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,V THl' WOOLSACK.
j I'latticnn Wlo Was Thrice jjrf Chancellor of England, I I Who Was Thrice yti Chancellor of England. ,fICiORIAW CHANCELLORS. By J. B. i <! illustrated. In two volumes. Volume 1., I&zJxxL •*• Little. Brown * Co. •Cay disclaims In his preface any desire f . tls bock regarded as a continuation of "^npbell's "Lives of the Chancellors,'' v Cjraci In large part It necessarily is. how * 0& ft may differ from the previous un \\g-g Id scale, in scope or in literary execu ' <Ta four occupants of the woolsack, whose *m& apr^""" to thls volume, are Lords '^sjst. Brougham. Cottenhaxn and Truro. "*«tej of **** two former chancellors, which \sg take up nearly five-sixths of the vol f t»re already been covered by Lord Cainp *v& th* object of Mr Atlay seems largely ft*ter< to correct the erroneous impression * t0 1« produced by that lively bat spiteful ilapber. and in the rasp of Lord Lyndhurst, r , w t. v * v<l ' l the often to ° eulogistic ea- I^t o j.;o official biographer. Sir Theodore " o f hi« sfjfe fad I'ioirapher. Sir Theodore ' " V# author admits that the Inclusion of arnrni? the Victorian chancellors J* fcfjof the nature of "a fraud on the title," ' "■' Brtrafifc* 111 s u rrrrrtf>Tlp< l th<» Great Seal two lX «nd s half ' '••'" the accession of the '.norm. n< * Fufficlently justifies his course, S ,tft*r, <m Xhf rl " n that Lord Rrougham'g J.-^if career Is "so inextricably bound up jjje fprtrnes of hfs predecessors and Imme f pjrcejwr? In office, as well as with the r\ «»a politic 3* history of the early years f.£lfMtmiea of n iis predtvesuors and "would t bi nfltee, a» wen as with the , n /i BsMeal history of the early years y «>lct." * v ' <ri have omitted him "would itifrrt these pnsrfs of all semblance of •JMBSBL" •*g author has Httle. If anything, absolutely ... •- «ay about Brougham, hot his prpsenta -of the we'l known fart« of his life is made !■+ s cirfitaM** rtet<-rm 'nation to draw a Mtis " --rr portrait of "one who. with all his fail .- xra? a very srreit man." and he shows a * jjjntnlnaticn In resnrd to those matters . rtirh the evidence is contradictory. The • -::*r is especially noteworthy for Its ex ...tjjve acceur* of the trial of Quoen Caro a In which Broufrham appeared for the de ,-•? anfl Lord Lyndhurst. then Bcrgpatit Con - for tti" rr< > p' > ' % iit' rm . Although this wan by ..-eaTis the only occasion when the two irnnts c! thPTT-srfv^" !n active opposition, during « HMtrter of a century previous to Lord \£arSL'B drnth thf-y lived on term« of affec- V;:re intirmcy. "Every afternoon Brougham pjU jrtre around to the house in George -.-t rtiw his seri-nr lay cripriled with gout, •i ftef!" Win ' Vit^ ?" c sip nnd bravaderie; and ■±*fork flays after Lyndnurst's death, when < m mental powers v.-ere fast failing, ho Ci c*'" ro'ise h'mself to be driven there, i it wap witti pain and difficulty that the 3t3ess raturr: nf his quest could he explained --•' Brongha.m'B physiognoTiy was almost ■BBSs' as his mental characteristics. "The i disjoint--.! frame, with the strong, bony -is. the e-forcjotcen nose, were not ESsiitent with that dignity which the sen :•.-. of force rarely fails to confer." Bagehot ■•<■ of him: ftwe Is a dare in pome trim's eves which seems ■ rr"B<?war«\ I am dangerous; noil me tanr»ere •• a rtiam's '• » hns this. A mischievous ex- ICity if the mript obvious expression of it. If • »ere a horse nobody would buy him." BMBsaa'a fare and form were the joy of the I till Ms. Mi I to this day his most proml d feature appears every week on the cover ' "Parch." For rome forgotten cause, accord ;t» Mr M. 11. SpeOmann. Brougham had jsa embrace to the designer, who vowed to "Tt% to face tlirou^h the mire," and ore of itiwp of Imps and elves that dance around 't borJer trails by a string a mask with up ■ad face, on which is "visible and distinct • proboscis which once adorned the coun aace of IyirJ Ilrougham." "or American readers the present volume will iflesj derive it.