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New-York tribune. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, March 02, 1907, Image 5

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L£fer<arjs J\ T e£v>s' cirtd Criticism.
j Good Anolffm of the Character of
Henry rill.
„,,- HISTORY OP ENGLAND FROM THE AC
TH,-KSS*.N OF HENRY VII TO THE DEATH
'."VirNP.V VIII. «1«6-1547.» By ?f A. L.
■ a (Vol. V cf Tim Political History
,V rnEland. Edited by William Hunt , D. LIU..
M. A.I Svo. r:>. xx. Bt. Ixme
•riars. Green & Co.
M- Fi?her lays all the stress In this Interest
ing volume u;>on th© personality of Kins Henry
VIII and the enormous change that was brought
about in the religious and political complexion
of En*lnnd by his policy as a statesman and
his dominating force as a man. The first quar
ter cf the work is devoted to an account of
Henry VII «r"i of England under the rule of
this first and least attractive of the Tuclor sov
ereigns. But these chapters are .only prepara
tory to the reign of the greater Henry. They
dcfcrlbc tlie modernization of ICr.gland that was
tlK'n galas on. and they nis<> show the slow.
laborious process by which Henry VII laid up
th» wealth v.hich was to do such effective ser
vice hi the hands of his more prodigal and aw*
tentatious son. Th* problems of the England
cf Henry VII -v re the problems of the "nation
of shopkeepers"— tariffs, reciprocal and retalia
tory; shipping and trading restrictions; dis
putes between employers and laborers; ques
tions of land tenure and yeoman farmers; of
gold expert ■»« nlien immigration; of rural de
population and the rush of population into the
towns, ml many other questions which have a
strangely nirdorn sound. Such problems were
well suited to the genius of Henry VII, and so
Strongly was he possessed of the trading in
ftinct that at his death he left a fortune in
bullion of four and a half million pounds ster
ling—probably the greatest fortune ever amassed
in Europe, so long as there was no other keep
ing rla ce for wealth than the strong box. This
immense fortune was the result of exactions of
all kinds; but. roughly apeaktasg, it may all be
accounted for Sal the proceeds of traffic in royal
Justice and royal prerogatives— .*i.«Kß» marks for
the royal confirmation of London's city liberties;
£2.009 fine for "things done by a Mayor during
his mayoralty**; fines for the infraction of stat
utes which had long been obsolete; payments
en suaessi'in to estates; heavy sums to pur
chase charters of freedom for outlaws; royal
Justin.- and royal power In the market, to be
obtained only by those who were willing to
pay at the highest rates.
At the age of fifty-two the careworn, unheroic
■gore of this most businesslike of English sov
ereigns parsed from the stasje, leaving a record
of hard, solid and enduring achievement — a na
tion rescued from civil war and from foreign
entanglements, ltd in the ways of peace and
economic development; an England peaceful,
prosperous, wealthy, awakening to the new
culture of the South and East; the England of
Eresmus and Colet. And yet the reign of Henry
VII is remarkably devoid of lustre or romance.
There is nothing in it to stir the blood or arouse
the prido of Englishmen. The amassing of a
mighty fortune, coin by coin, never yet evoked
an epic poem, and the best business man is
rarely the best beloved of kings.
Mr. Fisher's analysis of the character of Henry
VIII is probably th« best that has yet been
written of this great English sovereign. With
less brilliance than Froude, in bis celebrated
history of the same Kir.g, Mr. Fisher has more
■twos Mai delicacy; and, what is of far more
value to an historical writer, he has the gift of
humor and the power, that always goes with
this gift, of seeing both sides of the shield.
Thus, while on the one hand he avoids the
hero worship of Froufle, he keeps a steadier
hand than Brewer between the King and his
•great Cardinal— he does not permit Wolsey,
even at his zenith, to eclipse the sovereign.
Henry VIII. as presented by Mr. Fisher, is tho
embodiment of much that has since come to
be recognized as best and worst In English char
acter. His overweening pride, his insolence to
thosp Mho claimed equality, his good humor
end generosity to Inferiors, his tenacity of pur
pose, and. above all, his implacable conscience -
a conscience which was ?o conveniently obedient
to his desires as to win for hfm the accusation
of hypocrisy from unsympathetic critics—
these traits go to mak* up the character of John
Bull, as he is known on the Continent of Eu
rope, and, perhaps with a little more sympa
thetic insight. In the United States. What could
Utter illustrate the self-righteous Englishman,
whom the French set lowa as an arrant hypo
crite, than Mr. Fisher's description of how th
successive deaths of five of his children affected
the conscience of Heavy VIII?
To a man so prosperous, so splendid, so con
scious of nobility, of rectitude, of special service [
to Cod and the Church, there seemed to be pome
raysteriota paradox in the strange succession
cf calamities which had overcome th* children
of this CuMous marriage. What could God mean
by depriving the defender of the faith, the ham
mer cf th» heretics, the hope of Christendom,
the nv.isicinn. the warrior, the statesman, the
tthMe. of just that one common thing ac
corded to peasants, to heretics, to Turks, without
which his kingdom eagM not stand? It was im
possible that God could be unjust. He must
vish Henry to have his way; Henry who, save
tn one thing, had always had it. There must be
a meaning in the riddle, and the meaning could
Only be that IfM marriage with Catherine was
looked upon with disfavor from above, that it
was no marriage, that It had never been a
marriage.
