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New-York tribune. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, July 22, 1906, Image 44

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030214/1906-07-22/ed-1/seq-44/

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Another link is In «!ght for th« 5.030-mile an
American railroad which wiU Eorr.e day enable a
citizen of Alaska to make a eor.t!r.uou3 trsin Jour
ney through zones temperate, tropic and 2 gain
temperate, an.! at the Straits of Magellan to dip ;
his har.rts in Antarctic chilled water— a scenic rail
way croFs'.n^ th« Panama Canal, with a grade
rising fro:n below s<-a leVel to 12.W0 feet above on
the majestic i^.uteaus of the Andes:
It !« ft dreatn of enthusiasm? Then must hard
headed bankers of Kew York have suddenly became
overenthusiastlc in supplying $15,000,000 of capital
and the lT<-si<lent gi Bolivia <i'Jit« lest his wits
when the other <iay he Ht*rted with so much pomp
the buiidinjr of the new railway lines in his coun
try. Speyer & Co. ar,d the National City Eank.
never accused of owrcr.thus: asm before, are the
capitalists. They Rijree to supply another SK>.CCO,OOO.
If necessary, and the Bolivian government promises
to maka repayment within twenty-are years from
date. Moro than 110.000,000 Is to be provided for
railways by the p*-o;.le who name themselves after
El Libert* Jor, Simon Bolivar, making the total
about C 7.500.000.
It is true that this money will be. larsely used
on the Baea of ■ general •ystera of internal rail
way development, yet Bolivia wii! be bisected by a
trunk road from Pern, on the north, to Argentina,
cr» the couth, following the surveyed route of the
Pan-Arcorican scheme. The main line of this trunk
will l-c «3 miles long, addir.jr 204 m'.les to the ex
isting but inadequate and probably to be super
eedfd route of the narrow pau-;e Antofagasta Rail
road. All Internal linen projected total a dlstnr.ee
of nearly one thousand miles. Jtbout fiva timfs the
length of those existing. They include Viacha to
Porto Panrto, 2f'l miles; Viacha to Oruro, 138 miles;
Oruro to Potosi, I€ 3 miles; Oruro to Cochai
123 miles, and Uyuni to Tupiza. 126 miles. From
two to u-n years Is estimated as the time necessary
to complete the various sections. .
Of the fifteen republics that are co-op^rntlng to
startle with the locomotive whistle the condor •ail-
Ing over An-ican abysses and to compete with
Bams, rionkey and 'Indian as freight carriers,
Bolivia amr Peru are now showing the greatest
activity. The dizzy engineering; feats of climbing
the higher mountains of the world, enlarging th "
gold lieart'r Inra's trail along precipice.*, tunnelling
through Impassable rock walls and shuttling bark
and forth on steel spans across tortuous ehssma
ev«r pnssod by man, have already been accom
plished with larpe success in Pern. The pioneer
ger.k'S of Henry Meiggs has its monuments.
It inrpirrs a poet to think of the snowclad peaks
ripine four miles in air. It makes a railway traffic
manager rub his hands when be considers the
preffnt llsm*-don!tey-Indtan rtyle of transportation
at ■ minimum cost of 20 cents a ton a mile. More
over, a railway runs at the same ■peed and at equal
cost in both directions. What will happen to the
old established water rout« ■ of South America, that
take twice as long »nd double cost to go cpstream?
It lakes two weeks to float a cargo of rubber. gaM
or coffee 1,3:0 miles down the Madeira River, but a
month for fconts to po up. And in the dry season,
when the river runs low, traffic is at a standstill.
Th« Pan-American line, as starting from the
present Mexican rcilroad terminus at Ayutla, the
northern boundary of Guatemala, and extending to
lbs river Quiacn, on the boundary between Bolivia
and Argentina (whence existing lines run south and
east). It is estimated will cost $200,000,C09. Mileage
and coat are surpassed by single systems In this
country. It Is pointed out. Some engineers, think
ing of the pulfs and heights to conquer, have
deemed tile average estimate of $40,000 a mile opti
mistic. Yet the actual east of a road from I*ike
Ttticsca. the Inland asa at South America, corre
sponding to Baikal in Siberia, to Bolivia's capital
city of La Pax, has proved t> be only $18,000 a mile.
This line begins to run along the great central
plateau or Bolivia, a prairie 12,000 feet above the
son, and misty with clouds, yet surmounted by the
lordly pea Irs, more than four miles high, of the
Illampu Cordilleras. On this majestic plain the
present main line is lining built. Here the engi
neering difficulties are practically nil, and there la
no fear of encountering eh a chimera as the mov
ing mountain that lately baffled the builders of an
Argentine railroad. That mountain is ■ great cone
of mud, that changes its shape when the river
Medfo frets in the rainy season. A steel span 820
feet long is believed to have conquered the un
stable foe.
The broad, consistent and practical plan of the
Pan-American survey is illustrated by its coin
cidence with the Bolivian project of primarily in
ternal development. Any one could map out a
continental route on paper, but to make such a
route meet the economic, geographic and politi
cal needs of fifteen republics was a larger under
taking. The Jln<3 zigzags, avoids too great ob
ataclea, connects capital cities and taps the rich
toffee, rubber and mineral districts along the way.
