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New-York tribune. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, November 27, 1904, Image 48

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tOith the Christmas Magazines.
Extracts from Articles on Varied Subjects of Present Interest In
the Current Periodicals.
CHRISTMAS IN THE GHETTO.
The American Christmas suffers a strange fate
In the Ghetto Nine-tenths of Its Jews are from
Hussia. There every church festival is purely
religious, and on Christmas the Jews crouch
>rhind barricaded doors in terror of outrage by
jea^sjits drunk with vodka. Here we lay littlo
« Ire .« .n the religious side of it. and the ma- :
lorltv of adult Jews in the Ghetto do not know |
that it ls anything more than the principal social ;
festival of the yea;. Many of them think it is a ,
kind of children's day. and nothing else. And
•o. in ignorance of its origin, many a Jew who
in so orthodox that ho would not allow an Bag'
lish book to He on a table touching a volume of j
Jii« holy Hebrew will ye: permit his children to
Join in the merriment.
nwjtlrta. and thope who work in the factories, '
f*n\ HM difference in the reason, and the increas
ing volume of InisJliirnn. and fall into sympathy
•with their general environment. A very large
number at them give prvsents to the children,
and allow them to hang up th< ir stockings on
ChrtetnuM I've. They will not. however, have a
iree in their rooms. There are no Christmas
dinners; the stores do not olose. and the shops
■work on ns usual. For their Santa Claus the
Httto one? must visit ■ Settlement house, or their
more fortunate friends whose parents are less
»-trlct. And it is the less orthodox and their
• hildren who l^nd the way In adopting the new
.ustom. I,ittie Rachel cries for a doll like Rebec
ca's on th* floor below, and her orthodox mother
«annot resist her tears.
Christmas has so far made its way among tho
Jews as « sodal festival that it already eclipses
the Fourth of July sni Thanksgiving Day. In
preparation for it. Grand Street, the main ave
nue of the Ghetto In New-York, is choked for
an entire week with pushcarts and crowding
shoppers. The stores display every kind of toy
«nd sweetmeat for the children, with glittering
<rold and stiver moss, candles, trees, mistletoe,
and glazed colon balls.
Last Christmas fell on a Friday, and when the
j>eople cam«> out from the evening service at an
Kast Pide synagogue many greeted each other
■with a "Merry Christmas." The strangeness of
•he salutation seemed unnoticed.— (World's
Work.
S
THE ARISTOCRAT.
Who fe»»is within his veins the throbbing pulse
< if power and purpose urgln? him to dare.
And. yielding to the message, treads down fear.
Rending in scorn his own innate despair.
He 1c th»» nobleman! No acrident
Of ancestry can equal that fine birth
Of spirit which unlocks the dormant soul
And rounds endeavor to Its highest worth.
—{Clinton Dangerfleld, in The Smart Set.
SANTA CLJLDS'S BIG MAIL.
"Santa Olaus. North Pole"; "Santa Claus In
Heaven." "Dear Mr. Santa Claus," "Mr. Santa
<"lavs of New York." In quaint, childish scrawls,
sometimes almost indecipherable, the little chil
■lrer. who Ftill beli*»v ( - in their big hearted.
benevolent friend address the mythical saint.
From all parts of the country they come, these
tiny patheti- letters, breathing a faith arvi hope
which .-annot fail to be blighted, and into the
maw of -he Dead Lett'-r fMHee In Washington.
they fall. Besides taking advantage of an
imaginary frank, many of the letters are marked
"SheppH deiiver."
"I'd lik' to pen some of 'em." said one offl
• i-'il. "but I haven't any more right to do i*
than I have to open a letter addressed to J.
}'i«rpnnt Morgan.
Th<-\ go through th( regular course of letters
■ hi.^h cannot be delivered. If the n<idret;s of
tbe writ can be ascertained bj the contents.
th*> letter is r^Turn<-d to him; if not. it is de-
Etroyed."
' Whether the ]ett*>rs» are stamped rir not?"
"Just the sail,... a notification that a letter
If lying In the Dead Lettei Offl'-e, awaiting r»
turn postage, is sent our."
But th<- children seldom sisrn their full names.
"Rosa," "Charlie." "John," and the like, or th>*
tender nicknames of affection, are all they put
at the bottom of th« letters. The Rosas and
Charlies feel sure in tbeii litilp minds that
Banta Ciaus knows each of them by reputation,
even if he 'Jn^s not per.^onaliy. — (Willis Bteell. In
Good Hous^keeniiig.
