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OX THE ETERNAL ICE.
liailroad I And on Bed Thai \< ; <r Thaxs. By K. P. Strothex. F-w persons who BafJaa the occasional r<fer (S as in MapaattMS to the "New York-to-Paris" railr<vid project know the picturesque. f»tory of tho lmildin* of the lirst Alaskan link of this rrrvat proposed chain. This link is the Council C'Sty & Boloraoa Itiver Ilailroad, a daring piece cf engineering and construction work. Its siff rJficance is its proof that th>- Alaskan tundra rai be I aaal an achievement which many of the best engineers had repeatedly declared impossible. J \V;iiTcn I^u'ii-s..n, a young Nt-w York >o- J. WARREN DICKSON. ■ cf Alaska's first standard gauge rail road. gini-cr. built this most northerly read In the world, after planning it out in every detail five thousand miles away from Alaska. And so «-x actiy wre t!,.-se tlciails worked <>ut that when •Jie lirst year's w<irk was finished near Nome every Item of a $."»< m »,< « m ♦ equipment was ac cou::t<il f^r, save a few «»ids .md endj worth le.-.s than >|.MI Mr lH<ks«.n first went t.. Alaska in vna :Lni <jui ■■».!>• saw that the greatest n.*ed of thft iur. try was railroad transportation. The beaches around Nome were ;tJI claimed and the devel opment of the country lay inland. It was nec essary that Bomething better than dog «ledj;»-» should 1m» used for transporting supplies. This pn>. i ss was prohibitively expensive, and had the further disadvantage that it was practicable at ;ill only in the winter. For this crude stodge. •uirportation he found the astounding rate of ?-'■ '.c *-T» a ton for every rnik- hauled, and often B«\ir;tl linie^ thst for long distance hauls in the interior. He saw that the railroad could treat 1y mdune these freight charges and jstlll pay handsomely <>n the investment. Mr. Dirkson hired engineering — w.s and mail.- complete, surveys in U«JI and 1002. and In I'.fci:; he returned to New York to enlist capital, A number of well known Eastern men agreed to back the project. They took up the proposition promptly and decided to build that summer, al thoUKh it was already late in tho pprinp. Mr. Dlckaon had had no time to make- -■■■m.-nts f..r L> •ginning' actual construction work that ■^ Eante season. He was face t<> face ith a sroat problem requiring instant action. Every minute was precious, for the open season in Alaska was almost at hard, and not oven a j.ike had U'.^n ordered for the railroad he musl huild five- thou sand miles away. H< first swiftly organised his accounting anJ purchasing departments, and within two weeks fifteen cars which lie had pur«ha.s> d, and >v<r thirty others, all loaded with material* and supplies, I »af I— lStd Seattle over Urn N i t',. r-i Pacific Ilailroad, arid he was raring v\ est ml iLh- ad of them. At s.jiiti. the w<i> of qatheriiijj tacet] tho men fur the construction ganca Bras taken up. With the ; . M .fforts that «ould be made, only J'-'Ji of the needed six hundred could bo got in t),«- Northwest. These were enrolled, and on the tnornitiK of June li, 1903. ■ '>■:•■ of the steam ers <>f tin- fleet sailed from Seattle for tho Kome poldfields, on tho Seward IVninsula. Two w.iks later, in •..■•■ li^ht of the Arctic midnight, at I2:#O a. m.. June 19, UNO. the ships anrhorcj !.::lf a mile from sli->r« . thirty-five miles down the ooast cast of IComc A few hours later all hand* hud landed and had set i:. work pitching the various tents— «-<<ok. mess, sleeping, •-■•!. i mistily, office, etc.— «o that, upon ih»» harr.n beach, one hundred mil** from the Arctic <"ir<l<\ I i<nt«<i city sprang up with military precision. • ■ . English, French Etchings <»i IX'ill (KMI'KV. MI//IIIIMH iiiorou \M» cakiwxs m am. i.UM>ri:%N <iAi.i.i:Ki»:s. 2 West 28th St. GEORGE BUSSI:. m:\v-yokk daily tkiiuni:, sunday. no\ember n, 190 a FIRST STANDARD GAUGE PASSENGER CAR CONSTRUCTED IN ALASKA. Built in the shops of the Council City A Solomon River Railroad, at Dickson, Alaska. The locomotive used to run on the elevated railway in New Yorlc and the construction gang was digging with a will on the grade of the first standard gau,ie railroad in Alaska. This ocean terminal was named 1 ksiTi. The work of unloading the vessels was pro aaailas; at the bebM time. On account of the shallow water near shore the steamers oould not bo brought closer in than half a mile. The ■appUes were, therefore, loaded on lighters and hauled In as close to shore as they could come, and were tbea for a second time transferred to rafts. These rafts were then hauled to shore hand-over- liaiul Bjaag a rope made fast on shore. When the rafts were beached, Lhe goods were landed, with frequent raish&i 'n sev ers! aocaasoas heavy ji.i<s. .