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New-York tribune. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, December 16, 1906, Image 60

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Intense Applicevtioa to Business
?ind Extreme Adaptability
to Conditions.
Zar.pwill once met the query. "Why ie the Jews
fU<:-eedT" ■will, .these words: "I welcome the task
of a:i.«T.rrine the question, i* ml* for the opportu
rity of «XpUTtung thai they do rot." And lie pro
reeled t-i Hfti that •*>•■ if the Jews "•«••■ '"
Individuals, they fall miserably as a people. The
be!:ef tha^ Jews have ■ monopo;y of success Las
brcn widely credited and kM become almost a
Vuperstitlon. "Rich as a Jew" ha* prown into a
pjoirr'.. p..ii at one time called up in the imritrlni
t*on golden arpofles and subterranean treasures. It
«■ ■ believed that Jens were natural lorn mer
chants, that the> possessed tl,e commercial m
rtintt ta an unusual decree and their success came
tc be viewed as M-wti ■ • uncmnr.y or inevtUble.
Tlvs <incular illusion dates from those dark r.cr=,
»-»* en Jew. were shut out from the arts nnd crafts,
end were forced by dirert legislation Into a few
"o,d: i occupations The dense shcttos. v.uh their
Mvertp-ctrlckea popula'Joa, were not known to tn«
SflfMSaf Uirs^only the few P reat merchants
irnni them loomed big. Many Cto*^!^
rally came ta contsct only with those j.-»s •ho
MUld HnU them money. Thus, as the only Jew.
«bom «l.c CbrtrtUns cot to know were ,1. ... it is
not *o woruSerful that all *cws«*ouM l««^"»
PUPPO^d to I* rich or that "rich as a Jew should
Je W, were forced out of other vocaUon. and con
fined to trade and commerce. Re:n K »'«g?<^
;^if,v people, they did what the shrewd r«^e«
sSto .V.lo : ,ial day.^dapt,^ themselves to their
to-k lid pave to it all their energy and thought:
J£ 4na^ commercial S ff of the Jew s a
hoax in which cv*« the Jews joined. It was hard
Lrwft nnd E« easy pliability <° / -o< the
br«l»ht results. Adaptability is the sec et < the
rLri«h ieoole a? can be observes in th« Imml
prams owfl environment is
Cf Ws o U; an extent that they
H s^ aS an climates and under any
fi sr:;"ro,e.., 7 thejew :^^ r - r
to American conditions.
Hereto li« the -•—-■'• **^
,* Tie immlerant comlmt -- is Immediately In
le.tJU'.h Se .ririt of work which throbs all
arouna him No matter what Ids station in life
",. r ScoWe oW country, oven If 1.- tart nW ««•
I d» : « work before, nearly every Jewish Immi
grant I at -o,k within two days after land n^
. . . - followed the ti
the hardest k:nd of manual labor, and the rest de
vote themse'.ves t- petty trading.- Class distinc
tion is almost entirely obliterated: a man may have
been a macnate or a rabbi in his own village, but
when he comes to America he works at the same
table or rends on t! " ssn.e Ftroet with the water
carrier wagener or shoemaker of his native town.
Wtoem/ilke a* not, he had never delgnM to notice
thrrr-.' Democracy is th- first lesson the immigrant
icame and he seldom forgets i*.
Nor is lie finical as to the work he will do. Any
kiwi of 1-ko.m 1= good, be it ever fo hard or mean.
providing 11 earns Lira a livinp. Frugal in his
habftf temprrate and modert ii his desire?, and
with aii eye ever to the future, the Jewish Immi-
Krunt will save or. almost any sAlarv. The BayinST.
whicli I !>>! lt« o-iein amonc the improvident peas
ants of Europe. :s often heard on ■••■■
,i o-. «i,«. <i<-n:tie never looka t« «i<«* n<^rr<.Tx\ Th«
jet, al»a>-5 looki to the morrow. There are many
rainy d»»« In U»e .I->v, i=h calcnnar. and the Jew Is
ev< r brv.' on providing for them.
This farsighted calculation is partly 'V.ie to the
ambition tn be other than a laborer. The Jewish
<v©rhm»n is not content to remain a wage worker:
?-*> flrtiCrni pf a profession or business, even If it be
.! V. ;h •■f.-a stand. It is these intensely amhitious
men who rise above the ranks, and by dint of
1 „-1 p.ork and tb*> help of keen wits attain afHu
r.. .- i.ifl even riches Their names, which Round
F0 uncouth to the Arrerican ear. have Sip^laced in
little over r decade nearly all others on the sign-
V"; ■■!"•;.- In r%idej}CP on Broadway.