This reasoning Mr. Fisher dees not regard as
waya y disinterested. The logical process was
quickened, he asserts, by the fact that Henry
tiad fallen in love. Yet throughout the whole
tangled and disagreeable story of the five later
marriages— it is. by the way. only in the com
putation of the profane that Henry was six
times a husband; In his own estimation he was
only twice married, to Jane Seymour, the
mother of Edward VI, and to Catherine Parr—
Mr Fisher Insists on Henry's domination by
•his distorted conscientiousness. To Mr. Fisher
•aaary was no more a hypocrite -than was the
fiery Democrat of the South, who insisted or. the
Justice of slavery while he declaimed against
the tyranny of monarchy; or the Englishman
v-ao blazed cut In sympathy for the oppressed
Greek or Pole, while he insisted on h!s right to
work the children in his factory twelve or four
teen hours a day. That Henry found, in obe
<lence to conscience, constant profit to himself,
does not Imply insincerity In his conscientious
convictions. The favorite of the Almighty must
raturally find a warrant In his conscience for
sets that were to his advantage. When Henry
decided to take possession of the wealth of the
monasteries he found himself bound to do so by
the terms of his coronation oath. This was cer
tainly convenient, but. as Mr. Fisher remarks,
"when Henry made a voyage of exploration
across that strange ocean, his conscience, he
generally returned with an argosy."
In no epoch of English history are insight
and sympathy more necessary than during the
strange metamorphosis through which King
Henry led the nation, and which corresponded
In some degree to the Reformation In Germany.
Before the appearance of this book. Dr. James
Gardner's "English Church of the Sixteenth
Century" probably gave the best account of
this politico-religious change. But Dr. Gairdner
lacks the sympathy and insight essential to
diaeern the genuine religious feeling which was
at work throughout the nation— a feeling which
caused the English people to recognize many of
the changes forced on the Church by Henry, as
■•■■a for the better, and to accept them
woo h«triedry; while int^ectcalJy they were
little affected by th« wave of theological thought
passing: over Europe. There was a minority In
the English nation that could not accept the
Christian religion according to Kins Henry.
Rather there were two minorities— the Papalist
and the Protestant; and it needed. the Terror
and the Statute of. the Six Articles to bring
about an apparent conformity in the English
Church. But It in inconceivable that a single
man. swayed only by the selfish passions of
lust and greed, could have brought about so
momentous a change in a country, with a rep
resentative Parliament as a mouthpiece of its
discontents, if the country as a whole had not
been in harmony with this change, ready to in
dorse the rebellion against the Pope and the
separation of the Anglican from the Roman
Church, along with the retention of Catholic
doctrine tempered only by such reforms as might
have been .introduced under the auspicps of a
reforming Pope.
Next to the change which came over the
English Church, the development of Parliament
was the most striking feature of the reign of
Henry VIII. For the first time in English his
tory Parliament began to concern itself about
the larger matters of public policy. The chief
duty of Parliament had hitherto been to grant
subsidies to the King, and levy taxation on the
people. The Parliament of 1529, during Its
seven years of existence, snapped the bond be
tween England and Rome, and established the
royal supremacy over the English Church. It
dissolved the smaller monasteries and Initiated
a redistribution of the national wealth. It de
termined articles of religious belief. It settle*!
the succession to the throne. It defined new
treasons. It attempted to deal with mendicancy,
rural depopulation, the entailing of land and the
legal and administrative system of Wales. No
previous Parliament had ever considered and
legislated upon so great a range of subjects;
and the reign of Henry VIII marks the be
ginning of the government of England by the
House of Commons. Yet the reign of Henry
VIII also marks the era of supreme royal power.
Never had King of England been more absolute,
while never had Parliament been more active
or effective. The secret of this doable suprem
acy was the secret of Henry's two great minis
ters—Wolsey and Cromwell, They were the
first to learn that the safest form of despotism
is despotism exercised through the elected rep
resentatives of the people; and that the surest
way for Henry to bo supremo was for him to
keep in his hand the nomination of candidates
for Parliament, and thus to direct the choice of
men on whom he could depend to perform his
will.
That Mr. Fisher's volume Is fuller and richer
In detail Than the preceding volumes in th •
"Political History of England" is largely due to
the wealth of material that exists for Tudor
reigns, as compared with the resources for the
earlier epochs of English history. The nineteen
volumes of item and Papers of Henry VIII,"
edited by Brewer. Gairdner and Brodie, which
have been publish- between 1982 and 1905. and
of which some volumes have y<t to appear,
are invaluable for a proper rendering of the
character of Henry, and for an insight Into his
relations with hi? contemporaries, English and
foreign. Mr. Fisher has drawn upon them con
stantly and profitably, end to them Is due most
of what Is fresh in his story, as compared with
the histories of the period by Froude, Brewer.
Gairdner and Dlxon. Even Froude is not more
readable than Is the present volume, and for
style and finish, as well as for an ever pres
ent vein of humor and kindliness, it must take
high rank among histories written for popular
reading.
AS ITALIAN BEAUTY.
Episodes in the Life of a Con
spirator.
A. REVOLUTIONARY PRINCESS. Christina
P.. i-Trlvulzl«i, Her Llf> and Her Times.
IV -'.£7l. By H. Remsen Whitehouae. Illus
trated. Ho, pp. 317. E. P. lJutton & Co.
"The Princess Belgiojoso," wrote Balzac to
Mme. Hanska in IS3B. "is a woman Sfttolly un
like all other women— attractive according
to my Ideas; pale with Italian pallor, thin, with
a touch of the vampire." He adds that with a
good mind sho shows it too much — "she is al
ways trying for effect and missing her end by
pursuing it with visible care and effort.'' The
Impression which Mr. Whltehoust's biography
leaves upon the reader is In accord with the im
pression made by the living woman upon the
great novelist, but we must not lose sight of the
biographer's admission that the fair Milanese
left no personal record of her life and that
whatever private letters of hers may Survive
are not accessible. What material may be found
in contemporary memoirs and correspondence,
in historical sketches and official archives, has
been used with conscientious care, but the por
trait is on the whole pale and unfinished. Done
by the hand of a master and from a rich store
of personal confessions we « an Imagine the fas
cinating romanco that might have been built
round this eccentric beauty with the "good
mind." Balzac himself could have succeeded
with it; they say that Stendhal tried it in the
"Chartreuse de Parmc," painting the princess In
the character of the Duchsasn dl Ban Sever i no.
