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New-York tribune. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, October 30, 1904, Image 19

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CHEAT AMERICAN FOOD STAPLE
TBE MILLIONS INFESTED IN RICE PRODUCTION
HAVE GIVEN IT THAT RANK.
Th* Abundant Product of the Louisiana and Terat Fields Greatly Aids
the Solvtion of the Subsistence Problem.
jCrw-Orleana. Oct. — Do Tribune readers, pen
ers'.'r. know much of rice; of rice as a result
article of diet; of the place it has won for Itself
<<song the great food staples of this country, and
ef the tremendous increase In production of recent
year* that has forced this recognition?
It is doubtful. For at present rice consumption Is
confined mainly to the South r-nd the Middle West,
Sfortfcwestera »nd Pacific States. The average
person in the Eastern States knows that the arti
cl« which he or she has used either ac a dessert
When in health or as a delicacy when ailing is
growr to a limited extent on the alluvial lands of
tb* Sls*c!ssir>r>l and of the Carolinas and Georgia;
know*, too, that It Is extensively raised in the
Orient, and largely used fey Eastern peoples as their
etapl* filet, but has •_»: a vague sort of way al
»tr* toelievtd its habitual users inferior, neces
sarily «o. to those who subsist on meat, wheat, corn
and potatoes.
It Mmii to reach aiteost the dignity of a "law of
astur** 1 that people will play leapfrog over the
tfclngs that 11*- at their own doors to acquire knowl
ecr« c? them from distant sources. Thus, the les
son that rice is amen*: the most nutritious and
rsstalr.:r.g. as well as cheapest, of foods and ad
nilraWe for use as a factor of the regular diet has
•jess close at hand: but it has remained for the
present war between the Russians and the Japa
nese to teach that which the American Civil War
Bight hare taught. For the soldiers of the- Con
federacy were largely, though not exclusively, rice
esters. At.6, certainly, those that were from the
•toothers States where rice is used not only as a
staple food, but not infrequently In lieu of bread.
wore not lufericf in Intelligence, courage, endur
asos or physique^ to their comrades from the other
States where It was lirtle, if at all. used. Of course.
Chess rice eating Southerners were not reared on
M exclusively— in feet, they were "mixed feed
mrfi tut it 1* doubtful if. In the family, they ever
•at at a dinner table at which boiled rice, was not
■. yraa&lner.t feaure of the repast.
It Is probable that the limited acreage and pro-
Coctlcn cf the alluvial ric« lands have had much
to to with making of rice a negligible quantity
among the food staples of the United States, there
being only 40,000 acres, producing 475.030 bags, on
the Mlssisltpp:. and Georgia and the Carolina*
having under rice cultivation or.'y UM acres, with
a combined yield of S'Kt.OOO bags, even now. But.
some ten years ago there came a new Richmond
into the field, and ■TntffTt fct a bound placed rice
to the Ban
It mm be Interpolated that this article is r.ct a
plea for the i;se of rice. for that which is the stiff
cf life for more Una one-taalf of the globe needs
r.o afivoca'-y ether than its own so well established
Oitrli. It is sjaopoe • ( an ir.vestigßticn of the
latest Bevetopsnest Of a Gulf Coast industry un
fiTti-ker. hi pomatfT of The Tribune's project of
ltyirp beftae Its inaflms the natural mross,
. sdtttons and ladttstrfal progress of the
Bootll boJ :: n.ay w, n be that In these times of
•* • • scarcity and high prteed beef a hat is writ
•«• bere ■ y ounvej calnab)e hnt to all i.ouse
■ - Tr.' results Ol *t»4« investirr.'.ion are set
'■• v f-•..;•f -•..;• M - :.e necctsarily limited space
I i rntt.
Oescrlbing U i rice Industry of to-day, a
brief Fffl't"* <if the lilaUwy of the staple may be
• esi&lljtfh the raisoii d'etre of the for
n/cr.
HISTORY OF RICE CULTURE.
r tu:e ;s l^>st In the mists of
c •.;, ■ ■•■ . . • story betas; purely mythical,
• . . ■ ■ had Its bulnnings In Hin
■ - • . :.. ■:. trtra] different ac
■ •. •■ , ■; |tc tntrodoct^DQ in America. One de
. teOtaL thn.uth the ttranding of a
BSSa i.i>:' I East liidiaman on the coast of the
'"i.ronriris early hi the eighteenth century. a
j'reach Bngaen • r- * p i securad one small sack
':; the eat n of tbe piirtially res ued
• lcv:i tn the East recog
i •• I ■ norftrnri v rice, J'iaiui^g it In a river
• laid the tbendadon of the South Caro
lastrjr. A. .;her. "i:air.say's History of
£ ota CaroHaa." itates that an Kngiish. or Dutch.