Tlie trade which m?i immiprant will follow here
«.!"'(- : ■•','• on t! •• trade he was engaged In In
me old ••■'•it;:. Any !r;K)o is acceptable which
hnf !!-« best prospects anO promises ill- quickest
Tf ,c ; i !s | n every KWftatuhbji tltere is to l>e found
jjn pifimhiV* carpenter crit'fiinc on n Bewinß ma
rhin« gi a Fhoematcr dextrously usinc tlie prfessi r>
Iron. Tlie head of a isree rio d k and s-iit house i;i
Broadway, wtso a few irear* mco. H'-q'jire.l creat
rot>Tif-:\ b> 'irnjipir.*; some {10,000 at a well known
pamnting houf"*. was a carpenter when he line
tn America Here he «va« tausht the clonk oper
r : tr c- !-,df-. and worked ;«' the machine for some
j-r, ar s ??iit lie v..)= ambitous and s'.on learned
desici.inc. the ir.ost lucrative branch of thr tailor
irp )!.<lus!ry. Not content to remain a salaried
employ**, ];»•. In a few years, having saved about
ji'V' r '. ?.fr,t ir.to :Vip manufacturing business with
v relative. The firm to-day does the in'>st thriving
cloak business in th* clothing Industry. It was
riot » '-ase *' 'inr.ate commercial gifts" that won
f^r-rpcc The man merely t<*ok ad^•^llt.^Ee of the
Opportunities that America offers to every one who
has tfce enerey to reach out fur them.
A yara!!"'; :<> ...•/■,•.• life story of an
other rloak manufactarer, who was a shoemaker
t^-fore i.p canie hT<*. an/1 became a presser, start-
Jne a rur.e lower than t!.» former. Tills man in
turn became operator, examiner, designer and
finally manufacturer, occupying three lofts In a
Rroadway Bkyacraper. But he did not succeed
tbroush mere pnvlnp: as designer he evinced a
keen nrtistif tafte in the Invention <>f new models
and patterns, and commanded the highest salary
Th;«t t(:e •-..;.. offers. Almost every season he
v.c« Beet tn Paris by the house that employed him
to ftuiy ttie fashions at the French capital. When
th*- boom in real eptat- befcan In The Bronx, before
the opening of the subway, this cinnk manufactur
er was a heavy buyer, and is row a large holder
' ' Bronx property.
To i.-c sure, it is not always hard work that will
grain a '■•■•• The element cf chance sometimes
<let'-i mines p-jecess, as in the case of a Hebrew
Jurr-.cr a f»w years ago. Tiils man held a little
lilai em v . avenue. He had started and failed
three t.me«, and this was his fourth venture. After
i each unsuccessful attempt he went back to his old
Scene a board, r.g house; .— W«>>— Why do you
• Iwa/c sit at the p.snc. David? You know you
can't pay a note!
Da. id— Neither c*n any one els*, while I am
— . ..
pursuit— that of pedler— and worked hard until a
few more dollars were accumulated and made an
other trial. His Initial capital was little more than
tv«. but his credit was excellent. Doing some long
headed thinking, he foresaw the great plush erase
pome years ago. He somehow discovered in th«
air that the approaching season would be a plush
season, when every woman, from millionaire's wife
to aluiaglil would weal plush lie therefore in
vefteii -.1: th* money h«i could borrow in plush; he
borrowed rtj nnd left and bought plush. When
the season arrived h* was v. heavy carrier of, the
p!ush. nnd his prophecy came true. The man made
a fortune .ii the shot season. When the rlus-li
craze collapsed. >a 11 was bound to do, this man
was acain ready, and had Bold out before the ci -■
The clothing industry has been the making of a
larpo number of Jt-wisli fortunes of modi -■ size.
A lar^t* proportion of the great New York clothing
mdustty (including the manufacturing of white
good si is in Jewish hands, as well as a fair pro
portion of the trading in these goods, both whole
sale and retail. The years CISaJ-1900) of great busi
ness activity and •..-.,.-■ for ibe L'niled States
caused an unusually brisk demand for the products
of this Jewish Industry! and many fortunes ranging
between K?o.(^"i and £.iv>.o:»} have •••■' made within
th*s<» year.-. Since the •'• v have been so largely
interested in the ready m-il" clothing industry
they have revolutionized the tailoring trade by
practically destroying tv market for second hand
clothing. For the san price, and even less, thai
had to he paid for second hand ( thing ten or fif
teen years ago on" may procure new clothiiiß to
But it is Ti.»t only i:i ready t".ade ••lothinsr .md
dry good a that Jews have made their fortunes. One
ot the lances! furniture dealers below I4l!i street
started when he was a ".•greener." as a newly land
ed Immigrant is called <n the Easi Side, in the
capacity .f carrier, hanging to the* end of -the de
livery wagon He was api and learned to distin
guish between one piece of furniture and another,
and was made foreman In the examiner's depart
ment and finally taken in as a partner in the firm,
whose other members were all Gentiles Another
narked success was achieved by the originator nini
extensive organizer of quick lunch counters, wh^se
name is to be seen on many luncheon room win
dows throughout the city, He started as a frank
furter sandwich man. with « little basket and oil
Ptove, ••l Newspaper Row. li- *knew how to cater
to the litti "'newsies." and they patronized him
in mobs. Their pennies and his thrift finally en
abled him to r pen a little store ri»ar by, where the
newsboys Rocked mar* eager than ever, because
there they could get the best food and coffee for the
least jnonev. Within a •• •• years the man had
opened a score of similar stores bearing bis name,
Thus a fortune which is estimated at almost a
million i|.>i!o!S was accumulated.
