the "dash." "spiel." "slide," "glide."
"hop." "sprint" and "double shuffle" went. In fact,
everything went except fighting. Then* was the
young man with his "steady," the girl with the
half-nelson grip and the novice, painfully lugged,
around by her partner, all mixing up to the strains
of "Peggy Brady," "Hiawatha," and "Up the
"What are those people doing with their hand*
up In the air," asked the Commissioner of a re
porter, as 8 couple resembling the Bartholdl statue
on wheels came whirling by. "Why, that's tht*
new 'society' way, 'judge'; ever seen It before?"
"Can't say that I have."
Sulem-Bt. was alive with Its usual cosmopolitan
Saturday night crowd, and the markets were
crowded with buyers. A "drunk." trying to steady
himself by an elevated station, fell under the gaze
of the Commissioner. He was evidently trying to
keep to th« right, but the right lay directly in the
Commissioner's path, and the latter quickly stepped
up to a police officer, who had been conveniently
looking tho other way. ordered him to gather In
the "drunk" and ring for the patrol wag-on, sacri
ficing: some of his "beauty sleep" Monday morning
to appear hi court as prosecutor.
With tho reporters «t!ll with !iir... the "Judge"
strode up Washinston-st.. the crowd following
becoming blfrstr and bigger as he went along.
The word was belns rapidly passed along- ahead
of him by telephone, runners, cabmen and dozens
of Interested "tipsters." so that as he neared a
barroom or a policeman's port he .found things In
apple pie order! A barroom, a lodging houao and
a number of cisns engaged his close attention, but
as he paused In front of another cneap lodging
house tho crowd became so large that an ofilcer
had to dear the sidewalk.
Ila peered Into several barber nhoi;^ to see if the
law was being enforced resardtng Sunday shaving.
It was nearir.s midnight now. and the "judge's"
promulgation that thero must bo no shaving one
second after midnight was causing considerable
trouble to those who were, In the habit of putting;
off the necessary part of the toilet till %i\e last
minute. He potto one shop at 11:43. Here ■ cus
tom, wa i klcklaj^ljt^axuc they wouldn't ' Rive him
a sl::i.T.?no .u'ter tis ijhave. .
" 'JuCk«' Kmmons ba uiaw«U." be was saviaz. "1
'spos« if the clock struck 12 with only on* side
of my face scraped you'd turn me out Into the cold
world, wouldn't you. to go home looking like
Jo-Jo, the dog-faced man. I guess nit. This is a
bum town, and I'm going to take the first train for
N" Y.iwk. Me for the wide open town, where I can
get a drink without having to hire room and
wait till Monday morning. Say. what kind of a
place is this, anyway? Regular Jayhawk village up
ii. Bq .••ilunk. by the way things are run here."
The "Judge" chuckled quietly to himself as he
heard this tirade, and stepped quickly back Into rhe
street. It was midnight, and th»» town was quiet.
Only the "owl" cais end a few lonesome looking
pedestrians laden with Sunday dinners were out and
only the chirp of tho tret»-toads on the Common waa
to be beard. "Judge" Emmons could now go home
to his coutrh in East Boston on the nlsht ferryboat,
conscious that he had done a gu«d night's work
and emiihusiz^d his opinion that all respectable
citizens should b» abed and asleep by midnight.
This was an average Saturday night with the new
Police Commissioner.
William Henry Harrison Emmons. popularly
known as "Judge" Emmons. because when h«? was
appointed chairman of the Boston Board of Police
Commissioners he was a police Justice in the East
Boston Municipal District Court. is a shining ex
ample of paternalism m the government of th« good
city of Boston by the Commonwealth of Massa
chusetts. "Paternalism and reform nor.* to seed '
is the term applied to the present regime of th*
V~. H. H. Smmon*. ••hairmnn of Boston's Board of
Police < 'oromissloners.
Boston Police Board. "Judge" Emmons is a con
scientious offlcehold»?r. No one accuses him of
"graft." His sole aim. avowed and practised, is
to enforce the laws of the State and the ordinances
of ' the city a«i he finds them, without regard to
whom they hit or how they came to be passed.
His methods of enforcement and his administra
tion of hi 3 office have been freely criticised by per
sons of high and low degree; by criminals* and
"grafters." naturally; by Just. as. earnest reformers
as himself, .and by staid., conservative citizens.