-uih .ls l^comottra boilers, bed plates, etc, were lnst overboard from the lighten l>y accident in th<- surf, ajiJ these had to be reoov* One of the first most difßcalt taaka was to set uy the locomotives. The separate parts, some of them as heavy a>! nine tons, had finally b»-»-n safety landed oa the beach, l'.ut to hoist these massive parts into -.!i<'ti and to connect t!,.ir delicately adjusted joints was a problem, for the ship bavins on L.'.if.l tbe necessary hoisting machinery waa delayed by l<ad weather. These difßcultiea were ingeniously overcome by dlg j;:nj» a pit in the beach sand and erecting over it a tre.silo with a track on it. Then the trucks irere rolled into position on the trestle; the bed LIGHTERING THE RAILROAD EQUIPMENT FROM STEAMER TO LAND. was no pier. The steamer lay far out, the tugboat further in, th« loaded *coy» as close to shore as it could be towed. Then teams bore the machinery through the surf to the land from the scow. ptaiaa, boflera. etc.. were thon skidded up Into their I roper positions— all by hand tackl< and the work of adjuslinjj all the small SttilUpl com pleted the locomotives. Kven the donkey en- Bines were oa the overdue steamer. In the mean time the lirst engineering prob lem \v:t being solved, the bridging of an arm f the BSB which lay ahead of the construction Baaca. In twelve days ■ trestle 4th» feet Ion;; was > i>!!i|.l' il. every pile having to '•• driven through frozen bottom, and the flrsi train uf standard gauge cars was drawn across the lirsl standard trestte in A I iska. Ko« came the greatest | robtem of all— the ■ onstru< tioii across tbc tundra. The lowland.s if Alaska •>! covered with age old growths uf !iioss •:i hunmiocks. decayed year after year, in nature's process of soil making, to a <lej,ili i»f from otic to (hi feet, Ith fn ,ii-!,i j»">ls «.f water. It was this unstable ground over which rngineers had .ie.-lared n<> roadl>ed iyiuM ' ■•• liuilt to sustain the. heavy cars "f a Ktandarci Kau«e road except .it prohibitive rost. Hut Mi |)i<kson had <o!iviii«e«| himself that. vvhi!«- this 1 tundra it. itself was not tirni enough, it was only i .m ex ( -ies« •■•).«■ on a snli-i foundatinn "f earth, iin some r.la.«s •■/..!i. and in oth< r pla<-es nViT v fuundatkiii <<f i< ••. 11. realized that the Kruumi i underneath this tundra would sustain his tracks. Hut the 'JifTi« ulty was in ilisjHising <>i tho moss and n-- underlying muck, to sav«> tli<- inorinnaa ,o^t of handling and draining it. for uuskiHo-1 i labor v\as .<! a day. Concerning one thing, .ill the "knowing ones" held to the same opinion — the tracks would have to be sustained by a heavy underplanking. This would add another item of Kreat expense, as ordinary planking was worth ?4<J to .<fco a thousand feet hoard HHMHIia. Bat Mr. Dfckaoa studied out thi solution. He Utilised the moss and murk which is of the ron sisti !i.y of wot day— by building them Into the Brads i winch at the same time save him ditches for drainage >.n each side) and then tamping the grade. The action of the long hours of hot sun drained ;tnd hardened the grade. Then the tricks wr<' laid ;inj the baUasUafj done from nearby gtavel l:i!!:rides. And tho subst.tnti.il roadbed, unaffected by the winters, is silent proof of the success of the methods used. Along the line loaded ri'i^'ht cars in snme places pass over tracks hi:il» in this substantial manner eight or ten fe»-t above . rys tal ice. This substratum of ice never melts, in sjite of the very warm days of summer which prevail even hers within one hundred miles of the Arctic Circle. It is the primeval freeacc that has not thawed since ancient geologic a^s. It la kept from thawing by the thick blanket of muck :ir;d grave] lying over it, and the vih.'