Vending petty wares en tlie streets has always
been a fuvoritp of immigrants who had followed
!<•> trad" in the old country. The pedler's basket
has also bcpn the foundation of many a fortune
The owner of one of tl.e largest wholesale supply
houses of pedler'i wares was himself on c a pedli r
on the niarketlnfiNsireets of the Kas: .-' • >.■ His
rise was rapid and his fortune is estimated of near
the seventh figur« although the man can scarcely
si •• his name.
Almost every other trade and business las a
larpe number <>f successful Jews who emigrated to
this country within iho l*st twenty .'.ears. Com
plaints are frequently heard that .lews are sup
planting Americana, rvidently meaning •lif.s. In
busli < - Some have been please;! to look with
preat ''apprehension" at the "Jewish invasion" of
the business world. Tlie only answer that can be
privon is that in this country the most efficient man
wins. Even if the apprehension is well founded It
1s absurd to fear a "Jewish Invasion." If all th«
■'•■•■ v in existence came to America they would still
'"■ In ;:ii Insignificant minority, and then there Is
the verdict of Zangwlll: "Even if the Jews succeed
as individuals, they fail ;is a perple."
Perhaps the ptransjest f rr;ik lhnt Mother Nature
rver played upon a miner was at Lodi, twenty miles
south of the city of Indianapolis. So I«.n X ago as
**'-'■' ■ man named Xorbourn Thomas bored there
for salt, and found at n .ies.tli .-■_..•... brine from
whi.h he could make thirty bushels of salt a day
Later he bored t,, 500 reel and was able to ma
fifty bushels a da: • F..me years passed, and he
took a brother Into partnership and deepened the
well still fun her. They then cot 200 bushels of salt
fortune ' ' enterprises Thomas made aUarge
In the m ■•■-■..■. . . ,
of water and the , . . bandon
u " rk " v< ■ - It was dls overed Suite hv
<:i; "" p *«*« '■ • ' ' ng well was produ Ine
vat*r J-harged wit
eat value and to-day Lodi is a rapidly growing
and «• ■ - .• liealth resort. -Answers X
Aunt Maria—The paper aayc thia is the mildest
winter in thirty years.
Uncle Je<'— l don't wonder. They've not a
nev/ stove m tne editor's offioe. an' all the « b- ü
r:r:otions lately har b:n paid in rordwooj.
iCojo-rttft. iBSO, L v Ei^.vr.i:ij» ilsgaiiot.)
Old Fr;end — Don't you think he is very like
his father?
S^e — Very: He keeps me up late every night.
— Illust • ■ Biti
English *Re*Viet&>r for December.
Sha.kespeare Wearies Tolstoy— Boston's La.ck of Kumrr The
Socialistic Fa.lla.cy— A Visit to a Harem.
I remember the astonishment I fell when I
first read Shakespeare l expected to receive a
powerful, aesthetic pleasure, but, having read,
the other, works regarded as his besi
—"King Lear," "Romeo and Juliet." "Hamlet"
and "Macbeth" not onlj lid ' feel no delight,
but I fell an irresistibU n md tedium,
and doubted aa to whether ] i eless in
fepiing works regarded as the summil ol per
• bj the whole " : " the civilized world to
be trivial and positively bad, or whethe
ince whicl
• ■•■■: by Ma V 5
to the works of Shakespeare was itself senseless.
My consternation .■•> increased by the fact
that I always keenly felt tho beauties of poetry
In every form; thpn why should artistic works
■■■■■_■: by tho whole world as those <>f a
genius— the works of Bhakespean — not on tail
to plfitsf- me, inn h* disagreeable to me? For
a long timo r could not believe in myself, and
during fifty years. In order to test myself, 1
Reyeral times recommenced r^.-i.iiiis Shakespeare
in every possible form, In Russian, in Kn^lish.
in German and in Schlegel's transition, as I
was advised. Several times I read the dramas
and the comedies and historical plays, and I
invariably underwent the same feelings-J-repul-
Blon, weariness and bewilderment; At the pres
em time, before wriiin^r this preface, lifinj; de
sirous once more to test myself, [ have, as an
old man of seventy-five, again road tlu> whole
of Shakespeare, including the historical play*.
the "Henrys." "Troilus and Cressida.V the
"Tempest." "Cymbellne," and 1 have felt with
even greater force the sa'tne feelings, this time,
however, not .it bewilderment, but •'■' firm, in
dubltable conviction that the unquestionable
glory of a great genius which Shakespeare en
joys, and which compels writers of our time to
iniitaie him, and readers and spectators to dis
cover in iiitn non-existent merits-^fthereby dis
t'Ttinß their cesthetic and ethical understanding
—is a great evil, as is every untruth.
Although I know thai the majority of people
bo firmly believe In the great) of Shakespeare
that in reading this judgment of mine they will
not admit even the possibility of its justice, and
will not give it the s!ij,-lites : t attention, never
theless, i will endeavor as ell as I can to show
why ! believe tiiat Shakespeare cannot be r- :
ognlzed either as a great genius or even as an
average author. -CoiHit Leo Tolstoy, in The?