TAIL VERONESE
But hr was far mon than a painter of the
pagt-ant of life; be v.a? a great painter of noble
ai.d heroic themes a master of iit,'ur. painting .
in the grand Italian manner. He »'as a
draughtsman, a stylist, and a man of true and
lofty feeling. In mastery of drawing he had no
e.jual iii Venice, unless it were. Tintoretto, and
'.:.• <'jit<-rior anywhere, except tie or two if the
jrreatept Florentines. Now and then he is care- :
••-as. <>r perhaps his pupils intervened, and ther6
is a kind of meagn - in the attachment of the
■ rM wiii.-h is a frequent falling; but there is no
':ifti<"ult foreshortening Into which he cannot !
ihrow the figure, no line be cannot make it take.
and this with an entire absence of posturing or :
■the Udtaelangeleaque affectations of Tintoretto.
Kather there is ;t; t j: : -. simplicity of gesture.
"ne might almost say a divine awkward
winch is Inimitable. His men are superbly
jiiUEck-d. Ms women of the full fleshed Venetian
type, white and s«>ft. with adorable golden
heads, but v.lth r; firmness of line and modelling
that is almost Greek. Tb< attendants of Europa
are nearly as grand as the women of I'hldlas.
'Ahile in the figure <>t I'haraoh's daughter, In
"The Finding <<i Moses." he has combined a mag
nificent amplitude with an elegance prophetic of
Ike eighteenth century. Always and everywhere
hta Irawtog has style, nuA his naturalism is
never trivial or commonplace.
His ra!:i> of subject and treatment is wide.
In "The Finding ol tfo*es** he Is gay and famil
iar, in the "Europa" luxuriantly Idyllic, while he
can rise to pieat dignity and even to tragedy.
He has all the Venetian Bi-nsunusneKs, but he
never eir.ks to coarseness, as Titian sometimes*
does; be cat be solemn and, to my feeling, pro
foundly religious, but he is never morbid or sen
timental, <Jrav<> or playful, he is always manly.
always serene, a great, frank, healthy, broad
minded, tender spirit, one feels that he was
not only a genius one must admire, but a man
one could have loved, and I know of few paint
ers who awaken the kind of personal affection
that Veronese inspires. — (Kenyon Cox, In Scrlb
ner's Magazir.-
WORKINGMEN'S [NBURAKCE IN GERMANY
Consider the advance in the general spirit of
kindness which is indicated by such a fact U
the founding and successful operation of the
nystem of workingmen's insurance in Germany.
A certain sum of money is set aside for »-ach
workman every week (the employer and the em
ptoye each contributing half). and the govern
ment adds a supplement of $\2 on each pension.
Ten million workmen are thus insured against
filckress, 17.000.000 agains; accident, ]0.<»00,000
against disability from old age. Six hundred
and eeventy thousand persons receive the ben
efit of this fund in yearly pensions. Incidentally
there hap been an Immense benefit in the j n
crease of care and precautions to prevent a''ci
siflscta and to redu' -e dangerous occupations. The
employer who Is not >•' willing to protect his
vorkmen for kindness' sake will do it to es
cape h-avier taxes. And the community which
FllejrUy coiapels him to do thif», the community
•which Bays to the laboring man, "If you will
perform your duty, you all not starve when
you are tick and old." is certainly growing more
klnfl as well as more just— (Henry van Dyke,
In Everybody's Magazine.
THE REAT. XIV; OF BEABT&
In show talk the) lion is always the king of
beasts. It sounds well. and makes a fine line
on the roster?. But if he had to defend the
championship in the ring, 1 think almost any of
*he larger bears could give him weight and beat,
him easily. The lion !ooks like a fighter; all hi?
muscles thnw out good and strong, and he has
a kind of swagger to his wslk. while any bear
Is a clumsy creature, and has a rather clownish
appearance. But for sheer strength I've never
known the living thing that could compare,
pound for pound, with Bruin In muscular power.
While the circus was showing in Ohio the trick
bear broke loose. Whatever set him to it 1
don't know. He was never vicious. Probably he
Just wanted to play hookey. There was nothing
to prevent him but a chain and a tolerably stout
bsnbl wall. He broke the chain, tore down the
•*>i\\, and went out to see the place.
In a field across the way was a cow with her
calf. The bear went over to look at them. T
don't Fuppos^ h» meant any harm. But the calf
pnt frightened, and the poor row bravely put
her head <*;Own and threatened the intruder.
Beacts are Just as quick aB men in resentlnjf a
threat of harm, unl«*« f*-ar prevents. Rearing
up, the bear struck the cow a blow on the side
of the head. It was what the prize rint calls
a half arm Jolt. Down went the cow hs If hit
with an axe. Phe might a* well have been, for
h*r head was tttove In like that much cardboard,
leaving the calf to mourn over Us mother, the
bear set off across country. He knew he'd been
up bj BjMdet Bexide«. there were a dozen of
vis fcfter him by this time. After headlnr him
off from open country, we got him in a barnyard
sjsji pjßl a roi>e around h!s neck. He wouldn't
>)tiil(re. Not that there win any fight In him.