K: -'i' '' bouud frum Madagascar was
Orires by Btreaa of weather to seek shelter in the
■■ rcj ChaxK tan, and thJ .;:;,.::. • tins an
'. ■ * ::. the plaoe. Who cxj.iessed a de-
. ■• ts erp.-rimer.t with the lilts Im. of ric« upon
■ lev.- DMtSt patch of ailHUid hi his garden sirr.iJar
I (hat 'r: Which be !:;:r.-*!f had seen rice growing
b Madagascar, presezH d bin arttb a small bag
< | - ac seed v.:.. v . hapyeaed to i>» among the ship's
stores Rm cite <■•'. this experiment. Longitude
Ltr.e. Jr. CharteatOM. i.- still pointed out.
•> ' culture in Lji;:siar.a dates back to the Span-
M) orcjpar.c; 1 . Prura that until a comparatively
recent period— lSSS— rice was planted in the alluvial
lend* alOBS; the rivtrs aoid bayous, the crops being
dependent for lrrigat'an upon their waters, which
were elevated over the leveta by pumps and
Siphons V.it?i the Immigration Into Southwestern
l«ouisiar.a— the "Evar.peline couitry" — of skilled
ftgrlcu'. ■ ■ • of the old Stat«s. mestly from Illinois
■at low*, in 188& and 1890. the pral-'.e lands of that
"HElon, ur.til then used by the Acad'ann for pastuf
lr.g. mttt brought ur.d<r nee cultlvaion. At first
ir'lge'i methods were crude, the U.-mers saving
the rs.!.-faU by damming It In the flel|« and letting
t c-jt frees tlie primitive levees Into he fields b*
*•*", as needed. In time. : 'Tiding ihi» method of
Battam precarious and of little profit, us the avail
able aereaKe was rieccssarily email, r-»UTal!s un
certain knd the iatior irjvoived too f.;:"'j ; experl
»enta were m&4« ertth dM liißl-er land». waich de
*«lo;*(3 the fart that could the problem of getting
water on them b« so'ved they would prcve is good
rice Imdi as those along the bayous.
A flearrit'tion of tSm Ban? experiment* th»t were
tr.ca would l»e tedious. Si'.ff.t-e it to say that »bout
R3ne yt^rs a*o the first successful pumping phut,
with » canal to carry -' c water to the points of \*e,
•as ir.KUuled on the banks of Bayou Ftaquemtos. m
touthwt«t Lcuitiana. ;• proved the Bolutloa cf !«
»T&t>!*r of raising - -* br irrigation and martel
■a epoch In Its cultivation, for eooa thousands o:
*cr*s c:.tU th*-n co^siderefl \-a!aclees. exo<>pt as
pssture. a»r.-jrr;ed a:: agriculturiil nine, and ro*«
te rapia ■MBSMtaa from ■• cents to r. to JlO. u>
•*. to $30. to jco. and to. la exceptional cases, as
k'gh as $75 an *«<■
A« wti but natural similar land» In Southeast
•tb T«i» virtually a part of the same great belt.
*«»» later— :S77-brouirfct under cultivation by the
«*ns« methods; and tho» praMa rice planting. "
toss been Htii-<i by ti.< Departrnert of Agriculture,
"hat bten developed from un experiment Into a
•'-able Srifiustry of the greatest Importance to the
TJn!te« State*." In this Industry, as will be shown
■«**■ or, hundreds of thoyEan'ls of acre* of land
bs*« bee» brought under cultivation, and millions
c dollar* !.ave been Invested In mills, pumping
Wants and irrigation canais and la farm lmprove
***»te, machinery and implements
_^afl can It i« supposed tl.at these vaet sums
*■»« Invested by intelligent Americans in an ludus
*T the purpose of which was to produce a dainty
"**>• chief ingredient of "rice purtding" and "rice
ct*tirc\" for l-istance— or that these Ur.ds were
**** utilized in ric* culture because they would
* Tofl U< * nothing else but lice, Had cultivable
2** ire growing too scarce to leave Bii'-U a T * Bt
•**•**• la i«*stura«e'.' Ta autwer tv second «u«i
tion first, the modern extern of farming and the
commercial fertilizer could make them, as in the
case of the old "pine barrens." yield cotton, corn
and many other crops abundantly, and st consid
erably l.ss cost than rice. The answer to the
first question is a triumphant vindication of the
calms of rice to rank foremost among food sta
pies. It is to be found in the comparative value of
foods, and is tersely stated on th« letterhead of
one of the principal promoters of the industry
thus:
t * 1
THE COMING CER.EAU
A f.oun/J of rice contains Rf1.09 per cent of ni>
ntive matter; lean beef contain* but ae.BB par
%% „j fat l *' f <"° nt «'n« ««-4« p«r cent: potatoes.
, -IT*. jrf-r cent: Indian c.-rzi. 82.07 per cent: oats.
.4.0 per „.„,; rye. 82.78 i*r cent, and wheat.
S-.y per cer.t.
80. it was only upon scientific investigation thst
capital entered upon this Industry, assured that
having at least the food value of wheat rice must
of necessity eventually take its place beside the
former in the list of great food staples.