<= prime Interest from the ?raphy of Lord Lyndhurst. the son of John :::eto!3 Copley, the artist, who was the most :-<*ssful portrait inter of hta time in the ;*riran colonies. In F;>ite of his American "h and parentage, John Fingleton Copley, Jr.. '-■ a thoro-jjrh liriton. which Is, perhaps, not asje when we consider that he was taken to ■ '■'- London when he was only two years old i ttusachusetts was still a part of the do 2dhs of King George. Having received from itaSverdQr (Car-bridge) a "travelling bache "ii * > " he revisited America in his twenty i rear. "Smgii fie had made a very comprehensive tour •Tth tls*¥ Northern States, and found warm "~i am th I abundant hospitality for which our ■■ lerosa the Atlantic were then, as now, mama. Copley seems to have seen nothing to 3" *r<j much that was repellent in republican ■ iO ns. "1 ive become a fierce aristocrat." Mm to his moLber from Philadelphia, on April Li*. "This is the country to cure your Jacobins; •then over and they will return quite con l Dot be never ceased to cherish affection *£* lsn.i nf hia birth, and he retained an In- TRlo A:r-- an Institutions and American poll 2Jo the fay of his death. When he was one* ■*« >at * a * the most interesting day in bis •a*, , h * repUad. without hesitation, the day ■a at Mount Vernon. with Washington. •aa throuph the generosity of an American, brother •i, .aw. Gardiner Greene, of Boston. * came to his assistance with a timely loan '3.000 that young Copley was enabled to "^ae his career at the bar. and so to rise to '=c Eerscant-at-law, Solicitor General. At '■-y General, Master of the Rot's. Chief Baron NEW-YORK JXVTLY TRIBUNE. SUNDAY. AICIST 2G. 1906. cellor* Excbc<lucr an , three times Lord chan **• case that first brought him Into public notice was his defence of Watson and Thistle wood, indicted for high treason for inciting a riot in the city of London in 1816. He secured their acquittal, and was promptly offered a seat to Parliament from a Treasury borough. He as promptly accepted and was duly elected, thereby incurring the charge of having abandoned his early principles for motives of ambition, a sus picion that "hung over him to the close of his life, and has left Its traces on the generally re ceived estimate of his career.- He seems, in deed, to have been In the habit of airing ultra liberal opinions in public, and to have confined his anti-Jacobin protestations to the family circle. To Mr. Atlay. Copley seems to have entered the House of Commons ••with the frank In- I-ILI SCTIONKMANN. (From an engraving.) tcntlon of pushing his prospects at the bar," while "his freedom of speech and his hatred of humbug often made him assign the least favor aide construction to his own conduct" He adds, significantly, that Lord Lyndhurst "possessed a sense of humor in which some of his critics are palpably deficient." He was the original of Sir Charles Wolstenholme in Samuel Warren's novel. "Ton Thousand a Year." Lady Lyndhurst was a noted wit and beauty, nnd one of the most fascinating women of her time. Together. tb.y spent his Lord Chancel lor's salary of f1 4.000 a year in a prodigal hos pitality, quite in contrast with the thrifty prac tices of his predecessor. Lord Eldon. "What would people have said of me." Lord Eldon asked hi« favorite son. William Henry Scott, "if I hod b*»en seen driving about in a cabriolet?" "I will tell you what they would have said, dear father." was the answer. "There goes the great est lawyer and the worst wb'p in all England." Lord Lyndhurst was distinguished by a charm and ejayety of manner and a military bearing that 111 comported with the traditional behavior of a "solemn Judge." In one respect, at least, he manifested democratic tendencies. It is stated that "he never threw off an old friend, he was never ashamed of a vulgar or unfashionable ac quaintance." He was generous in his treatment of the members of the bar. One of his first acts as Lord Chancellor was to advance a batch of 'leading juniors." Among these was Campbell, who. judging by hie biography of his benefactor, little appreciated the kindness. The action of Lady Lyndhurst, who, according to Campbell, on her husband's elevation to the peerage, "weeded her visiting book almost entirely of lawyers and their wives and daughters," may