Tt wap rn*.he»- 'he obstinacy nf f M r. Perhaps he
Icne-n that there was a sound beating; awaitlnc
him. He dv« his c!a\va Into the around «-ud
stuck. As many a* could lny hold of the rope
put all their endeavor upon It. No use. Tt
was nnchored. — (From "Notes from a Trainer's
Book." by Samuel Hopkins Adams, in McClure's
Magazine.
REDIVIVUB.
Lift me, O star?, far up Into tho heights.
That I may breathe with thee Immortal air:
Burn from the soul's poor record days* and
rights
Of listless work, and fretful dreams of care.
And shine Into my splrifs cool, sheer deeps
Wherein thine own ethereal essence sleeps.
Sleeps as ihe s.ip within tho oaken tjoll,
That, waking on the. winter's dull decline.
Yearns sprlngward — so if thou but call my soul
Its latent fire will leap to merge with thine,
Aud rediscover in the pieroinar (iame
What heaven hath wrought and earth hath put
to shame.
—(Louise Morgan Pill, in Harper's Magazine.
F< >U P.-L.HGOED FAKIRS.
Nor arc all tho fakirs human beings. Holy
cows and sacre6 monkeys have a fine share in
the game, and in some Instances show rare
cunning in taking advantage of the people's
beliefs In their attributes.
At Haj< Ka. on th" Indus, there is a notably
wily old sacred beast, whose long years of re
ceiving worship, petting and pampering have
developed some strange characteristics. This
animal will leave the shore several times a day
In the heated season, and, wading far out into
the stream, stand there and bawl until pome one
of the villagers comes out and laves hor with
wat*-r. the coolness caused by the evaporation
seeming to gratify her greatly. She is extrava
gantly fond of choice plantains, and will go into
tho bazaar and take only the very best. . . .
A friend of the family was close by a shop
keepfir's stand one day, when a 6acred bull
wandered up and began to teed from the pro
visions displayed, with entire assurance of be
ing within his rights. The shopkeeper reproached
him gently, Baying:
"Forget not that I am a poor man, brother.
[joeot thou not those sweet delicacies before tho
place of the rich man across the way?"
The bull munched on.
"Full well 1 know thou are a holy man, and
I give thee all thou takest, feeling my reward
in heaven already bestowed: but, brother. I am
a poor man. and this morning- I gave a rupee
to thy very holy brother of Ratonga (a stiff
armed fakir of the region), and thou shouldest
come In another moon.''
A great hole was growing in the pile on the
stand. The shopkeeper picked up a bamboo
Mick and blew his breath in the. end of it, then
again addressed the animal:
"Into this stick T have breathed a prayer that
thnu mayest remember how poor a man I am,
O my brother, and 1 now present my humble
petition." Wherewith he whacked the bull
sharply over the nose, and the astounded animal
galloped, bellowing, through the bazaar. —
(Hroughton Brandenburg, In Metropolitan Maga
zine.
JAP MASTER AND MAN.
It was In this melee of blood and sword that
I saw a sight That touched me deeply. I no
ticed two men in our ranks; and later I found
out that the younger of these men came from
a well-to-do Samurai family, the older man was
also from the same place. In fact, the fother of
the older man had sp.:ni all his life in the eer
vlce of the family from which the younger man
came. On this tr-rrific day. when they were
within a few met rep of the Russians, when they
fought with rocks, swords and anything they
< ould get hold of, I saw these men cling to
each other closely At the height of the bloody
excitement the older seemed to be mindful of
the younger always. At one time a few of the
Russians actually succeeded in rushing- upon a
part of our line. One of the Russians raised the
butt of his rifle, about to strike the younger of
these two men. Then I saw the older swing for
ward and literally hurl down the Russian with
the bayonet through his body. A little later
the young man was shot in the leg and fell. I
pan* tho older man forget himself completely,
forsake bis gun, kneel down beside the young
friend of his, and not finding a piece of cloth,
he tore the front of his shirt. He stuffed a lit
tle piece of < loth Into the bullet bole in the leg
of his friend. Then, after a little while, because
of the fierceness of action about me, I lost
Eighi of these men. When I came upon them a
few minutes later, they were together, side by
side. As I passed I said to the older man, who
was half Standing, always covering his young
master: "Can't you manage to carry yourself to
the r.-ar with your friend— to the field hospital,
or to some shelter behind the hill?"