A beautiful and witty woman who is at once a
queen of society, a fiery revolutionist and an in
defatigable conspirator— what an appeal should
such a being make to th« imagination! If she
did not effectively do so in her own time, if the
does not beguile us to-day, it may be attrib
uted partly to the odd mixture In her nature of
hysterical melodrama and sincere patriotism,
Christina Trlvulzio, the daughter of an an
cient and noble house of Milan, was a pretty
little girl, six years old, when Napoleon's abdi
cation placed Italy anew in the crushing grip
of Austria. She grew up in an atmosphere of
political unrest, these who were nearest and
dearest to her keenly resenting, if in secret, the
tyranny and the deadening influences of the
alien rule. If she had a "good mind" it was
due to the fact that she had an education which
in its thoroughness and breadth wan rare- in
deed in her day. Her political writings at their
best show how masculine was her training, how
well prepared she became, even In childhood.
for fighting mediaeval ideas. When she was
thirteen the arrest and dramatic trial for treason
of her stepfather, the Marquis d'Aragona. made,
we are told, an Indelible impression on the
mind and character of the sensitive child. Three
years later the brilliant, lovely young heiress
was married to Emilio Belgiojoso, young, too.
and handsome and clever, a veritable Prince
Charming. Hero was a marriage for a fairy
tale: Yet It was not long before the pair, so
fortunate In every material circumstance of life,
became estranged, and for many years found
sympathetic meeting ground only in music and
conspiracy. Mr. Whltehouse gives Christina
full credit for a truly passionate patriotism, but
he admits that vanity and lack of occupation
undoubtedly contributed to her early enthu
siasm. The Austrian police fell into a perma
nent state of worry over the behavior of this
young woman of erratic opinions, great fortune
and distinguished position. When she went to
Geneva for her health "ever present spies kept
the home authorities minutely informed of her
mode of life and the elements of the society she
frequented."
The comings and golr.gs of her great travelling
coach with it« loaa of cumbersome lu«rafc-e, t) ie
route-s followed and the stops made, all is accu
rately chronicled and preserved in the Secret
Archives of th« l«ombard-venetl«n Government <Je
posited in Milan. No action of hers at that period
NEW-YORK DAILT TRIBUNE. SATURDAY, UtAKfTT 2, 1007.
would seem to fcave been deemed too trivial to war
rant the transrnifision of a detailed report to Milan,
rant the transmission of a detailed report to Milan.
r-ven. the peregrinations cf her major-domo on er
rands connected with ills mistress's private affairs
appear to have possessed mysterious importance,
under date of October 21. 1830. the tireless «crlbe
who dotjsrej Ikt steps complains of the eccentrici
ties which mark th« progress of the erratic princess
it 13 his duty to "shadow." Particularly does he
censure her conduct at Lugano, where she loses no
time in issuing invitations for a magnificent ball.
Tilling her s.i!i>tis with a heterogeneous crowd,
among which are many political exiles who have
poupht safety on the hospitable soil of the Swiss
< or. f. 'deration. The brilliancy of this sumptuous
entertainment, obviously a bid for popularity with
the subversive political element, gave great ur
n"fa* 0 at Vienna. The astute Metternich. In the
Philosophy of whoso statecraft detail played so im
portant a part, recognized the dangerous firebrand
this beautiful and intriguing aristocrat— sworn
ana implacable personal enemy— might become If
allowed to indulge unchecked her taste for political
hereby. • (
This heresy the prlncesw maintained and
acted upon, to the disgust of the Austrian au
thorities, until Italian Independence was as
sured. Now and again her property was se
questrated, to be restored and sequestrated
again. She went into exile in Paris, and,
though her wealthy relatives made her more
than comfortable, she would not relinquish the
picturesque rose of the political martyr.
"Legend has it that over the door of the squalid
apartment she secured on the top floor of a
modest house in a poor neighborhood she
caused to be placed this inscription, 'La Prin
cesse Malheurcuse'— a far fetched play of words
on her married name. . . . Ostentatiously
she painted fans and glass for a livelihood, in
variably informing purchasers that It was
owing to the harsh cruelty of the Austrian
usurper that she was reduced to such straits."
Thiers, it is said, was one of the enthusiastic
admirers of the lovely exile, and would upon
occasion climb the dingy stairs to cook an
omelet on her charcoal fire. Kind old Lafay
ette tried to reconcile her with her husband.
Presently, when the proceedings against her for
treason were abandoned and her property re
stored, she transferred herself to a magnificent
residence In the City of Light, and in apart
ments hung with sombre velvet, embroidered
with silver stirs, or In white silk and silver,
she received the worlds of fashion and of lit
erature. The woman who wrote 1 under the
name of "Daniel Stern" described her (with tha
twist of sarcastic envy In the words) as pale,
thin to emaciation, with eyes of flame, and
cultivating the aspect of a spectre or a phan
tom, .-Hid added: "Readily also, for the sake of
effect, she gave credence to certain rumors
which put in her hands the cup and dagger of
the Uorgia." The exile at this time had a
theological erase, and Daniel Stern lets us
know that "Visitors usually 'surprised' the
princess at her devotions in her private oratory.
Where 'under the yellow shafts of light falling
through Gothic stained glass, between dusty
folios, a skull at her feet.' who knelt at her
<hi<-iii,u. lost In meditation." One result of this
"pose" was the production of a formidable
work on the formation of the Christian Dogma
—a work of which Balnte-Beuve spoke amiably
but which made no mark on her generation. It
is in her political writings that the native force
of her intellect appeared. It was during this
period in Paris that Heine fell madly In love
with the Italian. "Before I knew you." he
wrote, "I imagined that persons like you. en
dowed with all tho perfections of body nnd
mind, exisjed only in fairy tales or In the
dreams of poets." Alfred de Musset adored her
until her disdain stung his vanity to hatred,
and he published in "Sur une Morte" a poem
which was thoroughly discreditable to the poet.
