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New-York tribune. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, November 17, 1907, Image 55

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Also Tongues That Talk Un
der Water and Eardrums
to Magnify the Sounds.
(Coprrlßht. 1907. by John E!fr*th WatMnn.)
For Rear Admiral Evans to call up his cap
tains at any time on the telephone and invite
them over to the flagship will be possible while
his great fleet is rounding the Horn. Tele
phoning from ship to ship In the great fleet will
be as easy a matter as Is the telephoning from
room to room In a big hotel, say the experts.
Before pointing their noses southward all of
the war vessels booked for the long journey
will b" equipped with transmitters and receiv
ers. There will be no overhead wires or sub
marine cables connecting ship with ship; nor
will there be any ••click, elickety-click" or "dot
dash, dot" business about it. all of which means
that the wireless telephone is now an accom
plished tact, and that our navy is the first pre;-.'
Institution in the world, public or private, to
take advantage of it.
That it will transmit speech twelve miles was
demonstrated the other day at the Norfolk Navy
Yard, and the tests were so satisfactory to
lieutenant Commander deland i>avi.-. tii
wireless expert of th.- navy, that he came back
to Washington and reported that the now In
stnonents could be successfully used even dur
ing battle, amid the roar "of "cannon to
right of them, cannon to left of them."
There wil! not have to he any great ripping up
and tearing out to install the wireless tele
phones. It will simply be necessary to add the
new telephone transmitter to the wireless tele
graph apparatus already installed on each ship.
The helmet receiver already used to pick up the
"tick" signals In wireless telegraphy will suffice
also to take the voice signals of wireless teleph
The best demonstration of their adaptability
to their new function was made accidentally
the other day off Cape Charles. The wireless
telegraph operator on one of the Old Dominion
steamers had his helmet on and had his ear
primed for anything in th« Morse code Which
might chance to be floating about in the salt
air. when suddenly be was surprised to hear
music and spoken words of a weird and un
canny distinctness. At first he supposed that
he was in some manner crossed with one of tho
telephone transmitters of his own vessel. But
arriving In port he learned that what he had
heard was the. battleship Tennessee pending teat
messages and other sounds to the navy yard at
That the •wireless telephone will succeed
mhere the wireless telegraph sometimes fails
was indicated by another incident since these
tests began the other day at Norfolk. The bat
tleship Kentucky ran aground five miles from
the navy yard, andvthe wireless telegraph sta
tion at the yard tried to hail her, but constant
Interruptions prevented. The Virginia, with its
new wireless telephone Installation, lay at the
yard, and noting that tho Kentucky could not
understand called her up by telephone. Al
though the stranded vessel had no regular tele
phone equipment, its regular wireless operator
taught the words in his helmet and signalled
■ had received them.
In action the wireless telephone will be tiseful
■ !y for communication between the. ad
miral and his captains Lait with torpedo boats,
colliers and dispatch boats on detached service
und with lightships, lighthouses and other Bhore
stations. Except in actual battle there would
be ::■'!•■ dancer of Interference from the enemy,
because, unlike the wireless telegraph, its
range :s limited to a radius of twelve miles.
Hut even in close action It can be used to
transmit messages in code ■words. If the mast
carrying tho web of transmitting wires — the
■ -ir.iij" — were shot away by the
n wire run up on an oar elevated on
deck would give sufficient connection for the
wire'r-ss telephone.
In fa.-t, the whole nervou* system of the navy
is beinp regenerated and made more s^rtsitive.
taited States government is now the lirst
I > geaier ally adopt fur its men-of-war not only
the wireless telephone, but another new wire
less hearing equipment, now being fitted to
twenty-five vcnatiln of the navy, not to mention
forty-six lightships and two army transports.
These ships are having eardrums installed,
and. some of them, tongues. Divers who have
worked under the Bea have known for many
generations what a good and dependable con
ductor of sound -water is. But, Just as was the
rap<> with electricity. It was not until many
years after the pioneer investigators had learned
the law of the phenomenon that any one had
the genius to make use of it. But In our gen
eration no known force or phenomenon of nat
ure is allowed to repose unharnessed. Some time
ago Professor Luclen L. Blake, with A. B.