surest the secret of his animus. Lord Lynd hurst was responsible for many reforms of the abuses of the Court of Chancery, which Dickens exposed in the famous case of "Jarndyce vs. Jarndyee." but that he still left much to be done In the way of betterment may be inferred by what was later accomplished by his successors, and by the fact that he was the only Chancellor in whose court Dickens ever reported. He was always a prominent figure In Parliament, and was for many years the Liberal leader in the House of Lords. During the debate over the re peal of the Test and Corporation acts, one of the Peers, In supporting the clause In the new act which required the new Declaration to be made "on the true faith of a Christian." contended that without it a Jew might become Lord Chancellor. "Why not?" Lyndhurst was heard to mutter. "Daniel would have made a very good one." He was instrumental In getting "Young Disraeli"* into Parliament, and the latter, in the preface to his collected works, written seven years after Lyndhuist's death, pays this tribute to his memory? The world has recognized the political courage, the versatile ability and the masculine eloquence of Lord Lyndhurst; but his intimates only were acquainted with the tenderness of his disposition, the Eweetness of bis temper, and the playfulness of bis bright and airy spirit. Lord Lyndhurst was especially tolerant to the litigant In person. When Mr. Cleave, on being tried In the Court of Exchequer, remarked that he feared he should give an awkward illustra tion of the truth of the old adage that he who acts as his own counsel has a fool for a client, "Oh. Me Cleave." said O» Lord Chief Baron, "don't yon mind that adage; It was framed by LITE It Alt)' XOTES. I^t those who honor the memory of Charles Dickens and cherish the works of his genius Tift up their hearts and rejoice. Mr. CJ. K. Chester ton, that great writer, has completed a study of the novelist, and it is intended, we are told, as a general justification of Dickens." Comment is superfluous. We can only gasp with a sense of illimitable gratitude. The author of "Elizabeth and Her German Garden" has composed a new volume which will have to show all of her charmtng lightness of touch if it is to trin»»»oh over the cumbrous title she has bestowed upon it. This title runs, Praulein Schmidt and Mr. Anstruther, Being the Letters of an Independent Woman." The story will be printed serially before appearing in book form. Hiss Cholraondcley, who has not published a novel since she brought out "Red Pottage," and achieved popularity, will soon re appear with a new story called "Prisoners." Mr. W. B. Maxwell, who made a promising debut with his "Vivien," will add to the fiction of the opening season a story about the home life of a great thinker. It will be called "The Guarded Flame." Mrs. P. A. Steel's new novel, "A Sov ereign Remedy," has for its hero a rich man interested in questions of social reform. There is nothing like laying it on with a trowel. Says Mrs. Alfred Sidgwick of Mrs. St Leger Harrison, better known as Lucas Malet: "She is so great an artist that the passions she portrays quicken the pulse; her drama holds us breathless, even beyond the gateless barrier we follow her in faith." This from one novelist to another warms our heart, and, incidentally, it gives us a new willingness to follow, through all barriers, gateless and otherwise, Lucas Malet's "rather tremendous personality." We should add that Mrs. Harrison has in press a new "rather tremendous novel," called "The Far Horizon," and that it will reintroduce characters already made familiar by "The History of Sir Richard Calmady." Readers of French history, when they come across the name of Cardinal Mazarin, are apt to recall with a peculiar sense of romantic begull ment those nieces of his for whom he did so much. They began life simply as Laura, Olympe, Marie. Hortense and Marianne Mancini, but they came to be, in course of time, respectively the Duchesse de Mercceur, the Comtesse de Sols sons, the Princcsse de Palliano. the Duchesse de Mazarin and the Ducbesse de Bouillon. The his tory of these ladies was