"Oh, it is all right." he answered. "My young
master Is wounded a little, but he will recover
in a minute, I think. Then we shall get at the
Russians again."
I pointed to the ragged wound which a Rus
sian bullet had made upon his own shoulder.
"Oh," he said, "that is a scratch. Don't mind
that." — (A Japanese officer, in Leslie's Monthly
Magazine.
TIMBER RESOURCES OF AMERICA.
Across th? Great I,akes in Canada there lies
one of the world's largest reserves of timber. In
spite of the tariff imposed, much oi' this timber
is to-day coming to the United States. The j
forests of the Dominion are beginning to yield
abundantly. More than a billion feet of pine
sawlogs and square limber, during a receiif sea
son, were cut upon territory held under timber
111 -riise from the Crown. Much of Canada's tim
bi r land lias not yet even been explored. In the
newly developed districts of Algoma, which are
close to the Great Lakeu. it. is estimated thUt
there are more than a hundred million cords of
spruce and pulp wood, while in the districts of
Thunder bay and Rainy River there are nearly
, two hundred million cords more. A belt at least
three thousand miles long is believed to exist in
Canada between Alaska and the Atlantic.
It has been estimated that, at the present rate
of cutting, the greatest timber resources of the
XJnited States— those of tho Pacific Coast States
—will be exhausted in less than half a century.
. The annual cut. of shingles and lumber in these
regions is some four and a half billion leet. The
standing timber of Washington, Oregon and
Northern California at present Is twice that of
the original timber land? of the Northern woods.
Washington produces about as many feet of
shingles and other lumber as Oregon and Cali
fornia together. Tills State is noted for its
shingles, there being more than a thousand
BhiiiK'*> mills within Us borders. At Tacoma are
- located the large-si sawmills in the. I'nitfKl
States.— (W. Frank McClure, In The Booklovers
Magazine.
OLD BRASSES.
Russian brasses are possibly the heaviest and
finest in quality and color. One may rind them
In the queer little Russian Bhops in the lower
part of New-York and Boston. The growing in
terest in brasses lias encouraged iheir importa
! tlon. and if one has patience to barter many
1 artistic treapur'-s may be obtained at very
reasonable prices Th« most characteristic piece
ls the «amovar. Ther.< are treasured very high
ly by those who ar6 fortunate enough to possess
them. They are found in innumerable shapes
and sizes, a witness to th" tea drinking habits
of the Russians. Kvery Russian peasant who
Is prosperous enough to enjoy the luxury of tea
; has his samovar. At all Inns each visitor is sup
plied with one. They invariably accompany the
I traveller and the picnicker, ar.d even the ofllcers
Martins out upon a campaign find room for a
pmall one in their baggage. Samovar signifies
"self-boiler." it is made, of brass, lined with
tin, and with a tube In the centre, in which the
hot cinders of charcoal are placed after having
b»en ignited. Often a pipe, connects it with the
chimney, and two friends will sit for hours,
drinking the boiling hot w»ak t«»a.--< Harper's
Bazar.
"THE CELERY CITY."
The debt of the New World to th* Old is
forcibly illustrated by a prominent industry.
"The Celery City" is the sobriquet by which
Kalamazoo, Mich., is known far and wide
Probably few connoisseurs know that the Kala
mazoo celery is the brand par excellence, an«J
fewer yet have any notion how the city becam«
the eeat of this prosperous industry.
Ab a matter of fact, "The Celery City" owes
its fame a 8 such, and much of its wealth, to the
i enterprise of Its Holland contingent.
Kalamazoo, some twenty years ago, wai»
■urrounded by marsh lands, considered worth
' less, and selling for anywhere from nothing up
! 10 a dollar an acre. They had never been
j known to grow anything but taxes and malaria.
One day some Holland emigrants struck the
I town In great numbers. They were desperately
j poor; they wanted homes; tho marsh land was
j cheap; they were i i( ,t afraid of It. They took
i to It like ducks to water; perhaps it reminded
I them of their own Holland .likes; at all events,
i they knew what to do with it. They settled
; down on the boggy lands, put up their cheap,
1 Bhantylike houses on plies to escape the high
■ _ water and began dit -hlng. draining and cultl
1 vating the black soil. In some places the
j ground was so swampy that they wero com
pelled to wear a kind of snowshoe to keep from
sinking ln: but such trifles did not daunt a
, Holland soul.