None deny his honesty and earnestness, but some
believe that earnestness' is of too strenuous a sort,
ill advised, perhaps, and not always tenip<*r»*d with
discretion. His frequant interviews in the news
papers, manifestoes and touring about we State in
the winter'- months, giving lectures upon police
work and the reforms accomplished by his ad
ministration and by himself, the lecture illus
trated with' blackjacks, handcuffs, fark lantern.-,
the pistol of a murderer, the brass knuckles of a
thug, mementos of Jes3e Pomeroy. th* boy flend.
and other arewsesae relies, savor, of the opera
boufCe. .. ; ' *
Even some of the "Judses" best friends deprecate
. tl:i3r feature, of lls lifl '!':-.••;. wish that hf would
talk' l 38. lie 1;... been censuced fur devoting his
• " ' CoaiiaucU ca testli page.
In Line of Succession to the Crotcn
of Great Britain.
That the birth last we*k of the Czarevitch
Alexis, whn is not only heir to the throne of
All the Russlas. hut likewise, as a great-grar.d
chl!d of Queen Victoria, in the line of succes
sion to thi> British Crown, should have been
hailed as the beginning of a new era in Russia
is not surprising. Superstition is rife in the do
mlnions of Emperor Nicholas, and by the vast
majority of his subjects the advent of the in
fant prince Is regarded as an Indication that
Its parents are restored in Divine favor. This
they were believed to have forfeited, ar.d every
misfortune that has overtaken Russia during
the last few years, more especially since the be
ginning of the war with Japan, has been
ascribed not only by the masses, but also to
a great extent by the classes, to the fact that
their rulerg were "unlucky" and objects of re
lentless anger on the part of Providence. So
widespread has been th<» impression that had
the Czarina again disappointed the nation by
presenting it with a fifth daughter, instead of
with the long- and eagerly expected son. there
is no knowing but the safety of the Crown
might have been endangered by a popular revo
lution, designed to remove from the throne sov
ereigns so manifestly accursed, and. therefore,
destined to bring still further disasters on the
Then, tco. the birth of the little Czarevitch,
by furnishing a guarantee of the continuity of
th* Emperor's policy, will encourage henceforth
the officials of high and of low degree through
out the empire to accord to him an obedience
and a loyaity which they have until now with
held. As long as Nicholas remained without a
direct heir the Tohlnovicks— that Is to say. the
servants of the state, from the highest to the
low Ast —have been under the Impression that in
the event of any sudden demise of the Crown
the successors might completely reverse the
present autocrat's policy, and regard with dis
favor all those who had Identified themselves
therewith. That Is why so many of the decrees
of Nicholas II have remained a dead letter, and
w*hy the progressive and enlightened measures
which h« has Instituted have remained still
born. The statesmen and officials upon whom
he was compelled to depend for their execution
were afraid to fulfil his behests, to Incur the
anger of his successor In the event of hl9 death
The birth of the Grand Duke Alexis changed ail
this, for even if anything untoward should hap
pen to the Emperor in his boy's minority, lt will
he found that he has made provision for in
trusting his widow with the guardianship of the
new Czar until his majority.
While the word "Czarevitch" means "son of
the Czar." yet there have been times when it has
been borne by the brother of the Emperor, al
though the latter has had several sons living at
the time. Like th- dignity of Prince of Wales
In dreat Britain, and that of Prince or Princess
Of the Asturias in Spain, the title is conferred by
the sovereign as an act of royal or Imperial
fav<>r instead of heUHJ assumed as a right of
birth and inheritance, and the Czar would hay-»
HI art had he seen fit. to appoint some
other prince of his family rather than his son as
Czarevttca. Thus, Emperor Paul, although he
proclaimed his eidest son Alexander heir to the
throne in t7t»7. conferred the title of Czarevitch
upon h!s second son. Constantine. in 1799. to re
■war! his distinguished services in the Italian
campaign, and Constantine continued to bear It
nor only throughout the reign of his elder
brother, Alexander, but likewise during the reipr.
of his younger brother. Nicholas, although the
latter had no fewer than rhr»e sons, the oldest
of them fourteen at th? time of his iConstan
tine's) death.