All plans call for standard gauge (too many toy
railroads of V£ feet gauge exist in South America),
with 4 per cent maximum gradient and 359 feet
the least radius of curvature. The Bolivian roads
will have no gradient exceeding 3 per cent, and a
.maximum curve of 16 degrees.
Bolivia, with a population of 1,720,000. Including
MM "uncivilized Indians," might never have em
barked on the scheme of railway development if
Brazil, on agreeing to pay $10,000,001 Indemnity In
settlement of the Acre territory dispute, had not
stipulated that the sum must bo spent on railroads.
Andrew Carnegie, an enthusiastic Pan-American,
was no doubt delighted by thlp imitation of his
methods of beneficence. With development of the
mines of Bolivia, that, as territory of the Peruvian
empire, gave fabulous golden tribute to the Incas'
The farmer who Is not prejudiced against new
crops and who desires to develop his land to Its
highest productive capacity by intelligent experi
ment will be Interested In some recent plant impor
tations from abroad by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.
One of these plants, the Japanese u<so. now suc
cessfully grown In America, will probably rival the
celery and the lettuce as a popular winter salad.
Its edible qualities have long been recognized In
Japan, where It is served in every teahouse, and
In China, to which country it Is probably indige
nous; but in America and to Americans, with the
exception of a few travellers and residents in
Japan and a small number of private experiment
ers, It la still unknown. By these private growers,
however. Its culture Is already well understood and
Its adaptability to a variety of climates fully de
As a market product the iido Is yet to be placed
on trial, but Its friends, who are enthusiasts, pre
fllct that in the hands of progressive, truck growers
and hotel managers It w!l! soon become a favorite
with the American housekeeper. Every sort of
c!ai::» la made for its table properties, ar.d Its crisp
r.tfß, the delicacy of Ms flavor and the grace with
which It lends Itself to a French dressing of vine
gar, salt and olive oil are a theme with Its admirers.
The root stocks which produce the edible shoots
of the u.io may be profitably cultivated for ten
years. They or« grown, according to variety,
either from seedlings cr root cuttings, and the
method of culture closely follows that of as
parairus. It Is believed that t-.e udo may be grown
In open, ground as far north as Norfolk. Va.
An equal enthusiasm is manifested by agricult
ural experimenters on th« subject of the Malln
horseradish and the methods, practised }>y the Malia
peasants In Its culture. Imported to America from
the little Austrian village of Malm. the growing of
this horseradish is cow a small but profitable in
dustry in New Jersey, while Its superiority is evi
denced not only in Its Savor and crispness, but by
the fact that It produces more ar.d larger roots,
matures earlier and nets the fanr.er $100 more an
acre than tha American variety.
Allied to the American and Austrian varieties. la
that It is a member of the same family and is put
to tie cams commeo uses, is the wuabl. the horse>
treasure houses and excited the cupidity cf Plzarro
in 1538, the country ir.3y be ab'.c to laush and re
turn Briril*s "stake" with a few millions extra to
pcy fcr a national "Here's looking at ycif!"
Besides gold, the chief ir.!r.eral products are sil
ver, tin. bismuth and copjrer. Th» situation is cotn
pared to that which formerly existed in Mexico,
when the deserted mines were revived by the ?r>
pllcat'on or new scientific methoi3. The, Ir.-as'
slaves took moat of the nuggets loose la Bolivia;
and it dots not pay now to spend iZ) a to:i in
transporting -ow trade ere; but a railway and the
use of Improved machinery would make vast
quantities of mineral highly profitable. -ax is
produced, and the tin deposits surpass those of any
other country of South America. Tin la found over
an area of three hundred mllei from Lake Titl
cata southward, sometimes in the pure cry?*a.l
grains, again a« a &> per cent mixture with silver
or Iron pyrites. The veins, from two inche3 to - x
feet tn s:'ze. are rear the surface in some districts
and in soni" dive a thousand feet under ground.
The following table shows tbe present chief
transportation facilities in Bolivia:
Weight Miles a ton
M sr ier - ln =£- a^ y - a £™
Donkey 1» i\ "
Llama 5 1J °°
Prels*tißg down the rivers swift and cheap; upstream,
Blow and costly.
When the new roads are built It is estimated that
the saving in cost of freight between principal do
mestic and foreign points will be as follows:
coat Put- Sar-
Between a lon - ore. tag
Villa Bella and New Ycrk Mg MJ» $^3
VilU Bella and Uverpool £» 2GO g"
Bent and Pacl.'ic Coast ••• 800 40 320
Beal and New York or Liverpool... 3*2 «2 3*>
Tupiza and Hamburg J55 2 -2
Pctosi and New York K'2 4.. JjJ
New York and Europe to Villa Bella. f.34 200 -'.4
Bolivia has an area of 536.000. or 832.000 square
miles, depending on whether the opinion of her otl
zens or that of disputatious political neighbors 1*
taken. A few hundred thousand miles one way or
the other are not greatly missed by the spacious
South Americans. The country la naturally divided
by the high centi plateau into the lofty mountain
legion of th« west and the low wooded plains of the
east. A tropical climate and luxuriant vegetation
are me( in the deep valleys, while snow and arctic
weather rf-isn on tne peaks above. Nearly all the
rivers, Instead of seeking the learby Pacific, con
verse into lh« Madeira, which, In turn, joins tiie
Amazon to flow thousands of miles to the Atlantic
Ocean. It is a region of dense forests and vast
plains. Every known product of the 'tropics and
most of those in the temperate zone abound east
of the Cordilleras. There are mahogany and rub
ber trees, palm. fcaViana, fig, mimosa, and bamboo,
together with gigantic reeds and Krasses, climbing
vines and plants with gorgeous Bowers. Sixty-five
hundred feet below coffee, cacao, coca, rice, cot
ton, vanilla, sugar cane, sarsaparllla, cinchona and
other things are cultivated. There are great forests
of ebony, mahogany, rosewood, cedar, wax and cork.