-In time, lonr. even rowa of pale green celery
i began to spread over tho wide exi'itnse of marsh
NEW-YORK DAILY TRIBUNE, SUNDAY. NOVEMBER 27. 1984.
fields Tho Kalamazooan. wont to hold his
breath with dire visions of malaria, WW rais
ing those stretches began to detect, permeating
the habitual j-wampv .-niell. a new odor— the
IttflegflTllf *Tlir. pungent, pleasant 6cent or grow
ing celery
Many thousands of dollars now come into the
city every year through Itfi celery product, and
the" business is still praclemlly In the hands of
Hollanders. The Holland element is now a
prosperous ami respected portion of the com
munity. The second generation is, in all essen
tials, Americanized, barring a tendency to
swing together politically; so that the "Holland
vote" has to be reckoned with in local elections.
The most marked result has been the change In
values of tho onetime despised marsh lands.
From a rating of nothing plus, per tract, they
have now become most valuable acre property.
—(Four Track News.
TWO ARCTIC BABIES.
On July 4. 1399, in a broad, level valley in the
heart of Ellesmere Land, I came upon a herd of
five musk oxen. When they saw us they r;tn
together and stood back to back in 'star form,
with heads outward. This is their usual method
of defence against walrus, their only enemies in
this land. After they were shot I discovered two
tiny calves, which till then had been hidden
under their mother's lon^ liair.
Suth funny little coal black creatures they
were, with a gray patch on their foreheads,
great, soft black eyes, i normously large, bony,
knock-kneed Ices, and no mils at all.
With the fiiiliiiLc oi the last musk ox my Hop?
made a rush for th' Hits- animals, which though
wide eyed and trembling with tear, showed a
bold front t,> the savage, unknown creatures
which Bumninded them Fortunately I was too
quick for the dogs ami rescued the little fellows.
Then 1 hardly knew \ hat to <10. i had not the
heart to kill them myself nor tell my Esquimaus
to. Finally i thought I would try and pet them
to the ship, fifty miles away, though 1 <iH not
know how I was to do this over the miles of
mountain'; and rough Ice.
After the <hj;s were fastened the little fellows
stood quietly by the bodies of tlxir mothers till
all the aniirrils were skinned and cut up: i>ut
when we were ready to start for camp, and put
a line about their necks to l^ad them away, they
struggled so violently at the touch of the rope
that 1 knew they would soon strangle them
selves to death, and had the ropes taken off.
Then we tried to drive them, but could not.
Then I remembered my experience years before
at far off Independence Bay, and told Ahngir.a
loktok to throw one of the musk ox skins over
his back and walk off.
With a "Baa.-a-a!" the little fellows were at
A WORK BY CH. JACQUE.
lii -lude.i in the Qeorge R. Wanchard collection, to be sold on December 1 and 2 In the grand beflre—
"f the Waldorf-Astoria. James P. Bile, of the Fifth Avenue. Art Galleries, will conduct the sale.
Mr. Blanchard w:.- once president of the Erie Railroad. Ills collection is being sold for the estate
of his late Widow, Ixlia O. Wanchard.
his heels In an instant, and, with aosea buried in
the long hair trailing behind him. followed con
tentedly, while i!i< resl of us kept off the dogs.
In this way everything went nicely, and we
scrambled along over the rocks, waded acroM
two or three streams, and walked through an
exquisitely soft, green little patch of meadow,
cut by a gurgling 'rystal brook, until w<- reached
the Iceboat where tin- Bledge had been left. —
(Robert E. Peary, In St. Nit holas.
MORO DEFENCES.
For savages, the Moros are remarkable build
ers of fortification*. On Join th>- works have
been simple enough affairs, consisting usually of
a trench and a wall. But the eottas In Minda
nao are a diftereni proposition. Most of them
consist of thifO lines of defences. They are
surrounded by wet moats from ten to thirty
tlve feet in depth and from eight to forty feel
wide On the Inner side of the moat is a wull of
earth from ten to twenty feet high, pierced with
loophole.-?. It Is impenetrable by rifle fire or
shrapnel. The niethqd of entrance. is by a single
hole, cut so low that a man must enter bent
over almost on his hands and knees. The only
means of crossing the moat is by a loose bamboo
pole thrown from bank to bank with a light
hand rail alongside. These can be destroyed or
drawn In at a moment's notice by the garrison.
Inside the door, screening the entrance, is a
traverse, so that on entering you are obliged to
turn to the right or left. Some eottas have In
addition on one Bide a trap, where, In a bidden
mudhole, a ma«i sinks to his shoulders and can
be cut up at leisure by the defenders. The second
line consists of another embankment, and within
this are several smaller keeps, each ditched and
walled ami loopholed for lire and spear thrusts.
The entire interior is thickly planted with bam
boo, which affords a cover impenetrable to the
sharpest eye. The eottas are always well sup
plied with grain for sustaining a prolonged sii'K".