Johnson, secretary of the United Btates light
house board, began experiments with the old
frigate Constitution, and found that signals
Bounded under water from a point one-third of
a mile distant could be heard through the old
vessel's thick oak hull planks submerged fifteen
hat. Other Investigators followed Into the field,
end at last the navy Is to profit by perfected
apparatus which ■will transmit sounds through
the -water as far as the new wireless telephone
will carry them through the air— twelve miles.
The eardrums now being fitted to the naval
vessels are a pair of hollow chambers about the
*'zr and shape of ordinary wash boilers, fas
tened to the Inner skin of e,ach ship. One Is
Etrainst the port and the other against the star
board Fide, In th<» forepeak of the hull, as far
below the water line as possible. In each drum
there Is. Immersed in liquid, a delicate micro-
Anecdotes About Dogs. Cats
and Monkeys That Live
in the Engine Houses.
Alfred M- Down**, secretary of the New York I-".r<- De
partment ha» written a book about New lorkß tNM
wfcii-h 1 caJ <<1 "!":.'• Fight.™ and Their IVtB. and 0J
wunciy of th« publishers, llatper & Bros., tome anec
dotes from th» tuoic sue here retold.
Hags is the famous dog of Knglne Company 72.
Bho Bleeps in th« stall of Jim, the engine horse,
and they are fast friends. If Haps doesn't go out
of the utall when the alarm rings, Jim will take
her up by the back of the neck and run to the pole
with her. When visitors come to the house and
«iv« the horses sugar. Bags will seize hold of them
by their clothing, and bo present Jims claims to
the first and biggest lump. Should the horn« drop
the sugar. Rags will retrieve the lump, bring It to
Jim In his etali. and place It so that he can reach It.
One of the famous cats of the Fire Department
was Barney, of Engine Company 63. Barney*
great feat was eliding down the pole In the fire
house, and he did It as gracefully as any member
of the company. True, he did not come down with
• rath, like the men, but he would wrap his four
Saws around the brass rod and let himself down
with great rapidity. Sometimes the firemen would
Play a trick on Barney by placing a dog at the
foot of the pole. The cat would immediately notice
**>• and etop half-way down. He would carefully
***• his bearings, watch for an opening, drop on
top of the dog, scratch him once or twice and then
rush to the cellar.
One of Barney's friends in this flrehouße Is a fine
Dalmatian. He will go into burning bondings, no
waiter how hot or smoky, and he Is always to be
f 9^n<l near the pipe where the men do their heaviest
*■*. At one fire, a few years ago. it is a matter
''' rooord that he climbed a regulation Fire De-
J ***-ment ladder. He went up one story, and then
» Ur *l the building through a window, the sashes
*• 'rtitch were burning on both Bides.
?»H* »-!».. a Barney dog as well as a Barney cat.
Tfit log bcl<»iged to Engine Company 25. in. East
**> wrest. He was a true pathmaker for the
*"**■* in bis company. As soon as an alarm came
'■• would dash out of the house and down the
* Ut *t, yelping a warning that the engine was
** ll >g. and that man and beast must stand aside.
.** lnrth.\.talng bark, causod absent minded people
i '
Phone— an Instrument which magnifies small
sounds as the microscope magnifies email ob
.jots. The microphone's magnification of sound
is so great that the feet of a fly walking upon it
will appear as loud as the ho<>r of a horse upon a
pavement. This instrument in each eardrum of
the ship proportionately increases sound vibra
tions coming through the water and striking
the vessel's hull, From each drum emanate,
like nerves, electric wires, running to a battery
box which supplies th.> power and thence to an
"indicator box." where the sounds are repro
duced for the guidance of the ship's navigator.
At the same time a tongue that will speak
under water is being fitted to each lightship on
the sea, Gulf and lake coasts of this country.