Potatoes, wheat, corn. and grapes are grown in the
temperate zene. The wild ancestor Of the llama
leaps a.hoiit on the mountain vnigs. while the hot
forest conceals the Jaguar and tapir and Is the
home of chaiterinK monkeys, shrieking parrots and
rare colored humming birds.
According to W. L. Sisson, an engineer who
made a three months' preliminary survey of the
country for the New York Railway Syndicate, the
deposits of auriferous gravel in some of the rivers
of Eastern Bolivia are enormous. The gravel often
runs from one to two ounces of fine g'ld n ton. aad
the lodes are also rich. A nugget containing forty
nve ounces of pure pold was found in the Chu
quiiigillo River, near the capital city, about a year
iigo. Evidently it was overlooked by the Incas and
by the Spaniards, who are estimated to have taken
$1,250,000,000 of Bold out of the country In the
last two centuries. Until recent years Bolivia
stood third among the silver producing countries
of the world, haying an anual output of l(i,i««».O':o
ounces. In the silver mints now being worked the
yield is from 336 to 2.691 ounces a ton. Her tin de
posits practically control the market of the world.
The Panama Canal is looked forward to as a spe
cial advantage in trie development of Bolivia
A problem to be solved by the builders of the new
railways is the high cost of fuel. Coal that is
brought from Australia by nitrate ships as return
cargo to the coast of Chili Fells In the interior for
m to J42 a ton. Charcoal is worth $31. and coke
soars to $82 a ton. A branch line would make wood
cheap and abundant, while the present choice for
or motive fuw must be tacquis (llama excrement,
drted) at $1 .i, to $9 ,:, a ton. Thero is talk of im
porting crude oil from California. The cost of fuel
on American roads is estimated at 10 p*-r cci t of
25 e peTcen l t MI * MM ' whlle In 1< " 11^ It rises to
The main line. Fays Mr. Sisson, la planned to con
hect Argentina on the south with Peru on the
north, and to get the liest possible results from
development of adjacent territory. The extensions
to the agricultural and tropical r^sions to the east
may. be continued in time to the head of naviga
tion of the four great rivers— Beul, Mamore Pll
comayo and Paraguay. Each line would be produc
tive rf a different class of traffl.-. Thus the Tongas
branch would i,e used mainly for the transportation
of rubber hardwoods, coffee, cocoa and other strict
ly tropical products; the lino to Cochabamba, min
e.ai and agricultural, cattle, etc.; the < iruro-Potosi
line, a heavy mineral traffic; the Potosi-Tupisa line
mineral and some agricultural products; while the
\ lacna-Oruro line would be the outlet for the busi
nr«s of all lines except the Xungas, which will
have an outlet directly t>» the coast over the Dro
poaed Arica railway.
The plan for the Oruro to Potosl line, crossing the
Cordillera Real at an elevation of 14.500 feet, looks
more like the drawing of a corkscrew than any
thing else, owing to the engineering obstacles that
are avoided. The line will have r.o trouble In tho
central plateau, but when it reaches the foothills
of Huanuni and the summit of Bomho there will
be a '•development" to interest engineers and make
lay passengers turn pale. From this summit the
track will follow the tortuous and rugged half mlie
deep canon of the Morachaca River for one mile
then turn and go up the valley of a tributary, the
Colorado, for two miles, then across numerous
divides and along steep valleys, but, with good sup-
radish of the Japanese. It differs from ours in
color, being usually a light green, while In taste It
Is said to possess a fresh sharpness which distin
guishes It from both the Malta and the American
sorts. In Japan the waaabl Is grated and served as a
condiment with the raw fish so universally eaten In
that country. The roots are also pickled, and from
the leaves is made a pepper sauce by pouring- over
them hot water and allowing them to stand for a
few hours. By a nation so addicted to the use of
relishes as the American, the wasabi will undoubt
edly be well received. Its culture here Is already
under way, and while it Is now growing well In New
York State and in the vicinity of Washington City
its success as a product cannot be determined fcr
several years yet.
Following the cultural methods as studied In
Japan, the waaabl will be subjected to careful ex
perimentation . ore the claim is made that it is a
valuable Import, but there seems little doubt that
It has come to stay, and will richly enforce our
already long list of edible plant Immigrants. In
Japan it is said to produce two tons of roots tO the
acre. It grows In running- water or in wet soil fed
by underground springs, and matures in two years.
A hillside shaded by persimmon trees and fol
lowing the course of a mountain stream is a favor
ite location for its cultivation in Japan. Its en
tomological enemy is a small caterpillar which eats
holes in the leaves. The marketable roots are
dug in June, cud at this, time the young suckers
are removed and planted out In the field, where they
mature. During February or March fertilizers
(usually liquid manure or rapeseed cake) are used.
and tho plants hilled up to increase the number and
size of the roots. When dug the roots keep for a
long time.