Fortnightly Review.
BOSTON'S LACK of humor.
I have said that Boston loves relics. The
relics which ii loves best are the relics of Eng .
land's discomfiture! The stately portraits of
Copley are of email account compared to the
memorials of what was nothing else than a civil
war. Faneuil Hall. the Covent Garden of Bos
ton; presented to the city by Peter Faneuil some
thirty years before the birth of "Liberty." is
now '" an emblem of volt. The old South
Meeting Place is endeared to the citizens of
Boston as "the sanctuary of freedom.*,." A vast
monument, erected a mere quarter of a century
ago, commemorates the "Boston .Massacre."
And wherever you turn you ar ■ reminded of an
episode which misht easily be forgotten. To an
Englishman these historical landmarks are j - n
offensive. Th dispute whiih they recall
"The only objection I hava againtt the young
man, my dear child, is that he has no noble am
bition — no high or vvorthy object in life."
"Oli! papa, how can you say so? He wants
■ ■■ '■ • . Bits.
He — They got married and wont off in their
new motor car.
She — Wheire did they spend their honeymoon?
He— ln the hospital.
-Th* Tatter.
aroused far less emotion " i our side th* 1 nr«»an
than on the other, and long ago we saw the
events of the Revolution in a fair perspective.
In truth, this insistence on the past is not
wholly creditable to Boston's sens*- of humor.
The passionate pseans which Otis and hi;»
friends sang tn Libert; v. ere Irrelevant Lib
erty was never for a moment in danger, if Lib
erty, indeed, be :. thine ol fact and not of
watchwords. The leaders of the Revolution
rote and sp"k^ as though it was tl eir duty to
throw off the yoke of the foreigner—a •!<•■ as
heavy as that which Catholic Spain cast upon
Protestant Holland. Bui there was no yoke to
be thrown off. betause no yoke was ever im
posed, and Roston might have celebrated
greater events in her history than that which
an American statesman his wisely called "the
glittering and sounding generalities ••!' natural
right-V— Charles Whitley, in Black\yood*s Maga
I travelled th? other day with the manager nt
one of the greatest motor works in Northern
Italy, and he told m-? that his many thousand
workmen were all Socialists.
"And ■:■ the mort* sljllled ones, who receive
higher wages, divide with the others?* 1 I asked
'Oh. no." he said, "they only all want ►re.*'
In fact, the only mat; of whom 1 over heard
that he acted up to social! principles, though
he was not "ii" by conviction, was one of the
Rothschilds at Vienna
One day an unemployed worlunan came to him,
anathematizing: him for l.i - heartlcssness, and
preaching ei|ua! division.
The baron listened patiently, and when the
man had done he said:
"Very well, you say I have so many millions
which ought to be equally divided in the country.
There are so-and-so many Inhabitants In the
Austrian Empiio. therefore each person would
receive '.♦ florins and "J'» kreuzers. Here are
!• florins anQ "_'" kr^uzers: they are your part.
Goodby, and don't bother in^ any more."
The lesson the baron ■'■_■ _ d by his action.
though a very simple one, is apparently a very
difficult one for the socialistic mind ■■■ master.
The unemployed was no better off than he
had been before, and had the baron gone on with
the just distribution of his money, nobody would
have been the bettor f< it- it. The only difference
II would have made was thai it would have left
him a gar.
It Is the tendency of tn-d-iy to levfl everything
•with the idea of equalising th» position of all.
But. much as this may be tried, it cannot be
ridiif 1 . for there are gifts which come straight
from fjod, which never can be divided, an which
are soni^ of the greatest powers on earth, even
more than money. Such, for instance, are a
man's brains, his character; cleverness and wit;
a woman's grace, charm and beauty. Factors
such as these will always disturb the equilibrium
of ■■'>!■>• artificial distribution. Th«» cardinal
mistake th( socialists make is thai they ire bent
upon levelling down, when they ought, if they
have the real weal of. humanity at heart, to level
up. Lady Pag ' in '!"'■■ Nineteenth Century
The ; ' finally in
: in the Inti I c unco 1 quid It has
mlv been perverted to that us*\ It was
to preveni dramatisi _ ■
. orrupl f Sir F
; ■ : ose, in fact, ■■• :<■- polii ioal. not
moral, and it still, at ran- intervals, exerts itself
Itical matte . \ dozen • • irs ,\gn
Intervened to secure the alteration of a romic
wn- h< ' i to be offensive lot 1o t 1
Lord Ra >lp Cl vi hill More i ■•■ ently it In
ststed •■!! changing the title i»f a i'l»- whtcn
( the Sultan of
Turk' y. Bui i's action i;i this departmer haa
hitherto been tolerably harmless. The main pry
■ ■ en (orship to-daj is wi- •
>rals. No i lern play dealing witli n
Bibliral subject or containing t:i!' :
i 6 publicly performed on the Engli3'n
• -<r will noi allow it And :l i :••
is a large and Immensely Important department
(From an Occasional Correspondent of The Tribune In
Herlin 1
Germany Is ■ lana or contrasts as well as
America. The Germans are as much a commer
cial as a, military people. The German capital, the
Ktronghold <>T military rule and garrison city of
the Kaiser i j rds. Is also the centre of business
activity in Germany It la natural that thirty-fix
years of the Prussian military system have left
tholr mark on German business life and methods.