Capital expected to encounter difficulties in the
enterprise, both In the production of th« rice and
In Its marketing. In the former it had to adopt
entirely new and untried methods, and had to Bolya
vexed problems in agriculture, engineering and
mechanics, and in the latter It had to consider the
human equation, which in this case, meant teach
ing people to adopt, to them, an entirely new food,
and one that, unless properly cooked, is unpalata
ble. It relied. In Urn first case, on American inven
tion: in the second, on American Intelligence— lf it
could convince the latter of the foort value of rice
it would quickly find out how to cook it.
THE GREAT RICE BELT.
What is s-erierally known as "the great rice belt"
stretches away from the Teche. In Southwestern
Louisiana, some distance to the westward of Hous
ton. Tex., and comprises under rice cultivation
400.000 acres in the former State and 210.000 In the
letter, in all 610.'".'} acres. The Louisiana "river
rice" acreage and the rice acreage of the Caro
linas and Georgia combined is only about 84,000,
which comparison will give an idea of th« mag
nitude of the Industry built up in the prairie lands
In bo short a time.
THE IRRIGATION STSTEM.
While the system of irrigation by canals and lat
erals is uniform throughout the belt, tho means of
obtaining water Is not the same In all localities. In
most, pumping plants are installed to lift the water
from the bayous *.n<l streams, in some cases to the
extreme height of thlrly-one feet above drainage
level; but in Borne sections deep, and in others
shallow wells are used, these last necessitated by
the absence of streams. The canal system has been
aptly described thus:
"The canal Is always built like, two parallel rail
road embankments on the highest ridge of the.
prairie, the surface of the ridge being the bottom of
the canal, so that all water, once in the canal, will
flow out a.nd down upon the surrounding lands.
Many rmall lateral canals are constructed to con
vey water- at the same level to more distant fields.
The canal company charges a toll of two sack*
(or barrels) an acre for water supply. Sometimes
the toll Is one-fifth of the crop, and some of the
companies give the planter an option to pay either
one-fifth, or two tacks, proving that they regard
ten barrels an ecre as a safe average yield. Unless
one sees it. words cannot give a proper conception
of the vast amount of water sent surging out of
these mammoth pumps through canals and onto the
HARVESTING RICE IN THE GREAT RICE BELT.
rice fields. The canals, of course-, vary in size,
length end capacity, watering from 4.000 to 12.000
acres. The pumps of a certain land and irrigation
company have a capacity of 80,000 gallons a minute.
A river on which a coasting schooner or small river
steamboat might float is sent whirling through the
flume. And all this water is used up on a little
more than fce\e:i hundred acres, although It is estl
nuited the same supply will cover 10.0 CO acres next
season, when the old levees will be thoroughly
puddled and waterlald. and seepage Stopped. Evap
oration during the dry season Is estimated to b«
half an inch In twenty-four hours. This will re
quire a water supply p«r acre of 13,000 gallons a
uay. M'J gallons an hour, or -9 gallons a minute.
Loss of water from any other cause than evapo
ration Is so slight aa to be hardly appreciable." It
may PS v.-el! to supplement this admirably clear ex
planation with the statement that the "lateral." In
addition to the work of conveying to fields distant
from] the main canal, is so contoured to th« lay of
the land as to Insure &n equal distribution of the
water, and to prevent Its settling in one part of a
field end leaving another bare.
DEEP AND SHALLOW WELLS.
The question of water supply for lands well
adapted to rice growing, but beyond the reach of
the canals from the bayous, was settled, as said,
by the driving of wells, which, at <» varying depth
of from ISO to 206 feet, tapped a thirty to forty
•oot stratum of water birring sand. Of course,
r ese v. ells cannot Irrigate as great an acreage as
iio the canals. They can care for from 150 to 250
fccies of rice only, while th* largest of the pumping
Blasts can now t^ke cure of some thirty-five
thousand acr*s. It is not possible to give th«
iium-jer of wtrils. shallow and deep, in the beit.
PUMPING PLANTS AND CANALS.
Nor are there any accurate statistics of the
pumping plants and canals, but the best informa
tion obtainable points to eomc one hundred and
three plmts. using i' 76 pumps, and having 820
miles ol main canal, with some thousand miles
of lal»raJs The ai>a watered by these plants is
estimated at about five hundred and sixty thousand
acr«s. The aggregate volume of water lifted out
of the atrwuna and bayous so lowers these in a
dry ef-aton us to sum the sajt waters of th« Gulf
to "lark up." and this has necessitated the con
siryction of "locks" r.ear the coast.
THE RICE MILJJNG PLANTS.
There are forty-6even rloe mills in this State and
nineteen in Texas, reariv all of them compara
tively new. and «-quij.:>ed with all the latest and
most approved machinery ami appurtenances.
With the «ceptk»n of the t«n that arc- !o?at», : j n
,•,. ..-jiy of Sew-Ortean*. and band* 'river" B a
■roll dm •'belt" riot. tfcc*e nulls axe nMtdr evenly
NEW- YORK DAILY TRUUJNE. SUNDAY. OCTOr.EK 30. IJXU.
PLOUGHING, HARROWING AND PLANTING RICE IN THE GREAT RICE BELT.