brilliant, picturesque and even dramatic. It has furnished forth the material for a new book by Mr. H. Noel Will iams, who has in several volumes shown that FRAU YON BTETN. (From a drawlne.) he can gossip agreeably about old court life. He calls his latest production, which the Scribners will bring out in the autumn, "Five B^air Sis ters: An Italian Episode at the Court of Louis XIV." A newspaper published in Madrid has just of fered a prize of f»00 pesetas for the best essay on the subject of "An^lo-Spanish Relations from the Treaty of Utrecht to the Present Day." Com petitors may submit their manuscripts in Span ish, English or French, but they must not use more than GrfVKX) words. The competition closes on October 15. King Alfonso has shown his in terest in the scheme by adding to the prize to be awarded a copy of "Don Quixote," with the royal arms stamped upon the binding. The late Lord Acton, who established an ex traordinary reputation as an historian, almost without writing a line of history, seems to have been willing enough to write letters to his friends. The volume of such souvenirs of his in teresting personality which was published not very long ago is to be followed by another, en titled "Lord Acton and His Circle." Two new Stuart books are to be expected this winter. Mr. Martin Haile, whose "Mary of Modena" was recently reviewed in The Tribune, is engaged upon a life of the Old Pretender. At the same time, Mr. H. N. Vaughan is writ ing a biography of Cardinal York. Mr. Walter Wlnans, who knows all about re volvers and how to make them go, and has sagely discoursed In print about their weird ways, has a new book in press. From the title we infer that, like the hunter who has ex changed the gun for the camera, Mr. Winans does something more than shoot when he goes abroad with his deadly weapon. His book is called "The Sporting Rifle, and What It Has Taught Me of Nature." It Is good news that we are to have a volume of Dr. John Brown's correspondence. The author of "Rab" enjoyed the intimate friendship ef some of the brightest spirits of his time, and not only his letters to them but their letters to him will appear in the forthcoming collec tion. Franciscans may look forward to several ad ditions to the literature of their patron saint Under the title of "Franciscan Days" Mr. A. G. F. Howell is presently to bring out a volume of selections from early writings relating to St. Francis and his companions. Mr. William Hey wood's translation of the "Jfiorettl*" is to appear In a new edition, printed on a large seal'- ,m« richly Illustrated with reproductions from the works of the early Italian painters. The life of the saint is to be retold by Mr. F. W. Wheldoa In a book for children, which will bear the pretty title of "A Little Brother to the Birds." "We rarely know how fortunate we are. It ap pears that Professor J. A. C. Bradley had in tended to publish "an annotate critical text of Shelley." but a writer In an English paper saysj that he heard from the professor's own lips, some time ago. that ho had abandoned tha t<»sk. Now we do not doubt that Professor Bradley could produce a masterly annotated critical text of Shelley. But. on the other hand, every time a poet is left without critical annotation we feel that he and his readers have somehow escaped something. The next volume which the Putnam* will pub lish In tho "Connoisseur's Library" will be de« voted to "English Colored Books." Mr. Martin Hnrdie Is the author. He begins his history with the Psalter printed at Mainz In 14"i7— a> copy of which was sold In 1904 for $20.000-andl carries the record down to th<» three-color proc ess of the present day. Th»3 process has been employed for his own twenty-seven illustra tions. Another autumn art book H Mr. W. G» Rawllnson's "Description anil Catalogue" of Turner's "Liber Studlorum," which the Macmil lan Company will Issue. Professor Mahaffy Is a scholar who Is not above being humanly Interesting. In his new book, "The Silver Age of the Greek World," he> deals freely and vividly with the manners andl morals of antiquity. Here is a note on Cleopa tra: With all her fascinations, the