It Is recorded that in IS4« the princess sought
Louis Napoleon In London and unfolded to
that poverty stricken young man. just escaped
from the fortress of Ham, her schemes for '
the liberation of Italy. "At the conclusion of
the Interview." says our author, "the ambi
tious exile, whose opportunity was now so near.
grasping the bands of bis eloquent interlocutor,
exclaimed with unusual warmth: 'Princess, let
me first arrange matters in France, then I v. 11]
think of Italy.' " Two years later Milan burst
into a flame of rebellion and the princess hast
ened to Naples, where she gathered for service !
in Lombardy a motley company of volunteers.
In an article contributed to the "Revue dcs
Deux Blondes" she described this episode:
Hardly bad the news of my proj^rt become noiao<l
abroad than I had occasion to learn huw Kreru and
fervent was the sympathy which the Lombard
cause- txrltod In Xa;>le*. Volunteers of all soei;il
grades came to beg me to conduct them to Lorn
hardy. During the forty-eight hours which pre
ceded my Bailing my house was never empty ten
thousand Neapolitans were ready to follow me; but
my steamer could carry '"it two hundred passen
gers. 1 consented, therefore, to accept that num
ber, and ''■■ little column was instantly completed
Rarely ban v whole population been heen to iiwak* '
unexpectedly from a long lethargy, an .- I by tha
Bole incentives of war and devotion Among tha
volunteers who cravod following ma to Lombardy
some belonged to the highest society of Naples:
abandoning by stenlth the imt<'rn;il roof, they ln-
Bißted on accompanying me. carrying In their
pockets but ii '■'•• coins. Others, employes in mod
est circumstances, ••x(h!i!i«<-<i without regret tbe
positions on which they depended for a livelihood
for the hardships of camp liic
Those who would road the disastrous story of
Italy's struggle lor freedom at that period will
find it told picturesquely if briefly in Mr. White
house's pages. Whatever help she could givn
of j)iir.«o and pen and tongue Christina offered.
Throughout all her efforts, then and afterward,
ran, it must be confessed, that element of melo
drama which sets a tinsel frame round the por
trait of a patriot Full of curious episodes was j
the rest Of her life. The finding of a man's
corpse In her palace near Milan after she had
fled to the Orient In 1849 has never been ex
plained. Strange, too, was that attack upon
her by a discharged servant, whose stabs In tho j
neck left her to grow into old age with the onco I
proudly carried head stiffly bowed upon her j
breast. She died at sl«ty-three, still a romantic !
heroine, whose last thoughts were of politics,
and whose eccentricities may possibly be par
doned in the light of the fact that she was a
lifelong sufferer from epilepsy.
IX THE SHADOW.
Studies of Character in the Clutch of
Evil Powers.
RUNNING WATER, By A. K. W. Mason. Illus
trated. 12mo, pp. vii, 352. The Century Com
pany.
THE IBBUE. A Story of the River Thames. By
Edward Noble. I2mo, pp. 407. Doubleday, Pago
& Co.
Mr. Mason is one of those novelists who have
the gnat virtue of knowing bow to tell a story.
Such writers are not. after all, quite so numer
ous as dhe might infer them to be from the
claims that are made for modern fiction by
many reviewers. The average of technical ex
cellence in this field is surprisingly high, yet
you may go through a dozen very well written
new stories and not find one that seizes your at
tention in the first chapter, and holds It to the
last, without the aid of distinctly sensational
expedients. Mr. Mason can do this thing, and
at the same time eschew those tricks of furious
excitement and melodramatic surprise which,
Indeed, have lately been exploited with excessive
assiduity. It is true that he realises the dra
matic possibilities of a love story developed in
the shadow of criminal transactions, and in
"Running Water" he gets his effect through Just
such an arrangement of affairs. But a kind of
conservatism overlays his Ingenuity, so that his
well told tale of love and wickedness leaves. in
the lone run, a plausible, human Impression. .
The heroine Is the daughter of a woman who
(wanders about the Continent In a mood of gross
materialism. Sylvia finds the life unendurable
after she has climbed her first Alp, In the com
pany of a stranger, who is obviously destined to
be her lover. She is an innocent. idealistic
creature, and the pure influence of the moun
tains fans into flame the rebellion which has
long been smouldering in her heart. She an
nounces that she will go to London and live
with her father. ' Though she has never teen
him, and knows nothing of his character or of
bis way of Uvins". «she is sura that under bis
roof she will be happier than in her mother's
dubious company. As a matter of fact, she Jumps
from the frying pan into the fire. Her father
turns out to be a thorough-faced scamp, whose
home is the scene of swindling operations that
soon threaten to rtach even uglier phases than
those by which Sylvia is first alarmed. Matters
go from bad to worse, and she is on the point of
fleeing to her fellow mountain climber, when she
remembers a moral lesson he had given her. and
resolves to stay and struggle with the evil
powers intrenched within her doors. The con
flict Is long and dreary, but Mr. Mason renders
it, to the reader, extremely Interesting. We
watch with evergrowing curiosity the duel be
tween Sylvia and Oarratt Skinner, for the soul
of Wallie Hine. and while that soul seems a
rather contemptible quantity for all the pother
that Is raised about it. gladly admit that some
thing had to be done to keep Its possessor from
disputing the centre of the stage with the hero.
Curiosity is not satisfied, either, until Mr. Mason
has wound up the struggle. Ke knows well how
to keep the reader In a state of suspense. In ono
respect, however, he shows less than his ac
customed skill. At the end of the book Garratt
Skinner has a defence to offer. It la so tenuous
as to seem almost foolish, and certainly for the
purposes of the plot it Is flatly Inadequate.