Everj' German is a. soldier, and !i» is far too apt
to r-'Tii' •! bei th( fact v.iule he Is a business man.
Most of the German business concerns are worked
on a strictly military plan, and tl-.rir employes are
subjected to military discipline, which suppresses
all individual enterprise. The men In the higher
positions all have civil titles of some sort, such
as. "councillor" or ••privy councillor.' 1 by which
thejr Inferiors must address them. Were .i young
clerk to forget t" u?»- this title while speaking to
• « I -^ rliW he would run a great risk of being d!s
•■■■ •! the next .lay. Deference and blind obedi
ence to supei ■ aro ofren of more Import; nee in
gfttlnE a nwn advancement than business ca
pacity. The result Is. of iL-i urse, that most of those
en th"» lower rung of tin- lauder are mere machines.
Bonie of the larßf ccnt'rrns tliat have c->me. much
Into contact with America are exceptions to this
rule, but it applies t>. rx-.-irly rill the smaller home
r.im~, which are chiefly ili* subject of this articl*-.
Promotion Is determined by :■>,;<> rather than
irerit. If a man remains a certain number of
years In the same firm and does not embezzle
any money, he is promoted to a better pi* .-. In
rapacity. unless it \er«es upon Idiocy, is nn reason
for discharge, any more, than ability ii for a.i
vancement. in the higher positions there are.
with f*»w exceptions. t nil old men It la a char
acteristic fact that i!> r Bei »rd rvernburg. whose
appointment to the head of the Herman Colonial
' t?1 '• haa CRiiseu sue h a sensation, and who was a
bnnk director at iho ae* of thirty, got his first ste : ,
In New York. As .i rule, a man's youth la as
much again n him Id Germany as a man's use is In
America. The consent nco la that there la a lack
or smartness generally In German business circles.
Salaries are small and entirely out of proportion
to tti expense of living In Berlin, which Is fast
becoming us greal as In New York. When a young
man enters Into a firm (>»■ must serve at least two
years as un apprentice, for which he often receives
no remuneration whatever. During this time be is
supposed to ■• learning the business, though any
one with a little ability can of course do so In a
couple of months. In this way many firms ft!!
three or four subordinate positions with men whr.rn
they do not >■•• to pay anything at all. When the
two years are over, the apprentice is promoted to a
posltlcn with a salary cf fruiu Hi to 100 marts a
Dr. Lyon's
Tooth Powder
Cleanses, preserves and beautifies
the teeth — Purifies the breath
Used by people of refinement for
more than a quarter of a century
Very convenient for tourists
of morals with which the English dramatist
may not deal either. The censor will not allow
it. The historic attitude of Puritanism toward
the atacre reasserts itself here in its baldest
and crudest form. The theatre in ore of the
devil's strongholds. It would be preposterous
to permit it to concern Itself with serious mat
ters of faith or morality. It would b» impious
to do so. Let it keep to the things salted to its
baseness, fatuous farces, suggestive comedle?.
stilted only to amuse the vulgar or the corrupt.
Who can wonder that the drama as a serious
art form languishes under such a restriction?
To the Knglish th» Bible is the book of books,
the storehouse of Incidents and characters which
have power to stir their deepest emotions as no
other characters or Incidents can- The English
theatre is not allowed to present them Th«
English are, at bottom, a solemn people. The?
enjoy sermons. They like their art with a pur
pose. Their Prime Minister found time tr> re
view "Robert Elsmere." They themselves found
time to read It. The censorship says to the
manager: "You shall not present play? of serious
moral interest dealing with serious moral prob
lems." During th" last few year?, among other
plays, the censor ha a refused to license "Ghosts."
by i lbsen; ~Lea Trols Fines ds M Dupont" and
•Mat^rnltV (in Enjcltsh) by M. Rrieux. and Mr.
Bernard Shaw's "Mrs. Warren's Profession."
Of flies'--. "Ghosts*' deals with quite portentous
gravity with the visiting of the sins pi th«
fathers upon the children. The two plays of M-
Rrieux are far more moral and improving than
most sermens. Mrs. Warren Ii a courageous
statement of i terrible social problem, and has
jus' been pronounced by an American tribunal
to be perfectly suitable for public performance
even In the blameless atmosphere of the United
States. Vet these and similar plays can only he
given in London in a quasi-furtive manner by
Institutions like the Stare Society in the private
theatre of the National Fnortine nn üb'u b'— St. John
Hankin, In The Fortniebtly Review.