occasional details we hear of her ordinary life show that her high culture did not Include really rrfired manners .... of tho same kind were her violences to her attend ants, whom she flew upon, beating them and tear ing their hair, even in the presence of the noblest RoTian visitors. When Octavian was sitting besM© her, and she gave him a list of all her treasures, she used this violence to her steward, who said the list was incomplete. Csesar smiled and re strained her. There is to be an English translation of the biography of Julie de Lespinesse by the Marquis de Segur, about which we printed a long letUr from our Paris correspondent a few months ago. The translation will be welcome, but we may re mind those who have been hailing it as though it were the first contribution to tho subject. t» it Miss Wormeley's volume of Julie's letters has been in the field for several year? and that it forms a delightful introduction to the life of the noted Frenchwoman. Mr. T. W. H. Crosland. who has written sev eral books of more or less humorous faultfind ing, has just turned his attention in another volume to "The Country Life." We like this passage: Once I went to see a garden about which a book of a particularly lush and efflorescent duality had been written. The ploasMiince consisted, I found. of three circular flower bods, planter! with about nlnepennyworth of polyanthus and a central cera nium to each bed, and a few square feet of ill-kept turf. The author had supplied the rest. This reminds us of many a garden book which, for our sins, we have been obliged to read. It was a sad day for lovers of gardens when some one discovered that garden literature "pays* almost as well as fiction. THE LITTLE OA It DEN 8. Within the secret gates of Paradise. That stand between the sunset and the dawn. In visions I have passed, not once nor twite. And seen the happy souls, from earth with* drawn. Quiescent there. In the pure languor uf the expectant air. The place is all a garden, as you know. Greenness and graciousness and color and scent; Blossoming trees of gold and fire and snow. To blossoming earth with their dear hurdeu bent; And filmy spray Of fountains chiming in the shadows gray; And flowers whose very splendor cries aloud. And flowers in dark recesses burning deep, — And lesser loveliness in starry crowd, Head laid to head like little ones asleep,— And vistas dim, Of branches pencilled on the horizon's rim. But in a region by the westward wall. In sunny ways and loss frequented lands. There I have found some gardens, very small. Tended, for sure. by small and artless hands: Quaint plots tli it lie All disarranged in sweet asymmetry. There weeds and seeds are held in equal worth. The tall herbs and the groundlings grow together. Rising, like Ilium, to si:ch niustc-mirth As brooklets babble In the blue May weather; And round each rder Are pebbles set in careless careful order. For they that do each childish garden tin. With serious eyes wailing an outcome tit. The little exquisite folk, they have no skill To dig and sow. to prune and water it. T»i<?y do their host. With toil pathetic; chance supplies the rest. And none there is to binder or to aid: Birds of a feather, till these doves tako flight. Through the still sunshine or the tranquil shade. Fluttering around their gardens of delight; They kneel, they bend. They labor sayly till the day's rose-ei:d. And I have heard the baby footstep* ran. — Along the pathways they hay» pattered by,— That sound which whoso hears, henceforth has • done With all that earth can proffer or deny, — Whose echo veers Down the void loneliness of silent years. And I have seen your tiny fingers touch. Heart of my heart! each slim and dainty stem; Those puny flowers whereof you make so mncb, 0 God, how I have looked and envied them I Watching your smile. That only they have known, this long, loos; while. i Now when the friendly gates for me enfold, 1 shall forget the boughs of snow and fire; For recompense of all mine anguish old. Give me the gladness of fulfilled desire, — Let mo but go. Good Father! where the Lit tie Gardens crrm. —May Byron, in The London Spectator. 7