WATER POURING INTO FLUME FROM TWO CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
IN THE GREAT RICE BELT.
distributed throughout the belt, and along the
lines of the Southern Pacific.
EXCELLENT TRANSPORTATION FACILITIES.
This great system "originates" about 70 per cent
of the tice business. It is practically the sole car
rier throughout the rife belt, ar.d yet has succeed
ed In giving universal satisfaction, beine every
where praised for its fain.e.s3, its accommodating
spirit ar.d Us earnest efforts to foster the Industry.
It has ?ent its Immigration agents throughout the
Northern mid Western States and has brought
trainlo&ds of desirable immigrants to the belt; has
f;otten out tha most abundant, exhaustive ai;d il
uminatlrig literature on rice and ha? distributed
It extensively the world over, and it has ever been
found ready to contribute liberally to any enter
prise that promised to promote the welfare of the
rice and other Interests in Its territory.
VAST CAPITAL INVESTED.
The investment of capital In the rice industry of
the btflt Is estimated by experts to be some $30,000,
000; this Includes the lands, the farm improvements
and Implements, the pumping plants and canals,
and tht mills. The operating expenses of the in
dustry ; 're not accounted for in this estimate: It
takes from Jlw.OOu to $500,000 to handle a year's crop
for one mill alone, either In the shape of advances
to the farmer, or to purchase the crop outright.
THE RICE BELTS PRODUCTION.
The yield from this great outlay of capital was In
1903 a crop (for the- belt) of 4.77&.550 ba.Rs. worth
more than $15.!J00.00u. Add to this the product of
the alluvial lands of the Carolinas, Georgia and
Mississippi, 77o.'»>i bags, and this country's last ri'-e
crop Is seen to have been 6.555,960 bags— a very small
proportion of tbe world's estimated production, it is
true, bur a tremendous increase. In ten years, in
American production.
The six pounds per capita which this country will
consume, with tbe exports to Porto Kico. will eas
ily, under normal conditions, dispose of the present
rlca yield of the United States. That the per capita
consumption will not lonir remain so low is easy
to predict, in tbe light of the growing knowledge of
the food value of' this great staple, which is
cheaper, unit for unit of nutrition, than any oth«f
food— meat, cereal or vegetable.
THE POPULATION OF THE BELT.
There are in the Great Rice Belt of Louisiana and
Tex. is some thirty towns having an estimated ag
gregate population of 12.ixa>, the sole business of
which Is ricp. and some twenty towns with a total
population of about 140,000, In the business of which
rice Is an important factor. This, however, will not
figure out the number of people engaged to, or sup
ported by. the industry In the belt, fince It does
not include the strictly rural population, which is
roughly estimated at K.OOO.
Of the people engaged In the industry, about 65
per cent are from the- Northern and Middle Western
States, Illinois furnishing about one-half or" thrm.
This in chiefly interesting from the fact that It may
be considered presumptive evidence of the perma
nency of the industry, for two reasons: The first,
but not the greater, is that these Immigrants are
skilled farmers, mechanics and millers. ;;nd the
second is that they are abe to live, thrive and
multiply in these rice tU'lils. which absolutely es
tablishes the aealthfulnesa of the r<?ion. CbttlJl
the whit«» man live and work in the alluvial lands
of Georgia and th* Carolinas, the Industry would
not be on the decline th> re; he would find means
of offsetting trie operating advantages of prairie
cultivation— which, in truth, are al
ready partially offset by the tact that the ••river
r<ce" is superior, and Is harvested, and so is mar
keted, before the "belt rice."
PRAIRIE RICE CULTIVATION.
A comparison of the methods employed In the
alluvial lands and those of the prairlo belt will
disclose the nature of these advantages. In the
fanner the rice grower has to ecw and reap by
ha(iil. His heavy and bottomless soil (which ah
sort** water and becontea ggy) will not Baftain
the writ!-! of tie agriculture ] machinery employed
on the prairie, *\t'.i its hard and t : rr.~ nub-soil. In
the latter the operations of ploughing, seeding,
reaping and thrashing ; re Identical with thus* in
the wheat country, and in them the very same
LETTING WATER INTO THE RICE FIELDS BY MEANS OF TH£
IRRIGATING CANAL,
machinery is utilized— the traction engine, with
plough, harrowing machinery, drill and seeder, and
the mechanical reaper ami steam thrasher.
The soils of the rice belt are clay, clay loams or
sandy loams, with clay sub-soils; they are rioh and
of sufficient depth, and with scientific farming will
produce any of the cereals, all of the small grains,
3u?ar cane, sorghum, Kaffir corn, garden truck of
all kinds, sweet and Irish potatoes, turnips, pea
nuts, strawberries, many of the fruits of temperate
and tropical climates, and, as has been said before,
cotton. But the staple crop Is rice, and it is said
that nowhere else will rice lands produce better
crop.=. the possible yields exceeding those of Japan,
China or the Burmese delta.
Planting: Is begun as early a^ March, and may 'no
continued as late as July: the earliest harvests are
about the iCth of August, and the latest In October.