In the Nile Valley 600,000 acres of its rich soil
Is yearly devoted to the cultivation of what is
called the horse bean. It is an ideal forage plant,
whose value has been fully recognized by the Kn?-
Ush. large quantities of these beans being shipped
to England and fed to the omnibus and cab horses
of London.
With her unlimited resources of soil and climate.
America should readily find suitable regions for the
cultivation of this desirable plant. California, which
Is a favorite state "for plant experimentation. Is
growing a few of these beans, and Southwest
Texas, with Its mild winter climate, seems to pos
sess every qualification for their speedy and com
plete adoption. The bean* are planted thickly In
rows and grow to a height of four or five feet.
Planting; Is done in the autumn, and th« crops
mature at a season when the farmer has usually
exhausted bis store of summer forage crops. This
fact aiuae would appear to justify unusual effort to
Fifteen Million Dollars To Be Expended by New York Capitalists
on a Bolivian Line Which Will One Day Be &.n Integral
Part of the Road from Alaska, to Cfepe Horn.
(Drawing of the ssrpent by SI. J. Klcoll, naturalist to L,'>ri Crawford's expeJition. who saw the creature from
the Valhalla.)
The creature was sighted by Lord Crawford's yacht, the Valhalla, in latitude 7s7 s 4' 4" and longi
tude 34 20' west, recently. It projected some eighteen to twenty-one inches from the
water. It had a large fin or frill, dark seaweed brown in color, and somewhat crinkled at
the edge. The head was something like a turtle's. It was first sighted in three hundred
fathoms cf water. The Valhalla is given in the picture to show the distance at which the
monster was sighted. Its famous predecessor, observed by H. M. S. Daedalus, was sighted
on August 6, 1848, off the west coast of Africa. —illustrated Lor.den News.
porting ground of sandstone and Flate. Following:
the precipitous Ayoma for more than thirty-five
miles, the track will stretch along the Pilcomayo
River for a mile, then up a small tributary on the
right, and after "considerable development" cross
to an affluent of the Totora, then down this river
and up another to Potosi, at an altitude of 12,750
It is facetlotislv suggested that the rear brake
man ar.d the engineer will b? able to play check
ers together when the tram is pursuing its snaky
upward rind bark ward . ourse. The total rise for
the 111 miles la 8.200 f*et. Estimates have been
based on a single track roadbed, having a width
of IS feet, with numerous steel bridges of from 80
to 250 feet span. The earlier completion of the
easy plateau line from Viacha to Oruro. is depended
on to bring lies and other material for construction.
Two and a half or three years is the time esti
mated for building the line. The total cost is
estimated at $7,629,750, or at the rate of $35,14S a
Japanese Udo. Austrian Horseradish, Wa.sa.bi. Horsebeans,
Chinese flushes, and Ba.va.ria.n Hops Will, It Is Hoped.
Do Much for the American Bill of Fare.
establish its use in this country, and supply the
Southern farmer with a valuable winter crop and
those In the North with a new food for their stock.
1 ■-■«:. on the lowlands of South Carolina, where
rice culture was once an important industry, yearly
yielding the planter a handsome profit on his"ia£>or,
the fields have become practically waste land. This
condition is due to the opening: up cf Inrge planta
tions m Louisiana and Texas, where the rice is
n;ore cheaply and, consequently, more profitably
produced. To discover what will grew best on the
abandoned fields of South Carolina and restore to
them their former commercial value in tho ;:grl-
CUlturaJ world is a question now interesting a large
number of people. The plainer whoso Income lias
been so materially lessened by tho decay of rice
culture is naturally the one most concerned In the
discovery cf new crops for his old fields, but there
Is no class of people "throughout the State of South
Carolina that is not affected, to a greater or less
degree, by the material wealth of the suite as rep
resented by its agricultural products. Every one
knows how quickly tha merchant and the anker
respond to the prosperity cf the fanrser.
But there is another person deeply concerned
In this problem whose material Interests re, un
toucnod ami whoso services are often una?krio-n !
edged and sometimes altogether overlooked. This is
the government expert, the disinterested enthu
siast whose knowftdjw nnd skill have reclothed
many a denuded hill, vitalized many a barren
waste and made the desert itself yteid riches. He
Is too frequently regarded as a laboratory dreamer
whoso theories should be disregarded by* the prac
tical farmer.
But the scientist Is. above all. a careful experi
menter, and if he has visions they are such as
help his fellows, as visions always have in every
field of endeavor *!nce the world began. To his
explorations in foreign countries w^ ewe many of
our new crops- By selection. bybrMUlng ancl care
ful breeding he has Unproved species and produced
new types; and it is to him that the people cf
South Carolina now look to aid them ir. their
search for something to take the place cf the once
valuable rice crop.
On many of these abandoned fields a rush grows
wild. Act!r.g upon this suggestion of nature, an
effort Is being made by the Agricultural Depart
ment, with tl.e co-cperatlon of private growers, to
replace this worthless rush with a better one. Both
China and Japan possess a native rush whose qual
ities esable t&esi to manufacture a matting ua
mile, against the $2T.SBT average of the Viacha-
Oruro line.