The first mention of a Czarevitch tn the his
tory of Russia is in connection w!;h the tragic
tale of Ivan IV killing, in a fit of temporary
passion, his favorite son. the one object that ha
loved in the world; and this Emperor, who was
so Justly surnamed "The Terrible," Is described
as havlnjc become wellnigh insane with grief
ar.d despair when he realized that he ha 1 flam
h's Czarevitch. Coming down to more familiar
days, we find Peter the Great administering
poison to his son. tbe Czarevitch Alexis, nom
inally aa a punishment for treason, but in re
ality because the prince hated the Western ways
of h:s father, and openly proclaimed his inten
ttSfl of abolishing, as soon a 4 he came to the
throne, all the Occidental reforms introduced by
the creator of modern Russia. There are few
more dramatic pages in Muscovite annals than
those describing the closing scenes of this drama
enacted by the Emperor and his son in the dun
geons of the Kremlin of Moscow, in the pres
ence of the leading dignitaries of the realm.
From that time forth nothing more was heard
of Czarevitches until the end of the last cen
tury, wher. Catherine II conferred the title upon
her son Paul. It is almost impossible to de
scribe the cruelties to which Czarevitch Paul
was subjected by his mother, who hated him.
toward the !att-r part of her reign, with such a
bitter hatred that his life was in constant dan
ger. She repeatedly sought to have him put
out of the way. and lefi a wi'l disinheriting
him in favor of his eidest son. Alexander, who
was her favorite. This document, however, was
burned immediately after he' death by Count
Kuraliin. a friend of Paul, and the Utter as
cended the throne.
Alexander 1 -an;.* Emperor without ever
having been Czarevitch, that title, as stated
above, having been conferred upon hta younger
brother. Constantine. as a return for military
services, while on the death of Alexander with
out male issue it was not Czarevitch Constan
tine that succeeded to the throne, but his young
er brother. Nicholas I. It Is said that Constan
tine's renunciation of his right to the cession
to the throne in favor of his younger brother
Nicholas was voluntary. F.ut to ih:3 day t :••
entire affair remains shraejOed in th«» densest
mystery, ni> une, save possibly some uf tli«
ALGLST 21, too^.
Martini * Rossi
SALES 15.000.04)0 BOTTLEi A \ EAR.
members of the reigning- family of Russia, and
the keepers of the imperial archives, being cos
nizant of the true motives that prompt- Con
stantine to make way for his younger brother.
There has always been a question as to whether
he did so willingly or not. for he accepted the
oath of allegiance from the Council of the Em
pire and from the troops after the death of, •
Alexander I. and then withdrew only when th»
act of renunciation which he had signed was
produced by his mother. Those who declined
to transfer their allegiance from Conatanttne to
Nicholas were thereupon either banished to Si
beria or put to death, literally by the thousands.
Nicholas, In fact, may be said to have waded
through a sea of blood in order to reach the
throne which his elder brother bad for some
unknown potent reason been forced to abandon
In his favor.
It was only after Constantino's death that
Nicholas I. by a ukase dated September 10.
IS3I. Invested his son Alexander, at that time
fourteen years old. with the title of Czarevitch.
Alexander ll's eldest eon Nicholas waa mad*
Czarevitch at the time of Ms own accession In
1855. But that young prince died eleven years)
later at Nice of tuberculosis of the lungs,
brought on. it Is said, by a blow from bis broth
er in the chest, delivered either In the course of
boxing or during some rough horseplay. Just
before Czarevitch Nicholas expired at Nice, al
most on th» very eve of the day appointed for
his wedding, he placed the hand of his betrothed
in that of his brother Alexander, entreat -
them to -marry. Their consent to his dying re
quest was given with manifest reluctance oa
both sides. But. to the astonishment of all. the*
match turned out ultimately one of the happiest
of royal or imperial unions In modern times.