Less picturesque (than the description in
Pierre Loti's "Disenchanted"] was my reception
ii, the hare ■• of Besma Ilanum. the wife of a
close relative of th« throne. I was assisted out
Of my carriiee bj a gaunt eunuch in a black
frcck.oat and red fea »hn gave me the •hirers
as he clutched my arm with his sable paw. In
sj.i--> the hall l was met by -i crowd of female
slaves, who helped me '•■ remove my wraps.
They varied In ase from fifteen to forty; some
r ,f them were Negresses, but th~ majority were
Circassians The latter are supposed to be the
n-.o<t beautiful of all Turkish women, on which
account the slaves cl th* Sultan are always se
lected from among them: but in this Instance
I looked in vain for any trace of good l^oks. and.
Indeed, could hardly help smiling at the comic
effect they produced, dressed up to the nines in
th.- latest Paris fashions, exeemied by local
rir^ssmnkers. That these women devote much
time and thought »«■■ tn^tr appearance was »vi
dent from the weird results attained by their
sartorial flights of fancy. Th- louder the color,
tho heavier the trimming, th* better they seemed
pleased; and the homeliness of the materials
employed (flannel seemed to hare the prefer
ence)&wa«i fully ■toned 1 '"" by '-">■• length of
their trains and by the rakish ci of the white
muslin I- nnets, ornamented with roses and
other artificial Mowers, which crowned their
heads. They conducted me to the presence ai
th*lr mistress, i nd stood around offering tea
and row Jam. and otherwise attending to our
wants the whole time my visit lasted.
Bean i Hanum is beautiful and hichly edu
cated, but. as In the case of so many Turkish
women, there is about her a certain lassitude,
b'-rn of discouragement and an unequal strucgle
with ur.oonsr'Mir*! surroundings Sh«- spoke of th-»
spread of, education hi Turkey, and of the mental
superiority of the educated Turkish woman over
th* equally -.}■■• .»;.•■ i Turkish man seeming un
able to account for a fact which she evidently
considers perfectly established. — Blackwocd's
j., most towns there is p tendenry. Ii
■. x t,, ,i.. ; i; nnore bbh • n i-; i 'I* 1-'''
• •.. | ;-. ■ than witli destitute aasai ami
women. Ii Berlin and Neu Tork. for instance.
money and thoushi are lar*bed '«n the
ns for the .... d H I en them is art^ren
only of necessity in v : »r*-tt it !■< otherwise
the arrangements fur fie r.^lie'" ..f ;he <>I<l
: .iro tvptter botti more carefully
f-^.,1 and more HW'ral than those for the
of children, ;i fad thai say- more perhans, for
the hearts than for 'he heads of the authorities
If a man or a woman above sixty hi «nh
oui the money wherewith to ;.ro\i'!»> for htm
?•-•!*'. or the strength to earn the money be ap
plies t>> the guardian of hla waurd for help.
Then, if lie has a ' ■■ U" and some one
t.i t:ik»» care of h ; :n or is .i»>i.- to take rare of
himself he ia granted aw relief, .i mones allow-
I he can n trusted ■ ■ spend 1'
otherwise relief hi kind. Buppoatns, howewer.
month, with a possible rise to IS marks, in which
he is apt to remain till middle as*", with little hop*
of even then Retting enough to enable him to live
comfortably. The higher positions, which likewise
do not carry extravagant salaries, are as a rule
res^rv^d for men of nol>le family ■:':: influence, or
i' • •: v'!-. capital of their m
Th>> "English business hours." as they are called
here, from I a. in. till T> j>. m.. without an apprecia-
Me break, have been adopted by a small number of
films, hut are unpopular, as they do not allow any
time for :h«» elaborate German dinner at 2 o'clock.
The vHst majority of firms still keep to the "Get
m«n hours,*! from *< a. - n to hp. m.. with •«.,
hours' r«-.<=t for dinner at 1:30 p. m.. a small rest a.t
11 a. in., for the "second breakfast." which Is a
kind of a !i(hl luncheon, and another at 5 ;. m.. for
coffee. These continual interruptions for eating and
drinkinc an a source of despair to all Americans
who have stores or r.ffiVes in Berlin. "I didn't aa-
E»s« you to eat." cried one of these sorely tried
nun •> ■ German woman typewriter, who Insisted
upon the coSfee at 5 o'clock. "I encased you to
work. 1 Bm ha had to submit, nevertheless
« onsMertnß •■■ fact that mere Incapacity Is •,
reason for dlschar^ it is natural eno: that a
' great many mistakes occur •, the course of busi
r»rl S ,, n D m i ' T * Ki ' m te? ■Otea to on- of the
; terr*»t Berlin banks with an American friend, who
'\T ;V" Slt "'"" nn<l wisll " 11 '" "raw some
| money. The clerk took his order, but returned In
oS'wn "S n at~ at th< ; "— ™ *«"«*
r. .!...«.,. What excUimed my friend in
»»««finent "Why. have 40.^ mark, .... The
i 1'! v won . 1 '"""•'' aßaia li%r a while a:i>l fina ">- «»n«
i m!^ Sa> - lnj \ lle !wtl ""de a mistake. :tnd that the
i ogteed profusely. '„. t jj U mmer I had occ3»ton to
make US e , lf Iht . ■ rvic , s <%f nwi^
(-rnian tourist ofn,^ In Uerlln for a trio to Den
™7 • f '•«*??*•«! *»W tlcketi promptly, but the bill
Beamed .xcessivcly high, i took the trouble to
. make Inquiries hi the railway utatlqa *nd dlsoov
♦<•<•■: that they had rhar K ed m* is m./rks too much'
■ ' I of . , M^and
ne ..f th« most dlaasrreable ■.:«.- about shot.-
Ping tn Berlin "•< the cus:,, :r >r. aflat once * n
terln C a store. Is moral!, forced to buy something
I even if he cannot flnd exactly wual ha wants. The
<.ernuM,s usually deny that any such coercion ex
i^ts. i.ut it is a fact tteverth«!«aa. as every Amerl
enn who haa visited Berlin knows. Of course the
aepartment .-.tor^s are ;,„ exception to this rule but
t applies to moat of the other*. To inquire th*
price of anything without maW m purchase is re
| "" lt ' 1 In the Ught of an insult. Boom tin. ■ a SO ,
went to "I' bo St hat , Uyrf . ,„ rtmt aakwi ka
m* Panamaa ai .