The line into the Tungas country from Viacha to
Porto Pando will he the most difficult and costly.
A direct course over the mountains has been
found impracticable, owing to grades of 10 to 13
per cr,nt, but it is possible to follow a gap of the
Bopi Klver. which la the only natural break In the
Andes for many miles. On the eastern slope the
great mountains descend suddenly from elevations
of 16.000 feet to 1.000 feet. The country on the
western slope Is quite devoid of vegetation, owing
to constant drouth, while a few miles away, on
the eastern sl.1». there la luxuriant vegetation. The.
scenery Is said to he enehantlngly picturesque, with I
great peaks towering everywhere aloft and moun
tain torrents dashing in snowy cascades along the
ravines. Banks of clouds roll along the valleys,
sometimes descending below the mountain sum
mits, which then show darkly above them.
The total rise along the route Is 12.300 feet, with
the same fall. Grading and bridging will be
heavy, owing to the mountainous country and to
the tributary streams coming into the main river
followed by the track. The majority of the streams
to be crossed are small, but they are numerous, and
will require many culverts and short bridges. It
is believed that timber trestles would be most eco
nomical for a section of one hundred miles from
the mouth of the Mlguilla River to the terminus,
since there Is plenty of timber along the way. As
elsewhere, there are no accommodations for men
aion? the route, and it will be necessary to build
section and tool houses every fifteen miles. The
passenger engine used will be of the eight-wheel
American type, weighing fifty tons, and the freight
engine of the consolidation type, ten wheels and
weighing seventy tons. The average cost a mile
on this road !s estimated at $4",»ilS.
Potosl the Golden v.'ill no doubt become a great
objective for tourists when, for the first time, It
has railway connection with the rest of the world.
Founded by the Spaniards in 1560, it is the capital
of the province of the same name— a quaint, pict
uresque city arn'd <•. rugged mountain region and
surmourted by the sentinel Cerro de Potosi. The
Bteep winding streets are lined with white walls
and porticos tinted with orange, blue and pink.
Among the sights of the town are the mint, built
a few hundred years ago at a cost of $1,000,000, the
Church of San Lorenzo, and an ancient tower of
the Jesuits, with rare earrings. The nenk Cerro
de Potosi rises 16,003 feet, and Its symmetrical
sides, vari-hued in the translucent air. shew hun
dreds of scars where Peruvian, Spanish and nrodun
man tunnelled into Its he;ir: in search of its treas
ures of silver, copper and tin. The mountain has
twenty-five main lodes of silver and tin. At the high
tide of silver minlnc there was a. population of 1.0.-
000, y>ut with the decrease In the value of silver the
population dwindled. T"* recent success of tin
mining has brought the population up from 10.000
to 85,000. It is said that tho mine workers live only
about ten years, "because they work thirty-six '
hours at a stretch voluntarily, rest little and I
drln— hard."
Those who have drunk of the waters of Sara
toga, seen the delicate colorings of I.ak.- George,
sailed past the remains of the Revolutionary for
tifications on Lake Champlain, visited the strangely
fretted Au Sable Chasm and spent a summer among
the lakes of the Adirondacks. know that a good
■way to reach those points is by the Delaware &
Hudson Railroad. This is a finely ballasted, double
equalled elsewhere in the world. That of Japan
ranks in fineness, while the Chinese Is toucher, and
tor ordinary uses more durable.
To transplant these valuable rushes and domicile
them In South Carolina can hardly be regarded as
a wild sefheme even by those most skeptical of the
government's capacity for practical work, and a
report of the first years trial has just teen re
ceived at Washington and is encouraging. While
tho sample sent on for inspection shows the rush
ti> be still too brittle and too shcrt for commercial
u?>?.( it is not unreasonable to suxiijose that suc'.i
defects will be overcome. In plant culture every
condition is carefully noted, and oftentimes appir
ently insuperable obstacles have yielded to Intelli
gent ar.d painstaking experimentation.
Should the Japanese rush prove ltse'f an al'en
to the end in the fields of South Carolina, the
perennial ardor of the agriculturist may be rel'.ed
upon for new suggestions, fr^sh efforts and final
Notwithstanding many advertisements to the con
trary, it ;s generally known by the public, as
we!', as by the brewers, that American beer is In
ferior to that made In Europe. This is not due
to »ny want of integrity In the American brewer.
for his expensive plant and strict regard to hygiene
attest his good faith. Neither is it due to a lack
of skill in the brewing, hla methods being all that
cculd bo desired.
The trouble lies deeper and tray re four. 1 In
the mixed barleys and Inferior hops used in th«
manufacture of American beer. To the farmer. Irf
co-operation wi:h the brewer, we must look for
tho remedy.
When the growers shall have improved the qual
ity of American hops and replaced with pure races
the mixed barley*, jo» m use, we may hope to see
produced in this country a beer akin to the fine
brews of Munich and Pilsen. It is impossible to
produce with mixed barleys a malt which will be
regular in yield, color and flavor.
To secure a pure- race barley ia a matter of breed
ing, backed by unremitting care and devot'ox
Sweden has produced a famous type, and the Har.
na barley, another wonderful type, from Moravia,
is now being successfully grown in California. Ex
perimental brews arc to be made of this barley and.