The average farm in the belt is about 320 acres,
and is frequently held 'tinder the tenant system.
About 75 per cent of the labor of the belt is negro,
and about 23 I -r cent white, much of the latter
coming from the 'West. Labor is paid $' 50 a day.
MILLING AND MARKETING THE CROP.
A portion of the crop of the belt Is shipped to
and milled in New-Orleans, and is distributed by
the dealers ip this city, as is the entire crop of
I Mississippi River rice: but the greater part of it is
manufactured and sold by the country mills
throughout me territory.
The modern medium sized rice mil! here handles
about tight hundred and fifty sacks in a day of
twelve hours, and the process, which turns out the
grain In a style that excels its manufacture else
where m the world, may c briefly described thus:
The "rough" rice is placed in the "holler." which
consists of a 'bed," or nether millstone (hollowed
out in the centre) and a "runner." or upper mill
stone, the space betwevn the two being regulated
by the size of the srain. which, standing on end. »9
nipped by the runner, causing the grain to jump out
of Us shell. From these stones the rice is conveyed
to "cooling bins" through funs, which carry oft the
hulls: and from thence to the Engleburg "hullers,"
a patent arrangement which scours the rice and
separates the by-product from the grain, the latter
being next conveyed to the "polisher" to receive
the finishing touch. This polisher is simply a nar
row upright tubular chamber, metal lined, and con
taining «t somewhat smaller ateeJ wire cylinder,
l>;i' lied with wool and leather covered. Into it. the
flee comes down, from floor above, through a hop
per, and is whirled about with almost Inconceivable
rapidity, the friction performing the work of pol
ishing. In the operation the tine flour, technically
known as "rice polish." is thrown off.
The manufactured rice is conveyed to an auto
matic machine which weighs out exactly one hun
dred pounds ?.t a time, anil pours the same into the
bag, or "pocket" in which the rice is marketed. It
may be explained th;:* the trade terms "bags" only
those sacks containing the rough rice from the
field; these hoid about one hundred and eighty
pounds each.
The average yield of a bng. in the process of
manufacture, is one hundred ponnda of "head rice."
ten pounds of "middling."' ten pounds <>t" "brew
ers' rice." thirty pounds of •hulls, fifteen pounds
of "bran," and live pounds of "rice polish," the ba!
uncc b. ir.2 v. aste.
Th-> rice of the belt is of two seeds, or varities—
the Japan and the Honduras. The first is not
planted either in the Carottnaa or tin the Missis
sippi, end Is preferred In certain markets, more
particularly in the West, the Nortawest and on tlie
Pacific Coast; the latter ib p an edVve ywhere. The
belt plants about equal quantities of the Japan and
the Honduras.
In buying the rough rice it la graded according
to the percentage ol red grains It contain:--. In
classifying for market the size, color and grain
(the latter should not have much "chalk"* aeter
lne the trutle.
The value of tha clean rice fluctuates, of course,
with the demand, but, in.-der normal conditions, the
h<-id rice sells for about 4* cents, the middling
(or broken > rice about f%i cents, and the brewers'
rice about 1' 3 cents. The by-products obtained
In the proc. H 1 renerally thus: Rice polish.
the bulk of which Is shipped to Germany at from
SU to $^<i a ton; bran (obtained from the hulls and
cuticle of the rice* is worth t:> to $12 at the mills,
and is fed straight to cattle; the ground rice hull
Is worth SO to 1350 a ton, and is mixed with
"chops" (cracked corn) for cattle feed
In this report of the rice industry of the Gulf
Coast comparatively little space has been '--voted
to Louisiana's valuable river rice interests for
the reason that, being long established, it 'is as
sumed to have been many times described and to
be generally better known than the prairie rice
The Tribune Is indebted for no small or ur.lm
portant portion of the information here laid before
its readers to "Th« Crowley Signal" and "The Rice
Journal and Gulf Coast Farmer," Loth of which are
to be praised for the enterprise which promoted
the search for, and the publication of reliable sta
tistics Of this comparatively new industry l.nd'for
the intelligent manner In which they conducted the
necessarily arduous and difficult task.
SNAKES' EYES.
From Nature.
Bnakes may sTmost be said to hare glass eves
Inasmuch aa their eyes nev.-r ctosw Th«&™ with
out lids, and each Is eorered with j ? tran-wre^
scale, much reaemblir.s class. IVhen tSereDttSe
twigs, sharp (rase and other obstructtonV which
the snake encounters in ;ts trarefa ■ >t it U tr 1,
Parent enough to allow the most perfect vision
Thus, if the snake has net a class eye it rnTv «
any rate, be tald to wear eyeglasses >- at
OUR NEXT PRESIDENT.
paign there seems little doubt that they will be
carried by the Democratic candidates. I think
the foregoing ia a conservative forecast.
J. P. CALJ>WELU
Editor of "The Charlotte Observer."
Charlotte. N. C.
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: The full State and National Democratic
tickets will be elected in North Carolina by
majorities ranging about 50.<Xtf>. This counting
on a very light vote. There is a possibility of
the Republicans electing one Congressman, in
the Eighth District EAULK OODBET.