The present Emperor In turn became Czare
vitch when the assassination of his grand
father. Alexander 11. brought his rather. Alex
ander 111. to the throne, nearly a Quarter of a.
century ago; and when he in turn became em
peror he conferred the title of Czarevitch upon
his second brother George-, who was afflicted
with consumption at the time, and who was to
die In such a strange way a few years later by
a roadside in the Caucasus, near Tifils. bis bead
resting upon the lap of an old peasant worry-in
who had found him dying there, alone and un
attended. It is doubtful whether Nicholas would
have appointed his brother George to ho Czare
vitch had he not known that the young prince
was doomed to an early death by the malady
which had already obtained so strong a. hold
uron his constitution, and it is understood that
the dignity was granted to him rather with the
object of pleasing and humoring a dying broth
er than with any idea that he would ever suc
ceed to the throne. When George was laid tr»
rest in the imperial mausoleum In the Peter ami
Paul' Fortress Church at the mouth of the Neva.
*-c Czar's other brother. Michael, became heir
apparent. But it was expressly stipulated in
the decree by means of which he was invested
with the prerogatives oJid precedence as sueti
that he should only continue to enjoy them until
the birth of a son to the Emperor.
It may be timely at this juncture to nff»r a
few words of explanation with regard ti th»
laws of succession to the Muscovite crown,
about which little Is known abroad, since th**>
are to be found in no standard work about Rus
sia. They are comprised in the Decree of Em
peror Paul, and were published in the -Imperial
Gazette" at Moscow on May 12, 1707. with the
Intimation that on the day of his coronation
his imperial majesty had laid the ukase in ques
tion on the altar of the church where the cere
mony took place. According to this decree, in
nominated as his heir his eldest son, Alexander,
vesting the succession in the latter's male Issue.
In the default of Alexander and of the larte- I
male issue, the crown was to pass to Emperor
Paul's younger sons and to their male Issue.
In the event of all Emperor Paul's sons dying
without male issue, the crown was to go to th*
eldest daughter of Paul's eldest son. and to her
Issue, male and female, but by preference male,
even If the latter was Junior in point of age to
the female. In default of this, the crown was
to go to the daughters of Paul's other sons, and
to their male and female issue, and only in th»
event of these lines becoming extinct was th«.
throne to pass to Emperor Paul's own daugh
ters and to their issue. Czar Paul, In his' de
cree, expressly stipulated that In the event of a
grand duchess next In the line of succession to
the throne being unmarried, whereas her
younger sister had sons, the elder and spinster
princess should not forego her precedence nor
her prior right to the throne, since there was
always a possibility that she might marry anal
have children. In one word, a younger sister
can. in the matter of succession to the Russian
throne, never outrank her elder sister, although
younger brothers have prior rights to those of
their elder sisters It is necessary to bear this
in mind In order to understand the positions eft
the Czar's four daughters, and of his brother
Michael, with regard to the succession to -.;;•
crown. Michael, who now ceases to b* heir ap
parent, assumes the second place In the line of
succession, while the little girls of Finpeim
Nicholas will have no right to the throne until
all the grand dukes of the house of Romanoit
have either died or waived their claims.
A very Important feature of Emperor Paul's
ukase concerning the succession is that which
relates to the possibility of the crown of Rus
sia, passing by right of inheritance to a foreign
prince, that Is to say. to the issue of a Russian
grand duchess who has married a foreigner. The
decree insists that in such an event the prince
In question must renounce his foreign national
ltj*. and if possessed of a foreign throne must,
abandon that a* well. In order to become a Rus
sian, and to Join the Russian Church. In case
of refusal to Join the Russian Church, or. to
abandon the foreign throne or nationality. Jfce
prince or princess in question- lose?, ipse facto,
the right of succession to the Russian throne.
Should the crown pass by right of mhertt
re* a Russian grand. duchess, and the la:ier hap
pen to be married either to a Russian or to a
foreign prince, the latter would not • bev.um£
Emperor, but merely Prince Consort, and the
reins o,? power would remain in the hands of the
Empress regnant. Finally. Emperor Paul de
clares that with the view of avoiding any doubt
or dispute on the subject of the succession to
the throne, each sovereign must on bis acces
sion issue a proclamation designating the suc
cessor to the crown, and in the event of the
death of the heir must at once, without tors
than twenty -four hours' delay, nominate some
prince or princess In bis or her stead. Nicholas
II compiled with this statute when he became
Emperor by proclaiming his brother George as
his successor, and. within twenty-rour hours of
the latter*, death, designating his other brother
Ceatlaaed oa teata page.

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