Neither as a student of character nor as a
weaver of dramatic webs does the author show,
at this point, the resource which he shows In
the bulk of the book. Better no excuse for Pkin
ner at all. than the feeble one which he pre
sents. Fortunately, the explanatory episode
comes too late to spoil the reader's fun.
In one of Mrs. Cralgie's novels there !s a
droll description of a type of resignation. Thla
person looked, we are told, like St. Lruirence.
lying on his gridiron and saying to his tor
mentors. 'Turn me: this side is done." That
sufferer would have had a fellow feeling for the
heroine of "The Issue. " She is about as sorely
tried a mortal ns wo have ever met In a novel.
The daughter of an old skipper on the Thames.
Susie ButcUffe is separated from her father, who
lov<v» her. for the greater part of the time. Her
stepmother is an appalling shrew. For some
reason or other this woman is not conspicuously
named In the table of Dramatis Persona?, pre
fixed to the book. She ought to be placed well
In tlie foreground, for it Is her fiendish malic
that drives the heroine into an agonizing situa
tion. This situation, we may note. Is brought
about at an early stage of the narrative, and
thenceforth Mr. Noble keeps Susie on the rack.
She is beloved by two men. both Thames skip
pers. Ono of them Is a violent animal who
thinks that he lies under a ban, or. as ho would
call it. "the Curpe of the Gat." a legendary
malison spoken of with bated breath by the
mariners Who use the great English river. This
Jim Saunderson Is nn evil brute in his dark
tnoods, and as the tale goes on he seems bent
upon making his love for Susie a positive tort
ure to the poor girl. Deeper and deeper do
the clouds become, until finally the stury is
whelmed in pain and woe, and the reader wishes
that Mr. Noble would make haste with his
grc'waome task.
That the reader perseveres is a testimony to
tins novelist's ability. He has. In fact, some
thing like s. gift, as we saw when he published
"The Kdge of Circumstance" not so very lor.y
ago. He is one of those who care mure (>r
truth than for beauty, and iv his earlier book
he K.'t forth the truth with an Intensity tlia-t
made it Impressive. He, too, revealed In that
work the n<, native faculty to which we have al
luded In speaking of Mr Mason. He has this*
faculty still, but In "The Issue" ho seems to
use it with more seU-consclousness, to sacri
fice the truth of life to a literary conception.
His diction smells of the lamp, and so, tor that
matter, doea the whole fabric. We assume at
the beginning that he is going to give us a pict
ure of human beings on the Thames, drawing
their livelihood from the river and being mould
ed, as to nil the details of their destinies, by its
might. Presently, however, the iigures get out
of "Ira wing, falsities creep into the perspective,
nnd the pictorial composition Is dislocated. A
sen*<» of Ufa disinterestedly observed gives place
to a sense of artifice, striving t'> work out a
given problem. Long before we reach the cll
ir.ax we have ceased to believe In the characters
nnd In the sequence of events described, and
l.u.k with Interest only for the solution or what
continues to be, in Its way. a beguiling problem.
Does Saunderson yield to th<- Curse? Does
Susie ionic safely <nto port? We want to know
the.y.- thing* because, as we have said. Mr Noble
has the knack of sustaining our lniulsitl/eness.
But he cannot make us sympathize with his
people or feel anything save resentment whore
their long drawn out harrowing Is concerted.
ABOUT DICTIONARIES.
From a letter to *£ he London Spectator.
The remarks on "the retrocession of accent" In
your entertaining article, "About Dictionaries,"
in last week's Issue remind me of a curious con
trast between the opinions of two distinguished
headmasters of a former day. l remember bear-
Ing the late Dr. Bradby. of Halleybury, argue in
favor of retrocession in the word "remonstrate."
"If you say •demonstrate,' " he said, "you should
also say 'remonstrate." " I have been told by an
old Halleyburian that Dr. Bradby. even made a
point or" correcting boys who said "remonstrate."
No on© could have hesitated to consider seriously
all that Dr. Bradby said on points of elocution,
and, therefore, on Its kindred subject of accent
uation, for a more exquisite reader I never beard.
To hear him read aloud In a room was an ex
perience. His voice was very quiet and intensely
clear, nnd the unerring taste with which ho gave
the right value to every word made a kind of
music. The oldest story seemed to have a new
and thrilling interest.
On the Other hand, there Is a story of Temple
of Rugby which is still remembered by Rug
beians of a certain generation. There was a
serious friction between the headmaster and the
sixth form. The chosen spokesman of the sixth
form bearded Dr. Temple In his study. "I have
come to remonstrate," he begun. "Oh! you nave
come to remonstrate, have you?" said Temple,
putting a profundity of scorn into the retroces
sion of the accent. "Go away, boy; go away!"
The boy went. That was all. It was Temple's
whiff of grapeshot, and It ended the revolution.

PHILIP OF LOS DOS.
From The Spectator.
The late Philip Pusey. only son of the cele
brated Dr. Pusey, though unfortunately both
deaf and a cripple, was of a very enterprising
character. Once he made a journey to the Near
EaM. and visited, among other places, the mon
astery on Mount Athos. Another Oxford man
w».s there übout v year later, and was asked
by tin; monks whether he knew Philip of Lon
don. As he was aware that Philip Pusey had
been there before him. he was able to reply that
he dirt. This story hnd always seemed to us to
be merely well invented until it was verified by
personal experience. We were sitting one day
in a coffee house at Constantinople conversing
with a dragoman. He told us how he had once
id n pat in charge of a little man by the Consul
Bouverie, by whom he was exhorted to "guard;
him as the apple of his eye." To his horror one
day, when the little man was riding in front of
him, he saw him fall from his horse. He rode
up. expecting to find that accident had com
pleted the ruin which nature had begun; but
what was hla joy to find the plucky little man
laughing! "And what was his name?" said we.