News Editor of "Ashoville Gazette-News. 1 '
Asheville. N. C.
N RTH DAKOTA SWILLS THI TOTAL
Will Give Boosevelt and Fairbanks 25,000,
Possibly More.
To the Editor ot The Tribune.
Sir: There is absolutely no question of the
Republicans carrying this State. The national
and State tickets will have a majority running
from !>>,UUO to £k.oua The legislature will be
7.1 t«j So per cent Republican in both branches,
and will elect a Republican Stnator.
L. B. HANNA,
Chairman of the Republican State Central Com
mittee.
Fargo, N. D.
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: The Republicans will carry every county
In North Dakota, and the Roosevelt electors
will have from >'3,000 to 23t,000 majority.
M. H JEWELL.
Secretary of the Republican State Committee.
Biamarck. N. D.
To the Editor cf The Tribune.
Sir: North Dakota will give Roosevelt 2»>000
to 23.000 majority for the entire Republican
State tlcke-f and :»,Of>o for the Congress nomi
nees. BISMARCK TRIBUNE.
Bismarck, X D.
OHIO SAFE, SANE AND SUBE.
Will Give Roosevelt at Leas; 60.000, Perhaps
100,000.
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: Ohio is safely and sanely and surely Re
publican. Roosevelt's plurality in the State
will be not less than I<h>.iiu<». it Is more likely
to reach the figures that marked last year's
Democratic disaster, when Herrick defeated
Johnson by 113,«X«>. The Democrats are sadly
divided. Mayor Tom Johnson of Cleveland
and John R. McLean, of Cincinnati and Wash
ington, in their conflict for party mastery have
torn the organization into shreds. As a result
the Republicans have less to fear than In lS9«i
and ISMH). Roosevelt is popular in Ohio; th»
mass of the working people will support him.
The contest has not developed the interest of
the McKinley campaigns
THE CLEVELAND LEADER.
Cleveland.
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: The majority for Roosevelt In Ohio will
be less than that for Herrick over Tom John
son for Governor in ILH>."», when local issues en
tered largely into the campaign, but it will not
be less than tJo.»»N>, and it n;ay exceed those
figures. Ohio will probably elect seventeen
Republican Congressmen, though the bitter
fight In the Vlth District between the Foraker
and anti-Foraker factions may make that dis
trict a doubtful one. while the Xllth. now rep
resented by a Democrat, Is practically certain
to return to a Republican.
A. R. FENWICK.
Managing Editor of "The Commercial Tribune.**
Cincinnati.
OBEGON SAFELY BEPTTBUCAN.
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: Oregon will ro Republican by about
£3.000. It gave McKinley a majority of 14.<*X>.
DUNHAM.
Portland. Editor of "The Chronicle."
To the Editor of The Tr!'.>ur.e.
Sir: Oregon is safely Republican. Roosevelt's
majority will be about 27.000
P. B. STOVEY.
Astoria. Editor of "The Ast^rlaji."
PEHNSYLANIA IS rNANIMOITS.
Only Question Whether Roosevelt Will Have
300,000 or 400,000.
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: Secretary W. R. Andrews, Republican
State Committee, estimates 335.000 Republican
plurality In Pennsylvania. He claJras twenty
nine Republican Congressmen will he elected,
with a possible gain of one Democratic district.
Democratic State Chairman J. K. P. Hall has
no figures. He claims there will be a reduced
vote for Roosevelt outside of Philadelphia and
Ptttsburg. The Democrats claim the present
three, and four additional. Congress districts.
H. M. WATTS,
Philadelphia. "The Philadelphia Press."
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: It is only a question of Republican ma
jority in Pennsylvania. BfcKlnley'a plurality
uas 258.433 in !>!>'. and 205.072 tn 19»iO. Every
thing indicates an increased Republican vote to
possibly the high water mark of 3MXOOO major
ity. Republicans will elect one additional Con
gressman In the State and the Republican ma
jority in the legislature will be increased.
JOHN ODOXNELL.
Managing Editor of "The Dispatch."
Pittsburp.
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: From present indications Pennsylvania
wilt give the riatloi.al ticket a larger Republi
can majority than she gave In l£i>6, when Mc-
Klnley received 301.000 I think it will be safe
to assume that the plurality this year will not
be less than 32&O0O. The Republican delega
tion to the LVIIIth Congress is twenty-nine out
of thirty-two members. We expect to do as well
this year. Boies PKNROSE.
Chairman of the Republican State Committee.
Philadelphia.
LITTLE RHODY REPUBLICAN.
National, State and Congress Nominees Will
All Be Elected.