Its quality carefully tested. In the manufacture
of tl;e beat been In the Unite.: States the brewers
buy imported Bohemian or Bavarian hops at 63
cents a pound rather than use the American kinds,
vriiieb, may be had for Si ceata. The American
track road, starting from Alfcar.y an 3 follow!-.
the Upper Hudson Riv«r er.d the old Chastplaia
Canal to the upper end of Lake i.co-^e and aiens
the snores of Lake Champlain int:> the heart of
f>e Adi-ondacks. The journey to the Ad;ror<Jac^3
•s" a continuation of the picturesque trip v? the
Hudson, for tho solid vestt traled exyrcss^a oj this
road made up of parlor, sleeping. di::ir.g. cafe an.l
ot-se.rvatica cars, travel along; t>e shore of 1..V/.C
Char.-.F'.aln for scores c; miles be'orc- r^.icr.:r.^
Plattsburp. where they swing bnck among '.^
forests of tho Adirondack* to Saranae Uw.e E.r.d
Lake Placid. If one desires to ir.ak? par: of tLe
trip by water it is possible to change at tort
Ticor-dercsa and board a steamer poi^s «?Jj£e
laka to Platts^rs. the railroad ilck« petoj hon
ored on the boat. It is also possible top by boAt
through Lake Grorpe. The travel.er a, s o has the
priviU - of sto FP !ns off and seeing the pay spec
tacle Of Saratoga, the Au Sible Chasm Hn,t?l
Champlain. near Plattsburg. and the other s-oarcor
resorts en tr.e line By adOrcssiris A. A. Heard,
general passenjer ascnt of the tXMaware &. ll^\
son Company. Albany, and sending four «.ents
In stamps for postage, one may secure a rree
cepv of "A Summer Paradise." illustratei. wtta
maps, hotel and boarding house .,H s tower. rat
For two cents posiase. a beautiful toUtr, l^e
Adirondacks," will be sent.
It Appears at Last Before Bona
Fide Scientists.
Verily the perversity of mankind passeth all
understanding: An lif there be any who would
challenge the Justice of this aphorism let him
reflect for a moment on the fact that we talk
of the phoenix r.s if it were real and of the sea
serpent as though it were a purely mythical
beast: But the sea serpent is probably himself
tJ blame for this, inasmuch as he is indiscreet
enough to show himself from time to ttms to
those who go down to the sea in ships. Hence.
A3 with other distinguished mortals, everybody
who has occasion to cross the ocean burns for
an opportunity to boast an acquaintance with
this distinguished dweller in the deeps.
A vast amount has been written about the sea
serpent, but of all the stories that have been
told it is sad to reflect that those of the clergy
men "surpass in wildness of elaboration even
the yarns invented with intent to deceive." At
least, so says Frank Bullen— he ought to
know! #
One or two of the more serious accounts are
worth repeating. No longer ago than l«»l one
Peter Nelson, a quartermaster, and therefore
"an honorable man." saw from the deck of the
Rotomahana a beast with the head of an eel
and fins ten feet long rise thirty feet out of the
water. It was dark above and white below. He
gave a long account of this strange beast, yet.
so far. those whom he Intended to convert only
reply that it was "very like a whale"— in short,
that he saw nothing more than a whale "breach
Captain McQuhae of H. M. S. Ewdalus and
his officers in I*4B created a great sensation in
England by a eea serpent story which at th«
time was discredited by the late Professor Sir
Richard Owen. But time brings its revenges,
for it may turn out that the professor was
wrong. Briefly, they reported having seen an
enormous serpent with head and shoulders some
four feet out of the water and some sixty feet
of its body on the surface. It passed rapidly so
close to the ship that a man's features at the
same distance could easily have been distin
guished. It had no fins, but something like sea
weed washed about Its back.
, Now within the last few days the honor of the
captain and his officers, or rather, their credit as
observers, has been singularly vindicated, for at
the last meeting of the Zoological Society E.
B. Meade Waldo and M. J. Nlcoll described
a creature seen by them from the deck of the
Karl of Crawford's yacht, the Valhalla, which
bears a remarkable resemblance to that seen
from the rwwlalus. These two men accom
panied Lord Crawford as naturalists during
his usual winter cruise. Both are well known
naturalists, and one is a member of the Council
of the Zoological Society. The story they un
folded to a breathlessly excited assembly of the
Fellows is briefly this: When off Para on De
cember 7. 1905, at 1O a. m. they were standing
on the deck of the yacht when their attention
was caught by a curious sail-like object of
some four feet long and two feet high waving
from side to side in the water. No sooner had
they turned their glasses on this strange object
than there appeared a huge eel-like neck, some
six feet long and as thick as a man's thigh,
and this neck was surmounted by a great turtle
like head with large eyes, now borne high above
the sea, which was quite calm. It was dark
colored above and silvery white below. After
a few moments the head and neck were slowly
lowered, and when level with the water were
violently lashed from side to side, churning up
the sea into a great sheet of foam, and then it
Adverse winds caused the ship to beat about
so that at midnight they were only twenty
miles from the scene of the morning.
This is noteworthy, because when Mr. Nicoll
came on deck after breakfast one of the officers
came up end reported that during the night he
saw a strange commotion In the water. At first
he though ii was a rock "awash." but a more
careful examination showed that it was a. beast
of some kind, travelling faster than the ship,
which was then making only about 8»4 knots.