"Philip," was the only reply. "And where did
he come from?" "From London."
a
BOOKS AS Fit IEX DS
From The Academy.
Best also are the books that each one collects
for himself, especially lf their purchase entails
a sacrifice. How often the pleasure that a man
gets out of his books varies Inversely with his
power of acquiring them! None knew better
than Charles Lamb the triumph of bringing
home a coveted prize, a joy unshared by the
outside world, a private joy if there ever Is one.
Many who have thus collected a small library,
book by book, reading each book before they
bought another, will recollect the feeling ot be
ing amongst strangers when a sudden accession
of books comes to them from a relation's legacy
or the bequest of a friend. They set to work to
make acquaintance with them, as In duty bound:
but they are not of their choosing; the process
is to a great extent perfunctory, and they never
really catch up. For in the library as in the
world a reader makes many acquaintances but
few friends, and these few will be of his ova
choosing. ,
BOOKS AND AUTHORS.
Current Talk of Thing* Present and
to Come.
r>r. Richard Muther has revised the t«t of
his "Hi3tory of Modern Painting" for the Eng
lish translation which Dent is about to bring
out anew In London ia four illustrated volumes.
This English version, which has been out of
print for some time. will, in the new edition, be
completed to the end of the nineteenth century.
It will be remembered that tho Putnams are
bringing out in two illustrated volumes a trans
lation of Pr. Muther's "History of Painting."
j with critical notes by Dr. Gecrge Kriehn.
A suggestion that Mrs. Mary Wi'.klns Free
man puts real people into her stories has no
basis, but one curious coincidence is chronicled
In her history. She once wrote of a man who
would not enter his church because of s griev
ance, but sat on the* church steps. She after
ward learned that her entirely imaginary inci
dent had once really occurred to a man of whom
she had never heard.
A new edition is announced In Paris of Car
dinal Mathleu's book, "L'Anclen Regime en
Lorraine et Barrois. d'apres dcs Documents
inedits. ieftS-1789." The work, has been revised
and completed by an episode of the Revolution
in Lorraine. Cardinal Mathleu was lately elect
ed a member of the Aeademle Franqaise, though
this is his only book.
The forthcoming edition of the "Letters of the
Wordsworth Family. " which (Jinn & Co. havi
In the press, is to be enriched i.y an appen lix
containing a remarkable series of letters just
discovered. These letters were written by Will
iam and Dorothy Wordsworth to Samuel Taylor
Coleridge between Christinas, 17SW. and stay,
1807, and are said to contain some notable reva
lations of the unique friendship of the poets,
and a striking interpretation by its anther of the
meaning which underlie;; "The White !>n P of
Hylstone." They also disclose, says Mr William
Wright In "The Academy." "many int°restip.ir
things which occurred within the humble co?
tage at Grasmere— that home of 'plain living an-1
high thinking'— they refer to the people i
district, to walks in thr> valley, and expeditions
to more distant places in Westmoreland ani
Yorkshire, to such in.-idents as the fa I
whkh befell the family of th« Greens, to th°
work and the travels of Coleridge, to some ot
the verses written by each of tho poets, to the
pamphlet on 'The Convention of Cintra.' etc."
"The Goddess of Reason," Miss Mary John
ston's drama of the French Revolution, is to
be Issued In Ijondou by Constable. Where are
her new novels?
Why should there he a "continuation" of
Agnes Strickland's old fashioned but always
readable "Live.-: of the Queens"? Why not let
her work stand as it is and publish the pro
posed addition as a separate thing, resting on Its
own merits?
"Sinn Fein" (Ourselves Alone). 'The Pall
Mill Gazette" says, "is the newest movement in
Ireland. It took its rise from the enthusiastic
scheme of a university professor for tho re
vival of the Irish language." The movement
has many phases, but here Is the literary one
as described by "The Gazette":
Tha Sinn Fein men want to revive the active use
of the Irish language-. They are already obtaining
a certain measure of success. Numerous Irish
booio have bees published, and large numbers o#
people have been Induced to take Dp Irish studies.
Council after council give preference to candidates
for office with a knowledge of Irish. The Dublin
Corporation lons ■■co wrote Its name and signs in
Irish. Irish classes are established in the ele
mentary schools. In whole districts In the west,
where two years ago none but a few old men spoke
the ancient tongue of th« land, numbers now know
a smattering. The people cannot realize that they
ore building up a barrier between themselves ana
th« outside world."
There are some amusing stories In the re
cently published "Memories" of Major General
Owen Tudor Burne. a brave old soldier who ha*
had experiences all over the British Empire.
One of these concerns the late Duke of Cam
bridge, who had to make a speech at a large
dinner given to Lord Roberts In London In
recognition of his Afghan services:
Ha spoke, as usual, very well and eloquently till
he cam,) to the capture or" the Patwar Pass In
Afghanistan, which was regarded as a great
feather in Roberta's cap. Th* Doha said: "Ami
now I come to the Pass — the great Pass— the well
known Pass (Where the - - was the Pass? h>
whispered to those n«ar at hand), the wonderful
operations at the Pass— the Pass (Where the
was the Pass? whispered tho Duke again, getting
very hot and angry) where cur friend covered him
self with glory— l mean the Pass What is in»
name of that — - Pass?" at last ho roared, till
some trie near at hand whispered "iViwar, 1 and
we all crl«U with laughter, while th* Puke shook
himself together, became a3 gentle as a dove, and
went on with a very Rood speech.