Crooked passages only large enough for a child
to squeeze through tunnel under the walls to th
moat for water. (Lippincott'e Magazine.
THE CHINESE REFORM MOVEMENT.
I ir. Thorns, who was authorised by his organ
ization to state to me the plans and purposes of
the Chinese Empire Reform Association, said:
"We would like to have ail understand thr<t
this movement Is a bloodiest revolution. We are
not revolutionists in the sense . of anarchy. We
are not trying to overthrow the Chinese govern
ment by force ol .inns. We are trying to hold
it ur>. We are trying to make our nation the
strongest and '••■ most respected in th» world.
We, are trying to keep the country together. We
are trying to keep the invading hordes of Eu
rope from stealing the land from under our very
feet and from driving us out homeless and na
tionless over the earth. Russia Is ready for us
She h-s ncr gr *<i> eyes on our country. Kng
larni is striving lo gain a foothold In the empire
and take our l;.nd from us an she took India
from the Hindoos. Germany in not far behind
the rest of then. There Is France pushing for
ward, too.
"Right here is the anrt great problem of the
reform movement. It Is the keynote of the whole
situation. How can we prevent this threatened
Invasion of China? How can we bold our coun
try intact for our own people? This Is the an
s er :
'•The first st»p is education after the Western
methods. We must begin by renouncing the
superstition of our an. . Btors. W<> must miiiKle
*-lth the world. We must cease being a nation
within ourselves.
"And to whom do we look for help In all this.
To America nnd Japan. America Is our quid« and
our Rood friend. We are learning her methods
and her ways, and we depend on her for covn-
Bel and aid. Japan lv a much smaller and
weaker nation than China, but she hns advan<
far beyond us In learning the ways of the mod
ern world. Twenty-five years aj;-. Japan had
mado little proKrens, but now It la ranked as
one of the most enterprising of nations It i*
all because the Japanese forsook their old super-
Btitlons and followed In the line of thought of
advanced peoples. The Japanea* aro ready and
anxious to help un. It In f,, r their own interest
tn do so. for they look toward China for usslst
ance."—'Frederick Bojd Stevenson. In Pearson's
Magazine
NOTABLE CONVER TIONS.
Changes of Faith Xo Longer Re
garded in the Light of "Apostasies."
Although differences of em* ar« popularly
believed to have stood 1n the way of marriage?
between the late Prince Imperial of France and
Princess Beatrice of Great Britain, and be
tween the late Duke of Clarence and Princess
Helene of Orleans (now Duchess of Aosta), yet
it cannot be denied that far less importance
is accorded nowadays to considerations of thin
kind than formerly. This does not necessarily
mean that people have become less religious,
but rather that th»y have become more toler
ant. What with the spread of education, the
growth of cosmopolitanism and. above all.
through travel abroad, wo have discovered that
all foreigneiß are not necessarily PhilistineF,
and that then are other faiths besides our own.
which, having in view the moral welfare of
their adherents, are quite as mu< h calculated
to work out their salvation. We no longer
doom every one who does not share our particu
lar belief to eternal damnation. Fanaticism
and bigotry have come to be regarded as an
achronisms, and people have reached a better
understanding of that groat principle taught by
the Founder of Christianity, namely, charity to
one's neighbors. Religious toleration, which Is.
after all. one of the chief forms of charity, is
the order of the day. and that is why a conver
sion from one church to another, such as that,
for instance, of the American born Marquise u>
Monstiers-Merainville, who was Miss Gwen
dolyn Caldwell, of Washington, attracts com
paratively little attention. A generation or em
ago it was looked upon by those whose creed
had been abandoned as a forfeiture of the-
Great Hereafter, whereas at present there is
a disposition to regard it merely as the adop
tion of another route toward the same bourne.
Two empresses, namely, Alexandra and Marie
Feodorovna of Russia, two quetsns— Helen of
Italy and Natalie of Servla— besides scores of
princesses of the blood, now living, have 'verted
from the faith to which they were reared. In
times gone by they would have been denounced
as apostates. Hut nowadays there are few who
take exception to their change of belief, and they
continue to enjoy the respect and good will even
of the very clergy of the churches which they
have deserted. Of the four women of sovereign
rank above mentioned, one alone. Queen Natalie
Of Servia, has been led by purely n-liglous con
siderations to leave one denomination for an-
other. She had suffen-ii all that it was pocslble
for a queen, a wife and a mother to endure, and,
net finding in the Orthodox Oreek Church the
.spiritual . onsolatton of which she felt herself
to be in such sore need, she became a convert lo
Roman Catholicism.