The officer "hailed the deck" and the lookout
man. and thus got witnesses to this weird rre
nomenon. Though the sea was calm, and there
was a bright moon, nothing satisfactory could
be made out owing to the "wash" which the
hop smells of garlic, and is full of seeds. Seeds
are practically absent from the imports! product,
which is due to different methods of culture in this
country and abroad. In America the hop garden
is filled with plants bearing mal* as well as female
Sowers; In Europe the male bearing plants are
ro-ted up and thrown aside, thereby eliminating
the seed, which are regarded as especially objec
tionable. .
The aroma of the hop. which determines Its value
more than any other characteristic, is due to the
amount of lupulin it contains, and here again the
American hop falls far short of the European
standard and* is c!?*3ed with the low grades pro
duced in Rnssbr and Belgium. It is humiliating to
learn that the reputation of our hop inferiority Is
sd well established on the Continent that many of
the rr.opt prominent growers sind brewers tr.^re
have never even seen it. In a recent classification
by an eminent Bohemian scientist the American
hop 13 rot m'-ntlnned.
But th» faithful and patient agriculturist and
the discriminating brewer are on the trail of better
things, and It is not too much to predict that at
r.o distant day oar beers wlil have achieved a more
honorable position than, they nw hold.
Xationa! Arts Club's Building. Con
nected zcith Tilde n House.
That New York's artists are prospering ia
:-. by the big atudia bu:lding of tho National
Arts Club at No. 119 Eaat liJth street, now near
completion. Its height of nearly 150 feet and
the color schema of Its front make
mark in the neighborhood of Gramercy Park-
Tho organization has done a good stroke of
business in guinin? possession of the house
facing the park formerly occupied by Samuel J.
Tilde.-.. From the 20th street front of ths
Tllden house to the 10th street front of the
new studio building there is a city block in
length devoted to the uses of the Art Club,
the Municipal Art Society, the National Society
of. Craftsmen and kindred organizations.
The old Tllden house has been altered to suit
the needs of the Arts Club, but with all the
changes necessary much of the building* is as It
was during its occupancy by Mr. Tilden. On*»
of the high stoops has been cut away to
make a street level entrance, and on tae first
creature wa3 makins; but In It 3 .r-r.*nta It
resembled a submarine tr&vellir.s j-^rt *cU>x tit*
Seriously. v.c can no» lonser regard the "sea
serpent" as a myth. Then? can be r.o «juestton
that the cceaa h:\rbors sorr.e secret rrhich «9
have not ye: pecetntcd. It seems unlikely
that this evasive creature should b«» a descend
ant of the old Plessosnurs tvhich became extinct
mllt'ons of years a^o. thotijrh the resemblance- to'
tliose mor.stcr? is striliUvs More . r,n»t>ab-ly It
will prove to be scrr-i blsazre forra of r*ptlla,
But the resemblance botw^en th<? descriptions*
given by the?» srentiemen ar>vl that given br the>
cflcers c* the DnriiaTu3. agrees t^«\ closely to be>
passed by, and, furthermore, both agree with thd
•lescription of a szmilai- creatuie seer» off Ton
ciuin some f;>ur years since^ It U possible that It
may even prov? to be a. :**rrrnenf." For it i»
■well known that the land snakes once possessed
lira^s. and son.*:? gigantic .'onus of sea sewUv^
may well have preserved th^ir Kmb?. though now
transformed Into paddles llfce> those of tea tur
tle ana whale.— lllustrated Lor.uon Xcwj.
Only Ignorance of Its Virtues Prc~
icnts Its Being Ours.
The comparison Instituted, la a previous ar«e»»»
bet-wren tfctn and other EasUsh speaking countries.
as resr:ird* the use of tea. has moved an eating
correspondent to furnish acor.tributlea to lIM tea
ciscussior:, which. It is thought, w m be sunVier.tly
appreciated fey Tribune reade"* to rvajpl. Its in
sertion, in its entirety, here, since it Is the pro
nouncement of or* who has manifestly given ths>
subject much study, and also fcr the reason that
it presents the case in a novel and entertaining
Th;> question Is often MM why It Is that tea.
has not become the universal beverage in America
that It 1? in Ensland. The answer is simple.
First— Because the average consumer in America.
Knows little Rhout tea; does not even know how
to prepnr* it properly. There are three principal
ways, which prevail in the majority of American
homes, or ruining a cup of tea.
(a) By boiling the leaves stead of simply pour-
In? the water on them. Rolling kill*, tea in two
vriy*— by destroying it« flavor: «•-! by bringing out
of the leaves an excess of tannin, which affects
the system Injuriously.
(b) By draw'ns? tea, too lon*, .It.it Is drawn over
ten minutes it is injured by dereloptnjr too much
tannin— Just ns is accomplished by the boiling
process. Therefore, at the end of ten minutes, and
preferably seven minutes, the liquor should *•
poured off the leaves into another heated vessel.
Tbls puts an end to the "drawing." and the tannin
remains behind, in the leaves. Thus made, tea
can be used with safety, and I* good, whether
cold or heated, hours after the leaves are discarded.
Th!« precaution — the pouring off— renders it Impost*
sible to pet tannin in the beverage and at th«
same time preserves the latter"* delicate Carer.