Another story has to do with a Scotch min
ister who found himself in the. embarrassing
position of. having come to his kirk without the
manuscript of his sermon:
He could not preach without it. bu*. it lay in bis
m n?*- n mile away when th« tin* had come tor
hid 10 mount into the pulpit. Here was a poaer
for him only to be solved by giving out the IWtts
Panlm, which, ns every, one knows. Is of tarritic
length. While the congregation was singing it. oft
to His manse for the sermon galloped the minister,
and with equal celerity galloped back. When he
returned the congregation was stiil at it. and he
aakeU the clerk, with some irepldatio how th^y
were Kettlns on. "Oh. sir." was tiia answer,
••mey've got to th« en i of the eighty-fourth verse,
an' they're Just cheepba' like wee bum."
The ninety-fifth anniversary of the birth of
Charles Dickens was. recently celebrated in Lon
don by the Dickens' Fellowship and the Boz
Club. A home, it is said, has been provided for
a Pickens library, based < n the collection of Mr.
F. <.!■ Kitton. Its projectors propose to de
posit and maintain in the heart of Loetdoa a
complete budy of Dickens's writings, a collec
tion of the various editions of h!s works, to
gether with pamphlets and portraits and criti
cisms, all dealing in various ways with th^
author. But the great tribute to the fame of the
Victorian novelist, says Mr. Courtney in "The
London Telegraph," is a simple record of what
happened in 1906:
Not even In his lifetime was Charles Dickens
more popular than be U in this age of board
schools, elementary education, paragraphic litera
ture and a.ll the farrago of breathless life at the
opening of the twentieth century. What are the
figures? There are some five or six different pub
lishers who issue editions or Dickens— Messrs.
Chapman and Hall, Messrs. Macmitlan. Messrs.
Dent, Mr. Frowde. Messrs. Collins. Messrs. : Nel
sun, to take certain names at random. How many
single copies of DieUens's novels were sold during;
the year which has passed? One publishing .\ous,«
alone sold four hundred thousand. In order to
keep within the mark, let us multiply that sum by
four. We thus discover that at least a million
and a half single copies of Dickens were absorbed
in England alone during twelve months. We say
nothing about the sales in America and in the
Colonies, which, of course. r>M a great deal. It is
a sufficiently astonishing fact ' that in our Island
alone Dickens, whose popularity was said to have
declined, has triumphantly proved the endurance
of his fame by inducing a million and a half of
our countrymen, not only to read him — for that
would brine: in the whole Question of public
libraries— but to purchase copies of his works.
After such a record as this, let our contemporary
novelists bethink themselves before they speak of
their magnificent and "phenomenal ' sales.
In bis Just published book of travels Sir Hu
bert Jernlngham. a scholar and an old official
of the British government, seta down these in
teresting opinions:
I have said enough In these notes to Indicate at
least ray conjecture that with daughters and
wives and mothers like the Japanese there is no
fear of Bushiuo dying out. or Western Influences
Acting detrimentally upon the nation generally, and
therefore no apprehension of Immediate change.
Heaping aa the Japanese are doing in Western
schools of science and rnilosophy. it may be they
will gather tares with the wheat, but their bright.
intelligent women will know how to separate the
one from the other, and I honestly believe that the
twentieth century belongs to Japan, Just as the
nineteenth belonged to England, its ally.
There is one fear, however. I do entertain. Will
the Japanese, as a nation, ever be popular? Prob
ably not much more than we are ourselves, for they
have too many points in common with us; but will
they continue to obtain Western appreciation? 1
nave ray misgivings.
They stem too anxious to shine in every walk c:
Books and Publication*.
M f*s /-7 |~> fjT Jpi (Tk T "p* f~X B
I SCRIBNER 5
Poblfshr* To-day S
I-DITH
WHARTONS
Story
Madame
De Treymes
. I lust ikied in color by Kmb*.'. $t.CQ
This brilliant and absorbing story
shows the contrast between the
French anil American view of family
relations. It is a new and pro
foundly illuminating view of inter*
national marriage, a love story that
gives a striking picture of the
French aristocracy.
QUILLLR
COUCH'S
New Novel
Poison
Island
A thrilling talr of re-hunting,
by an extraordinary band. The
clues, the island, the treasure and
the hunters are unique.
$1.5
JOHN C
VAN DYKL'S
Studies in
Liiuits in
mi* m
Pictures
An Introduction to the Famous
Galleries
With 42 ittxx3tra.iions. $1.25 net. postage
10 cents
A clear account of the conditions
under which I lie works of the great
masters are seen to-day, with critical
and illuminating ideas in regard to
the different varieties of paintings,
taking up "Old Masters Out o£
Place"; "Pictures Ruined. Restored
and Repainted": "Copies, For
geries"; "Figure Pictures"; "Land
scapes and Marines,'* etc.
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS
Rare Books and Prints in Europe.
Sr- «_ •__ 1 CHOICE ENGRAVINGS
s3 Dlfl a (Mezzotints, Colour
ir "'i —v L Prints. Americana, Co.),
(Frank T.) f FINE AND RARE
118. Shaftesbury i BOOKS. VALUABLE
Avenue, London, W. J AUTOGRAPHS, &c
it A LL-OUT-OF-PRINT-BOOKS" writs ME:
**• can get yo-i any seat ev»r publish*^! on any »u*>
jeet. Th* most expert book finder extant. When In Ene
!pni rail and see my 300.000 rare books. BAKER'S
GREAT BOOK SHOP. John Bright St.. Birmingham.
life not to excite some Jealousy, and rather too
prone to dismiss the master before the knowledge
Is perfectly acquired. It looks aa if little by little
all foreign' foru-l^rs will rie asked to retire. Naval
and military instructors have come and gone, law
yers and doctors an 1 financiers have come ana are
coi is; .vi missionaries, if not Japanese, may not
be altop^ther arreptable. an<l at present it all loolw
as if Japan ha>l op-->n«>d its ii-v>rs to Western Knowl
edge and not to W«rt*n Intercourse. The days
of lyeyatsu are clearly not forgotten, not quite
ever.