marks. Ihe clerk hesitated and asked: "Have y Ou
the UiteaUoa of buying cr.e htre? - i told him I
he is homeless, feeble and "atone itandlnr - w.
Is sent to a versnrsrunsr.'haus, or old ag» ho-.
if there is ■ vacant plac» there, and If notVn
small poorhouse until there la. *
Yersorsunsrahauser ar» th»» distinctive *•,(■■»
of the Austrian poor relief system so far a3»^
aged are concerned. Already in the days of
Joseph II Vienna had two, if nnto t more, of the»
homes*, and at th«* present time, it has six. 0"s
of them is it— led exclusively • .- citizens; aa>
other, that at Mai<" is reserved " i>er*.
sons who, ••-.yin? to th( perverted notions —
to what Is seemly, cannot b* accorded 'natal"
liberty Ilka old peopl* in th» other homes » n ' J T
In all the six together there is space for mom
than six thousand inmates. As th» VersorgunT.
ha'is^r are looked upon by classes and rna'ss^
alike a.-* the hom»s of the a<ed p<x»r. th* piac<
where they have a rlsht to be. no >i:.*?ri»ce ■
attached to polng thera. It would no mor* oc
ctir to an Austrian »x-work»r •-• he ashamed of
living: in a v*»r«orgi - than it would to
an English veteran to tv ashamed of b»!n< at
the Chelsea Hospital. There is not a tooch
among th* Inmates of that pariah f>.*!ing whic^
is ■«> painfully evident among; th» inmates of ou?
workhouses. On thf contrary. th°y all sees
to b» extremely grlad to be wrier* they are. and
to be rather proud than otherwise of beir*
there. And a- it is with them, so it la TrirJ
their relatives; then? is^ no inclination on thtfr
part to look askance >»n th»s* old people or ts
shun them. On Sundays and holidays. ln<ie*i.
th«» homes are thronged with visitors come tn
have a ■ hat with old friends and relatives a:d
t?!l them tke fa-nlly news. Th^-y brin? ■ .-'
'itt'- presents more often than not. caps wt&
brierht ribbons for-^he old womeni n"ckti»g. p^.
hap?, for the old rr.er.; for k?reat importance ,
attached to personal appearance in the homes,
and. although the Inmates are provided wj«v
pood clothes and are given a voice in dectdoß)
their color and for n. they are not provided" wt%
finery. — Edith Sellers, in The Contemporary R>
There la a misconception as to <;uardi'a «
traction, which it is of seme- importance a; thj
outset to remove. The Venetians and the rest
of th" world have cherished the belief that
Guard*, "th-* greatest of Venetian landsaps
painters" — as an a"<-nmnlishe'l •-•.--_
scribed him in the 'Nuova Antoiogiv— was "a
Venetian by birth. GuardH was of Tyroles*
that is, Austrian —parentage, i- . Venice >?an
not alon* c!ai:a him. Hi* father's home wag •
small village, tamed Mastellina. which i 3 slm
ated in the Val di Solo. Italian Tyro!. Hii
ni'.th- r was also Austrian, and. apparently. 1
Viennese lady. •»uar«i] - extraction from a
mountain bred stock like Titian' 3 s»fms to ac
count for his wonderful vitality. -«> length aad
energy. It 'also follows from the fact that tj
was not a Venetian by descent that he was not,
strictly speaking, a decadent, a? he Is soc»
times called. . . Whence Ouardi drew tJ»
secret of his wonderful art we are not toii
His father. Domenlco. whi» waa a painter, dirt
at Venice, bis adopted home, a feiv years on!j
after Francesco was born: history does net -
late what becamf of his mother after her ha
banri'.s death. As is weM known. •liaatt
entered the, school of Ganale. who. soon a/w
his return from Romp, made a name for hi*
self a-= a paintT of Venetian Tlewa It nr"?i:
have been e»pe*ted that Ouardi would har?
come under the influence of Giovanni Battin
Ttepoio, who married Cecilia, his sisiT, 'ut bi
talented brotheT-hn-law wa-i a fissure patatsr.