Tea. so brewed, can be taken for a lifetime. In
moderation, without affecting the nerves of even
the most delicate.
ic) Tea Is ruined by the water not being allowed]
to boil furiously before It Is poured on the leave*.
Fully one-half the tea drinkers pour the water M
immediately upon discovering a suspicion of steam
emanatinc from th* kettle spout. The water should
be permitted to boll until the steam pours out furi
ously: this occurs within three or four minute*
after the latter first appears*. Otherwise th«» water
has not boiled, and therefore cannot draw oat from
the leaves their flavor or strength
Second — reason for th» limited con
sumption of tea in our eotmrrv ls» th»» universal us*
of fhf- lower grades. Two-thirds of all the tea
used her« is detected from the lowest two grade**.
Why Intelligent consumers should confine thefr
drinking to teas which, although pure, according
to the government inspection, are almost devoid
of strength »rd flavor, when the highest grade's
are procurahV nt th* rate of three cups for onus
cent. is b*»yond comprehension. Jos) here is when*
the English show their superior knowledge of
tea. They discard the lowest grades, as a rule:
so much so. in fact, that it has not been found
necessary by government to establish a rlijiii
Inspection for quality, whereas. In our country,
until the Taw was passed excluding adulterated!
and worthless tea, there was a tendency, on the)
Dart of both retailors and consumers, to use tno>
lowest grades exclusively, and this simply because
the people (111 not — Indeed, the*- do not now—
realize that there are thre* hundred cups of t-->*
in every pound, which means a coat of on© cent for
three cups even it the hich rate of (1 a pound, or
six cups for one cent Si 50 cents a pound. If this
fact were genera known, no on*- would want th«
lower grades, and all but the poorest peopi«» would)
drink ten worth Si. As the averajte consumer takes
about thrrr pounds of tea p«>r annum, th« differ
ence between the horary of drinking the best an<t
the punishment of drinking the poorest is only
about $2 per annum.
Third— The last reason why tea. Is consumed h>
England to. a far greater extent than In America
Is because of the universal custom of taking It at
5 o'clock. There they have found out the secret
that tea Is a greater stimulant between than a»
meals, and as they take a late dinner, at 8
o'clock, and th«» distance between their lunch^n
and dinner Is thus greater than ours, they find
tea at 5 o'clock a most valuable "btaeai." Even
the merchants and bankers stop fur twenty minutes
to take their stimulating cup. at that hour, and)
ill al'»n<r the roadways of Englai at "» o'clock in
the afternoon all equipages can be seen etopptnc
before wayside Inns, to permit Indulgence In this
rational— and national— beverage. The consump
tion of tea In England at this hour alone is at
feast four times greater than all that used In th«
United States at all hours. TThen the American
people realise that th« energies Impaired or ex
hausted by the day can be restored by a whole
some cup of tea. in a marvellous manner, and
without injury to any part of the human aysrens.
th" American consumption of tea will increase by
leaps and bounds. r.
"Still, there ts one thins; that must he s«1<l
in favor of Delilah." remarked the lecturer en
the "Heroes of the Earliest Times." and that Is,
she never ctaimed to be a member of the. 'Flora
dora sextet." — Cleveland Plain Dealer.
floor will be the library, taring the park, with
many of the Til den bookcases still la position.
In the rear will be the offices of the secretary
and hoard of governors. What was the <Ilnlna
room in the old house is now a gallery, and ia
the extension to the west on the first floor will
be the reception and assembly rooms for women.
The main floor Is converted into reception.
lounging and writing rooms and a portion off
the restaurant, which Is continued Into the new
building. The upper floors have been converted
into studios and sleeping apartments, and In th»
basement are the office, cafe, billiard room. cloaV
rooms, ftc.
The 10th etreel structure, which will be known
as th»- Arts Club Studios, occupies the entire lot.
with a frontag*- of O> feet, and is Intended
as a: object lesson for similar organisations,
being specially designed to meet the require
ments of artist members. It was designed by
George B Post, the first president of the dub.
and contain.-? twelve larsre studio apartments^
comprising studio, sitting room and library, with
mt-zzanine bedrooms ar.d bath, six smaller
studio apartments, with studio, alcove and bath,
ten bachelor apartments and fifteen ilr.glo
rooms. most of which are rented under lons
The offices of the National Arts Club and th*
Municipal Art Society are already established
In the old TiJden house, the alterations of which
were designed by and carried out under the su
pervision of Charles R. Lamb, president of th*
Municipal Art Society. Spencer Trask, president
of the club, having given his special attention
to .the details of the atudio building in 19th
street. ■■■■: •-[
The bu!!d!r.g restriction on the Graxnercy Park
frontage makes it impossible for a business or
mercantile structure to face the park, and this.
In connection with th# clos« proximity of Th*
Players and the Columbia T ?ntverslty Club.
guarantees that the district will retain Its resi
dential charact-r. and makes the location aa
ideal one for the National Arts Club and Ua
kindred crEanlxa;ions.'^ .^
The Author— ln this scene some one cornea ta
suddenly ax tells you that your husband has
run away with another woman, and then you
The Actress— Oh. that wJH be nice.
Then the leading man comes in and brine*
you to." •
••What— me two hu3t>»n<U *"— Yona^am

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