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: Without a doubt the four Presidential
electors* from Rhode Island will cast their votes
for the election of Theodore Roosevelt. There
willl be about 10.<mh> plurality, the simple fact
that Democratic national leaders are practically
ignoring little Rhody alone giving assurance of
that prediction. With Senator Aldrich. Con
gressman C&proa and the energetic State Cen
tral Committee directing a whirlwind campaign,
the chances are bright as never before of sweep
ing the entire State. The Republicans are hid
ing three or four demonstrations every night.
have about I<M)»K> men throughout the State
equipped with the usual parading regalia, while
a lin-.tr list ol distinguished campaign speakers
have already stumped the State, with irn.rt- cotn
ing. Senator Fairbanks, Congressman Hit!, of
Connecticut, Congressman Dalsell, Major Emits,
of Chicago, and Dr. Ertander have delivered
stirring addresses to enthusiastic rr'.'.vd.-* in va
rious parts of the State, and Speaker Cannon
and J. Adam Bade, Congressman Llttlefteid and
Secretary Tafi are among other noted orators
scheduled for this State. On the other hand,
Bourke Cockran and Martin W. Littleton com
prise the Democratic spellbinders seen ana heard
here.
The re-elect lort of Senator Nelson W. Aldrlrh
15 another surety, there betes no opportunity
whatever for the Democrats to SiH-ure the legis
lature which chooses Mr. Aldrioh. for. as a mat
ter of Republican conndence, everything point«
to a loss of Democratic membership in the Gen
eral Assembly, especially In Providence, where
last i . •!• a Democratic delegation of twelve
men swept the city. Against wcreassnai D. L
D Granger. Democrat, in the lit District, th«-
Republicans have Chief Justice John H. Sti'.esv
who will, it is believed secure ■ major of
about 1.0(W over the present Congress a
strong peraastaj following of Mr. Sttoass over
shadow in< Mr. firnnser's popularity as a vote
getter. The 111 I>i«trlct Republican Congress
man. Adin B^Capron, will defeat Franklin P.
Owen, who ran against hhn two yean a»rr>. by
a I i?ser vote than Viefore. that belnc :.i>out
I.OOU \\ ith these larger »\-iits in « measure
directing 'he vote on State matters, the Repub
licans hops to carry the Stats solid. Lieutenant
Governor Utter, who is the Republican nomi
nee for Governor against Governor L. F C. Gar
vin, has not much of a margin to overcome
Ganir's plurality of last year over Colonel Colt
teinar but 1.557. that Ulac cut from 7.73S at
rontlrm-.l .'mm .- icii :■ • : -
the previous year. Garvin fall!::? 13S *'"<£* his
own vote. W. C. rCLKST.
"The Provider, c- Journal
Providence, R. I.
QBE STATE P ABXEB WILL CABBY STTRE
South Carolina Campaign Lacks Interest*
but Result Is Certain.
To the Editor of The Tr?.>une.
Sir: South Carolina i? all one way, over
whelmingly Democratic, and trill vote for Par
ker and Davis. The Democratic c:> ndldate* in
the several Congress districts wtti all do elect
ed, and generally with opposition.
J. C. HEMPHILI*
Editor of "The News and Cocrier.**
Charleston, S. C.
SOUTH DAKOTA WILL SO IT A9ADT.
It Gave ITKinley 10,000, It Will Giftt
Bocsevelt 30,000.
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: The Republican plurality in South Da*
kota trill be ir. th*- neighborhood of &jOOB on
both State and national tickets. The legislature
will be overwhelmingly Republican. There Is no
excitement over the campaign, and the entire
vote of the Suite may not be as heavy as It
would he In the case of a close contest.
Aberdeen, S. D. THE DAILY XEWS.
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: The Republican majority tn Sooth Da
kota will reach SOkttXfc
THE PIONEER TIME*
DeaJvvood. S. D.
TEXAS TAKES PABKEB STBAIGHT.
Several Republican Congress Nominees Mat
ing a Gallant Fight.
To the Editor of The Tribune
Sir: The indications are that all tha Demo
crat nominees will be elected Sb this State.
The Republicans have Congress candidates !a
the lid, Vlllth. IXth and XVth districts, but
there is little poss:i>ii:ty of any one o. them win
ning except in the VJIIth District. Senator
Charles A. Calbcrsos will be returned to the
Senate. This *\i? settled at the July primaries,
Dallas, Tex. THE NEWS.
BOOSEVELT WILL CABBY FTAH.
State Ticket and Congress Fight Affected by
Mormon Troubles.
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: Th* split in the Republican party as a pro
test against Church influence in politics which
has resulted In the organization of a numerous
and enthusiastic American party complicates an
attempt to forecast the result at this time. If
the Church delivers the Mormon vote John C
Cutler and the Republican ticket that Mr. Cut
ler heads are likely to win by 10,000 majority.
If. on the other hand, the Gentile vote goes sol
idly to the American party and it also captures
a considerable minority of iMUduUsg Mormons",
as It Is believed it will, the result may insure
the election of James H. Moyle, the Democrat;
candidate for Governor, and the ticket, which he
heads.
In the Congress race Judge O. W. Powers.
the Democratic candidate, is making an earnest
canvass or the State. lat his chance, of elec
tion over Joseph Howcll. the Republican Mor
mon Church candidate, stands in the sam»
position as that of Mr. Cutler. If th» Church,
delivers the goods Mr. Howeil will be sleeted.