It was for political and dynastic reasons that
Helen of Montenegro forsook the Oreek Rite
for that of Koine on marrying the Prince of
Naples. For the Italian people, in spite of their
refusal to restore to the Papacy Its former tem
poral dominions, are, nevertheless, so attached
to their church that under no circumstances
would they have permitted any princess] who
was not a Roman Catholic to occupy their throne
as the consort of their King. The Queen was
admitted Into the Catholic Church just before
her marriage, but it is said that her enthusiasm
In behalf of the creed to which . c he now belong*
is of a lukewarm order, and that her adhesion
to the Church of Rome is based less upon the
belief in its doctrines than upon her love fo>
her husband and children.
In Russia all foreign princesses who wed
members of the reigning house of Romanoff are
virtually obliged to join the Orthodox Church,
since by their refusal to conform to this require
ment they debar not alone their husbands but
also Hi.'-r children and grandchildren from
succession to the throne. <lrand Duchesa Vlad
imir, a princess <>f tho Lutheran dynasty of
Met ttenburg-Bchwerln, though bearing the
reputation of being a worldly rather than a
religious woman, displiyed a remarkable ob
stinacy In the matter, and in spite of all the
pressure brought to bear upon her from every
quarter Insisted upon retaining the faith of
her girlhood, and enjoyed th*» distinction of
being the only unorthodox member of the im
perial family until after the celebration of her
hll\er wedding, when, for the sake of the pros
pecta of her two sons, Cyril and Boris, as pos
sible heirs to the crown, nhe quietly '\eried.
Empress Alexandra wus admitted into the
church of Russia a few days only before her
marriago to Nicholas, who had already suc
ceeded at the time to the throne. She did not
attempt to conceal the reluctance which she
fe.lt about changing her faith, found it difficult
at first to accept tn their entirety the doctrine*
Of the orthodox rite, declined to comply with
all the requirements of conversion in the way
of not merely recantution but bitter denuncia
tion of the church In which b)m had been
brought up, and showed herself bo halfhearted
about the matter that the Muscovite clergy
and fanatics of the order of the Procurator of
the Holy Synod did not hesitate to us.sart that
the long delay of the birth of an heir u» the
throne, the serious llbmas of the Emperor ami
other misfortunes were attributable to the lack
Of sincerity ot her conversion, It | s asserted,
however, that all h r doubtu < oncerning th<«
teaching! ot th« national chutch of. Ruaalt
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have now disappeared, that she has become
as devout an adherent thereof as her mother
in-law, the widowed Czarina, and that in spite
of the reputation which she enioys for intel
lectuality and exceptional learning, she believes
in all those mod'-rn miracles which play so great
a role in the Greek faith of 10-day.
Crown Princess Sophia of Saxony was led,
like Queen Helen of Italy, by considerations of
love of her husbatid and children to join the
orthodox faith to which th<»y belonged, feeling
that religious differences were calculated to
raise a sort of Indefinable barrier between her
and them. Her abandonment of tho Lutheran
Church, however, gave considerable offence in
tjtrmany, and the Kaiser was for a time angry
with his sister, declining to hold any i ...mmuni
catlnn with her. But all bitterness has long
since disappeared, and the reconciliation of
brother and sister is now complete.
One of the most notable conversions In recent
years has undoubtedly been that of young
Prince Boris of Bulgaria, eldest son and heir
of Prince Ferdinand. At the time when the
latter married th«> daughter of the enormously
•wealthy ex-sovereign Duke of Parma, it was
expressly stipulated In the marriage contract
that the children born to the union should ba
brought up in the Roman Catholic faith, to
which Prince Ferdinand and hla bride belonged.
With the view, however, of propitiating the
Russian Court and government. Prince Ferdi
nand caused his little boy, when four years old.
to be converted from the Roman CatboNe to
the Orthodox Greek rite, which Is the national
church of Bulgaria. Czar Nicholas acttnaj as
godfather of the child. The child's mother pro
tested bitterly against this step, I^-ft her hus
band, and waa induced to return to him only
by the personal entreaty and counsel of Leo
XIII, who, however. Imposed the penalty of
minor excommunication upon Ferdinand, de
barring; him from the sacraments of the Roman
Catholic Church. Tho Prraceea died not long
afterward. It is said from grief and sorrow,
caused by the fact that Ph* was not even per
mitted to teach heiy little boy his prayers or to
discuss religious matters of any kind with him.
■while for several years th^ Emperor of Austria,
who ls a devout Catholic, refused to hold any
intercourse with Prince Ferdinana, declaring
that he had bartered away the religious wel
fare of his helpless child solely for the sake of
securing his own recognition as a sovereign at
tho court of St. Petersburg, a recognition « hicb
was in no sense a political necessity, but merely
a satisfaction to his vanity.