Ruskln's works, at a shilling a volume. wfß
soon be available in England— at least. In so far
as the earlier volumes have gone. out of copy
right. It Is Intended to give all the original illus
trations In reduced form. As. fast as the later
volumes lose copyright they will be added to
this edition.
B€X)KS OF THE WEEK.
DRAMA.
ABEU\Rr> AND HEI-OISE. I'y Ridce'.ey TOTWM*.
12mo. pp. 215 iCftanes Srrlfcner * 3ot<s.)
EDUCATIONAL.
A GERMAN SCIENCE mm jn* *£•• •**
Vocabulary. p> William H. Walt. Ph. D. laae,
fp. x. 331. <Ttie MaemUlan Company.)
iT\\VTHi>RN~3 TAWOUBWOOP TALES. Edlt«l tor
"-School Vi">. Ny Rr.t*r; 11. Cen>- l«mo. m- »!. **••
»The Macmlllan Company. >
In • i M.iemiHan » I*ooket American and Eki(l(9jk
flags " <ieylgnect for us» in elementary and MO 1
on.iury sch.x>l* .. * »
SHORT PAPERS OX AMERICAN LIBERAL EDtTC£-
TION. Py Andrew emfcjg West. 12mo. pp. vl, 125.
<Charles Srrihner's Sen**
iVntaini-n? "T'.i* Tutorial System In Collese," •"!*•
Chan«t--f «'oneepti<>n of th» Faculty la Amartaan
Vnl\vr»iti*>»." "True an.! Fads* standard of Graduate
Wi>rk " "The Present Peril in Liberal Education,"
'•length of Ola Col!c£« Course"' and '"Th» American
Call's*"
FICTION.
RrXNIXCS WATER. By A. E. W. Maaos. TMustMaai,
liino. pp. vii. 352 vt'entury reirpany.i
Reviewed l ■'. another column.
A BKEAK IN TRAINING. By Arthur Buhl. TronUa
piec* hy U'->warl v."han.ller Christy. Vim*, pp. 22*.
♦Outing Put:t><h:nr Company.*
Stories of American tot •*» life, and apart*.
NOKROY. DIPLOMATIC AGENT By tiearß* Bjroaa Bit-
H.'uarrt lUusf rated by <J->r<lan Ross. !2mo, pp. Ci
Iflaatnrli Publishing Company. >
gome amazins adventures of % Secret Serrtca mas.
IN MY LADY'S GARDEN. Pages from th» diary or
Sir John Klwynne. Bj Katrine Tiask. 12mo. pp. SB,
(John Lane Cca:pany.>
A cummer love story.
HISTORY.
A SHORT HISTORY OF* SOCIAt TJFT? IN 1 ET(?LAXT>.
By M. V. Singe. lino, pp. xvi. 407 (A. 8. BUMS
& Ct>.> . »
A sHerattrn ef th» *<vtal d«r»TopnMnt of TIIS
land from the occupation by th« Ramans to tie siai
enl day.
LITERATURE.
STTT»IES IV HT-MANI9M By F. C: !». SchlßW. XA .
V. ■*, Bvo. pp. xv. 492. (Tim JJacmtllaa Ccaceay.)
Twenty papers. Including "The Definition at Pll|<
mattsm and Sjßwiiiiiliia." ••From Plato to Protagoras.'*
"The Relations or Lecta and Psychology" and atndrcd
t!iem«s.
MISCELLANEOUS.
BIOGRAPHIC*. CTJNIC9. Essays Concerning' th» In*:i
enca of Visual Funeticp* Pathologic and PhysielßSfe.
Ipon the Health of Patients. By George M Gould,
M P. .VoN. IV and V. 13mo. pp. »m, 3»- la. 4«Xk.
(Philadelphia: P. Biaklston. Son & Co. >
PIONEER REMINISCENCES of PCGEX SOCXTt By
Ezra Xlt-eker. Illustrated. svo. pp. xx. Hi. oaatna:
Lowman i Hanfurd . >
An account of th*> first whits settlers" encounters
with the Indians, and wo on. gathered from personal
experiences durlnjr half a century. \-\ ■ ■ ■ *
TOE CARRIER CRISIS. By AueuaUn Gallasher. lima.
pp. 'Jl- (i.'.'lumnus: F*. J. lifer. >
- A discussion or railroad control.
THE EQI-ITABL.R UNION. Ufe and It* Duties Brto«y
Explained. Ity Dr. Nathan Eddy Badseley. is^a,
pp. 197. (OnMlahed by the author. > " -\
Social, rellalcus and political studies. _ v
MINERAL. WEALTH. By William B. Vucklow. Iflaio '
pp. 54. (Pub!l3b»tl by the author > j v
THE PSTCHIC Rir>r>!Ja By Isaac K. Fun*. Dl D . -
IJ. I). 12-no, pp. vui. 240. trunk * "npitlli Clll
. pa»T.> , ;
THE SPIRIT Of LABOR. By Hutchiaa Ha»soc-i, t^zno.
pp. «M (Duflteld * CD.) • * .
The life story of a Chicago labor leader and trai*
unionist.
SVCTT3>9 IX U7E. By Baal! Heleb. 12rao. wn. n 3SO
iDuffl*ld * skl
POLITICAL SCIENCE.
AMERICAN" LEGISLATUHES AND LEOBtATTva
METHODS. By Paul S. Relasen. IStao. bSTTI 337
. (Th* Century Company.* % - .
la "Th» American State Sertaa," de««rriain^ ho •*
th« trarioTj» departments of th» Kav'rnrn-ntai ■>«;,
55*.. crranireti *** ***»»■»■««»»•» •dtta* by "VV. if.
Willoiighby ■ - • •
i

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