!<- roadbed has nf»safl a firm (ouadatton for this i niiiHMin ial enterprise Involving groat capi tal. Thr«.-e winters have already proved that there Ls not the slightest "heaving" and that It is as solid a foundation as that of any railroad in the United States. Thf lirvt four months of work accomplished remarkable results. Th« camp had Increased to six hundred mon. Kisht rwil«« of standard tr:n k were built ::.ii ballasted, and paralleled t>y :i telephone line; complete railroad yards were UM i. hi. with twitches to all the sappMes. suili ■ i' tit to huiM over forty miles more of the road; Mi •<■ large buildings were erected and occupied; a complete machine shop u.;s in operation; • \' rything was lefl in order for tin- m-xt seaMNi'a "."■ k. and six hundred workmen had been sh. it.-r.-ii and f'<l without ooe fatal Olnesa >r ii • i !• lit. 'It:, line Is now nvt r thirty-four miles long, m.J ihr r- \• ■ r> u- • is ..n .i basis that would bulge i hi • y.-s ..f a M.iili.- manager in the States." Freight is carrk*d for -^l a ton for every mile liaul<><! That is iboul VJSi times as rnu.li aa the i.i i.- in the St itva Pas ■ nger ratea are ■_*'» cents i. n iimt^ the rate on the Pennsylvania II d / v 1//V/V/: /.•/: 18ONIXO. .-■. r .; r Deliver was condemning an »ppo argumi t.t. ' ... :. an •■ ruraent." he naW, th>- 1 lly false. II is like Ihe logic of i young ■\ .in ii, of 1 "ort ! ►<"'.-■• "This young woman sat plying the needl one f r>riiiK morning on the ptaxza of h-r pretty llttla house. A coal of her husband's was in her lap. The husband himself appeared, and slia uld, ifully: •'It is 100 bad, t)i>» careless nay the ' li! >r put tliis button on. This is the lifth tini,- I i. iv« lia<l to siiv ii on for you- " THE OLDTIME TAVERN. Continued from mnnd p:ic». place of the Son.-, of Liberty, aad if waa ;n; n this. old tavern thai tbe first lodge of rree Masons was organised in America, la the year 11-iil Seventeen years b'n-r the Brsl grand lodge of ■Ym Masons was organised In this tavern, with GeneralJosepti Warren as master and Pan! ite vere aa one of the other officers. When tha War of th.' Revolution came ■•>?! •!,.• CSreesj Dragon waa used aa a hospital. Tli.> old Wrigbi Tavern is still standing in Concord, and it has not BUfffred any great change. The. Wayside Inn recalls memories at Longfellow and his "Talesf 1 that would pn»ba bly never have been written but for this old MRS. J. WARREN DICKSON. In Esquimau costume. hostlery. The Wayside Inn signboard' bora this inscription: : D. 11.. is«. E. H.. 1746. A. HOWK, 1796. The initials are those of the Howes, who kept the tavern for more than a century. Washing ton was a guest at this old tavern in the year 1759. when he was on his way to Bostoa from Marlboro. Longfellow was more than once a Kuest a.t the Wayside. ub TiiouaiiT wiioxn. Seymour Katon. ex-secretary of the interna* tional poUcyhoMcfs' committee, is a firm believe* in women's intelligence, and in many of his en terpriacs women have held importaal posla Apropos of womea'a wit. Mr. Katon s.\i.J. at Atlantic City: "As 1 was stroHitiK the other il.iy on the board" walk a wheeled chair containing two women trundled slowly by me. l heard one woman say: •■ wii.ii has become of thai blonde with whom Harry ilawke. v.a Hirtinjr all summer?" "Thought he w;ls Birtinc you moan,' saidtha second woman. si;«- married hhn last month.' THE HEI.BURN BINDERY, im;-lO* SIXTU AVK.. XKW YORK. Fine Library Bin-llnß. tsi>cci:i! at>ntlun suvn t.> \rt. \rci-it- M-turiil. Medical •• ■! tJtw Booha and Pert "iicala. Sl.t-.ial PlfXlble Btndlni tot Mil-:. M .'. en of ;i!l Uir.da of portfolioa and Scrap-Eooka CorrespondcDCa m> li, itej. Telephone 4Sjtr Graracrcy. RARE EDITION Prof. John Jaaici Audnbon's Quadrupeds of North America. I'o.t'clio. 149 pl»te»; .-;.-pli:mt ehtion; liublih't-1 in eotora In 1544. i'trfwt con<Ut:on. laureate^ L'UH-l.il^. IB aJ.ln-.sa T. W. FiIANKUN. KM i:rvujwuy. H. V. CUS. 3