The absence .if all in formation as to the rela
tion* which existed between Tlepolo and Guard:
not UTinaturally opens up a wiile field for cot-
JecttuT Ii 'i.-i recently W*n stiesested If 1
critic of fertile Imagination that T - >polo tout"
times inserteil figure™ in GuardJ's picturw; <i
•such collaboration between the t«r> there is no
trace. When Guardi had developed into X
artist. Francesco iVsanma. the hrofh'rr of :'»
notorious adventurer, was apprenticed to his l
and the writer t>f ih*- "M^nioirs" .'^a.-'i™
Casanova) relates a piquant episode concert
ing I rdi's excess Sjev^tttj toward h:j
pupil, th»» result of which was thar thela:te:
left hi^ teacher and went to the stndfo of Fru*
cesco Simonini. whore he learned to paint bat
tie scares.
Putting aside the map nf Guardl'a life. *c
Tnay ask wherein his special aptitude for #
pictin^ Venice consists. — iJtutcio A. Slmonsoa
in The Nineteenth Century. •
T>«ra •- talk aicons focal flw deownmMW offlci*!>*
aaitattna: the ad.lit!r n *t a cotfew n«m n tin *q'^lra*
nf the department, a* it hn» prciVH h s^a' «f -<■» *
N>w Torll ami otl--r vttiea — . vehicle in «*»*•
m| Kb to .V! third alarms an ! ijoca to ril flrf* "^
1.->ne bottlo Wn> rraamry for the Br»nnm *V**n ta» -•
men at» fluhtinc biczea th» Coff** wascn '» •''» nM *
and fpjrn It N «erve.l th» her. «t:mu!?t!n<t bevtns ß ~
th* har«»worWTi« r>i«-i Th» ;,»^i fj ::•• --raMy r*«™
ap -.. the lot-a! flr--rrfn. wh-> nr<» n*v f<irc»i to *°*
without a .itiniu'.ar.t. — rhi!a<!c!ph!a Record.
was not prepared ••» sun a statement to thai C
Th's system of forcing the customer to Say
the result of a German buste-sa pria:t?l* ta*
would not be successful in AnierK-a. The *£
chants argue that if they ran only * uw **'' „'
fotsttns *BiR3 article or other u»oa lIM pure»-^
they have attained their rod, and that it &«>'
natter If ho is dissatisfied with hi* purchase »'•£
ward ami never comes back to their store '*'*
They seem to 1 c absolutely Indifferent about se%^
i:-.K his custom.. If you SO »o a »ho« » tore * »
*.'.'. declare that th- first pair of shoes y««">£
la a perfect Ht. no matter if rhey arc » ■»?
largo I have made this ebMeryat&n over an d«^
asain. and can Touch for Its «Wt«T v wpi
mans rearard tMs state of affair* wi *- n
equanimity. ,
Of course, n great many more or les« I«F
tricks are us*<l in arranjctaS th« window* <*^
stores, in order to entice th« public M«aj '^
display .i ready made coat and rest jril«j**r«£g
over a bale of »h« same mnt.rta! fttJW '""^j^f
trousers are to- he made ;•< order, with » £l f
low price attached to the whole. I'pon g^J
the store you discover that the price is on-7 •
the coat and vest, and that the trm»W ar *t» #•
It Roes without <avir.it that they •- p jo**
Tensive. li appears thftt a number of sho * „.
have the (ooOa which they place in the *> Jg
specially made of a better quaßty than thl> "L i rf
*cii in the More. 3oine weeks a«o I »a* « P
In a window announcing that the "■■'' "<S
had no boo!a specially manufactured *or -
windows. -^ ,u3
The department stores compare favors"?
those in NVw York, though they are aot *7m7 m #.
The only fault to be found with them t»
ranges . -f tr.e soo«ts In the variou* >Ik «*f
mm la. which i* contualns; the '„..• ?
floorwalkers and the -ash system. T*e \ -
especially d-fevttv?. An oSJce with one
cashier and several packers fa attache^ him**-'
li: Iment and the customer must «ro t.•*. •* cl#r )| ■•*
with the hill he has received from tae j^|fr
Pay for what he has purchased "''-.'-»•
MM before he can go on to •'""' 1"',.), «!r««*
usually a lons line of customer* wl | a °^. a *&*
wniiinß there, and the result '- that "lua)*
about fifteen minut-s before one !■•■»»■
In? and *tti!l< one's purchase- .jjlji!'
I'pon the whole Germany still fcM »* . „ ***
from America. In the business » n <\ ia "^ *"*J
undoubtedly made pf»' progress «•■ 3 ■
years. Several American stores * v * trtO i*i« r *'
In lierlin of late and have *» b ** B 2\H, a***?
successful wearing the patronas? ' * % •*J5
ptibtlc. Perhaps their wuWWg oernun •*•*
•cma effect upon some of their v*« -4 |««
h»lp to eradicate a I-w of tft? e" J w
erence h.is been made.

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