In this connection It may be said that there- is no
split on the electoral ticket, and it Is safe to
predict that Roosevelt and Fairbanks electors
will carry the State by- from 5.(»> to 10.000
majority. ' Senator Smoot represents The Church
influence !n politics in Utah and dictated the
nomination of the State ,->nd legislative tickets,
thus forcing Senator Kearr.3 out of the race as
a candidate (01 re-election. It is believed that
the legislature will be almost solidly Republican,
which ir.s.ir ■ a Republican successor to Sena
for Kearns. and if genateu Smoot is expelled from
the Senate his successor wJH also be elected by
the same legislature. This means that instead
of one Mormon Senator, as now, there will b«
two representing- the M mm I'hurch in Wash
ington. CHARLES ALP WILLIAMS,
Managing litor of "The Salt Lake Tribune."
Salt Lake City. Utah.
VEBMOITr HAS SHOWN THE WAT.
Its Vote in September Made the Election oi
Boosevelt Certain.
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: Vermont L-< so overwhelmingly Repub
lican that within her own borders, as outsiJ<s,
comparatively little interest attaches to the
vote for Presidential electors Is this State. The
campaign in Presidential years is generally
made on the size of the majority for the Repub
lican candidate for Governor a: the State elec
tion held in September. If that majority is
125,000 or over it is taken to be a presage of
victory for the Republican national ticket in.
the November following. if it falls below 231
000 it Is held to indicate a probable slump ia
the Republican vote throughout the country,
and perhaps the defeat of the Republican na
tional ticket.
For this reason all efforts of a!l parties are,
confined to the canvass for the September Tote,
there is no organized attempt made to get out
the vote in November and the figures of that
vote afford little or no indication oi prevailing
public sentiment. Th vote for the I&epahUcaa
candidate for Governor last September gay»
him the unusual majority of I .» •■.<-:. only ex
ceeded by the majorities cast In 189G and 1000.
Vermont gave McKinley In HOC the unprece
dented majority of SJJBG6; in 15*00 she gave him
2*>.!C"». Her average majority at Presidential
elections since 1880 has been 26.»«'>5. There Is
M occasion to expect that the majority will fall
below that th!s year or that It will go much, it
any. over ZSLOOOt FRANK GREENE.
St. Albans. Editor of "The Messenger."
To the Editor Of The Tribune.
Sir: Any man who votes fur President in Ver*»
mont on Election Day will do It as a matter of
duty, not because In- has been urged to go to th»
polls by any appeal. So far as this State is
concerned, the campaign ended with the State
election in September. Not a OVMttBS has been
held by either party since thru time, and no
effort will be male to get out the vote on Elec
tion Pay.
An examination of the vote cast for Governor
in September and for Pr-si lent In November
during the last twenty years shows that the Re
publican majority ha MrVtt var;--1 m"r? than
£000 from one election to the next one, two
months later. It reached hlghwat^r mark for
both Governor and Presid'.-nt in 1>1*». Grout for
Governor reovivtnsr a majority of ;•">.'.<{•> that
year and M> Kinley recelibisj ■ :;. >.i"rity of 37.-
S»J»"» two months later. Tmu y-ars aso the ma
jorities were .". ' 7 < snd 2&920 r-r.-^.-tiw'.y.
Last month Gowraor Bell bad a m.i jority of
2tM">li>. a*ul lhai tlw ie tjatitj for Roosevelt wiU
h«-> ve-y close to tno?« r.^rures may ;>e confident
;v; v „,..;, ■ ..,,> \V }• r,,\TES.
i- ■ ■-..-: "" -Hnsrton Frc-s Press."
VIKGIHIA STILL DEHOCEAIIC.
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: Virginia wtj givt; Parser and Davis
from ".~.«»m> to 4O.«W> majority, and will send
nine, po'-s-biy ten, Democrats to t>:e vixth
Ocntsma. The Repabllcans are makir'.t: their
chief fight In ihe IXth District, which Is now
represented by Colonel C Slerru.. f'-i'Ubtican.
and chances* f«>r controlling the district Men cv
favor the Tiepublicr.r.s.
Richmond. TIM' DISPATCH.
WYOMING NOT BOAiIISG.
To ihe Ed!t«.r si Th- Trlßvn*.
SUr: Th* indications now are that the Re
pnMlcfta State ticket. tageta*i wU6 Roaewrvlt,
will carry Wyoming by mere than -ttLtlOO n^
Jority. carrying every county in the State. a:ut
that b«>:h branches of the testate t ere win b«
ovorwhelmlr.r'.y B rpublicmn. knsorine the re
elettlon of Senator C. D. dark, r iri| iimiii in
Mandell wIH probabiy rui; wUh the Itoo—mU
electors, s-.utr ticket n >i meca bthir.d.
>;. a. cook.
ndit^r o* "The ReyubiicaUi"
Laramle, \V> o.
To the Edit si The Tribune.
Sir: Rcosevelt will carry Wyomtns aai the
Republican State ticket, will be elected
_. _ O. BONT>,
Cheyenne. Wyo. Editor or The Leader.-
_3

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