In the neighboring Kingdom of Rumania the
most extraordinary medley of religions is ?•« be
found at court. The King and Crown Prince are
Roman Catholics, the Queen— so well known as
"Carmen Sylva"— is a Lutheran, the Crown
Princess is a member of the Church of Ki'.gi an i.
while her children, in accordance with the terms
of the Rumanian constitution, are being brought
up as members of the Oreek Orthodox rite.
which is the national church of the kingdom.
The Crown Princess and her children, by the bye,
are the orly descendants of the late yu>en Vic
toria who are not in the line of succession to
the throne ot Qveat Britain, Princess Marie hav
ing sacrificed her birthright as a Member <<f the
reigning house of England by marrying a Ro
man Catholic prince, which ls declared bj the
Act of Settlement to entail forfeiture. It is un
derstood that when the time comes for her hus
band to succeed to the throne of Rumania both
he and she will join national church, that
is to say. the orthodox rile, with a view .if
strengthening their hold upon the loyalty and
good will of their subjects
Jf the conversion of the Marquis of Rlpon
< aimed so great a stir tu<> or three decades .ic;o
it was less on account of his rank as a states-
man tlmn by reason of the fact that it was ac
companied by his surrendtr of the office of«
Grand Master of the Or-ler of Free Masons In
Kngland on religious grounds, and that it called
attention for the Hist time on the part of the
English people at large to the antagonistic atti
tude ofthe Roman Catholic Church toward th.
craft, which on the Continent of Europe ls al
most everywhere bitterly anti-clerical, and fen
France atneistic. That the step taken by Lord
Rlpon In no way impaired the esteem in which
ho was held by his sovereign and by hist coun
trymen ls best Bjhown by the fact thut he sub
sequently wiis intrusted with the orticrs oi Vice
roy of India, of First Lord of the Admiralty
and of Secretary of State for the Cotoalea The
Importance accorded to the conversion of the
late Marquis of Hute to Home, about the MOM
time, was attributed less to the feet that he was
one of the principal landowners of the United
Kingdom or to the grandeur of his gifts t.> tho
Church which he joined than to tb« ii.um
stance of his being portrayed by Lord Bea
consfield as the hero of his popular MveA,
"I.othair."
Amoiiß other changes of religion worthy of
note have been those Of two ladies ol the house
of Kothsi'hild, who abandoned Judaism for Ro
man Catholicism on becoming the wives of the
French Duke of tirammont and Prince of Wa
gram. respectively. MwlglMH Bauer, the well
known spiritual adviser of Empress Kutfenie at
the Court of the Tuileries, and who preside.!
over the Catholic ceremonies of the opening of
the Suez Canal, began lite as a Jew, :md after
the fall of the Napoleonic Empire resigned hi?
prelacy of the Church of Rome and reverted to
the faith of his fathers. In which he die.l. Sir
William Pelgrave, the well IVno'in Englfsh diplo
mat, traveller and explorer, was in turn a mem
ber of the Church of England, a Roman Cath
olic monk In India, a priest of the Order of the
Jesuits, a devout Mahometan and an enthusi
astic Buddhist, without these changes of faith
Impairing In any degree his Usefulness as a ser
vant of the British Crown. The present Lord
Mexborough ls a professing Buddhist, which
does not prevent him from voting in the House
of Lords on questions affecting the welfare of th*»
Church of England, while the late Lord Stanley
of Alderley. who served in many climes as a
member of the diplomatic service of the Crown,
and who. as patron of no less than four livings
of the Church of England, possessed by right
of descent the prerogatives of selecting thrt rec
tors of four large and populous English parishes,
being responsible, therefore, for the spiritual
welfare of the Inhabitants of the latter, died a
few months ago as a strict Mahometan anil was
buried in Kngland. not according to Christian
rites, but in accordance with those of Islam.
EX-ATTACHE.
THE SUBSCRIBER KNEW.
A magoiine e»iit.>i. smsJm an Increase .if eircit
lation, sent to •ach of lit* thlrty-liv* '.iinulreit sub
scribeis this sjsssrj 'What was the most bs>
porttiiit act of, your litv ' I'if»v ilulUir« for th« i>est
tru«i ani>w».r." Mr r«-c>'ivt<l more than one thou
ti<'iiid repllt;*, all but one retattof ttotn« particular
de«;d of which th« writer vai proud. The M|
tkiti— •»■"■! piu« Tvlruu-r — wu» brief and tv ti)« point—
"H«tii(» born
EncowM«(j by ih« succsm at tn» iahim» el e*V
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