This is the clapper of a bell of very high pitch
lowered over the side of the vessel by davit.
windlass and chain. It is set besting by pneu
matic power supplied through a hose or by
electric power transmitted by cable. In the
lightship Is a "code ringer" which automatically
toils, on the bell, the code number of the light
ship. In other words, each lightship gives a
certain number of beats, by which it is known
to the navigator. These beats, on reaching the
eardrums of the passing war vessel, are magni
fied by their microphones and transmitted to th.»
"indicator box." This, placed on the wall of
the pilothouse or the charthouse on the ship's
bridge, looks like a clock with a telephone re
ceiver on either Bide.
One receiver connects with the port eardrum
urn] the other with that on the starboard side
By means of a switch either the port or star
board microphone can be connected with the
receiving telephones. On the dial there Is a
"direction Indicator," showing to which side
the telephones are connected. The two ear
pieces are always connected together, either to
the port or starboard microphone, and when the
sound of the distant lightship's submarine bell
is faint and It Is desired to shut out all other
noises, both are used at once, or in ordinary
cases either may be used separately, as In the
accompanying photograph.
The position of the lightship Is estimated
simply by a comparison of the sounds coming
from the two microphones. If the port micro
phone gives a louder sound of the distant sunken
bell than does that to starboard then tho light
ship beating Its code number is on the port
side of the ship. When the navigator gets the
same intensity of Bound from both port and
starboard he knows he la head on for the light
ship. Direction can thus be obtained within a
half point of the compass. Hence In black
weather each lightship may be distinguished
and located by Ha bell. Just us In clear weather
It can be distinguished and located by the num
ber and arrangements of Its ligt.
Submarine whisperings other than those of
the sunken bell are picked up by the delicate
microphones. The sounds of tho propellers of
passing vessels are often plainly audible. If the
neighboring ship is crossing from starboard to
port her screw will be heard more clearly In
the starboard than In the port microphone.
Ships without receivers can hear the bell. It
is distinctly audible to those who put their ears
to the inner surface of the hull, well below the
water line. Thus it will be possible for a light
vessel to signal to any deep draft ship, even
when it Is well outside the range of aerial fog
These nir signals, hitherto depended upon
during black or foggy weather, frequently are
not heard at all. and even when heard are fre
quently misleading us to direction, even at one
or two milts. A vessel falling to hear them
may be on a safe course and In her estimated
position, yet she must stop or anchor or alter
her course because she Is uncertain.
The submarine bell can be beard In thickest
fog as far, approximately, as a light vessel's
light can be Been on the clearest night, accord
ing to the recent report of the commander In
chief Of the British navy, which Is making tests.
Thus does the fog demon, to whom hundreds of
thousands of Innocent lives have boon paid as
tribute, appear to have been practically con
quered. Not only every Lightship, but every
turning point and danger spot on the sea. can
be equipped with a means by which every pass
big navigator can obtain location and direction
within a half point and which will give constant
warning In nil conditions of sea and wind. In
different to hurricane or tempest, to blinding
snow, milky fog or Inky night, it repeats under
neath the ptlent waters a musical note at
guidance to the ship which may be heading to
These bells have been heard through eeven.
ten and twelve miles of sea during this au
tumn's official tests. The record has been
twelve miles, made both on the Atlantic and
the lakes.
When operated from shore stations th»y arc,
mounted on tripods of heavy I-beams securely
fixed to the sea bottom at any <iistance from
Fhore, to which connection Is made by armored
submarine cable, supplying tha electricity for
moving the clapper. The Hghthouee board will
Install the first such electric shore station at
Detour, at the mouth of St. Mary's JUver.
through whloh Pteam vessels enter I^ake Su
perior. Later Blx other such turning points on
the Great Lakes will be equipped.
There Is also a submarine, h<-ll attachment
for buoys, tho. clapper being uniformly actuated
by a combination of ratchets and springs which
store up power obtained from tho motion of the
Both Bonding and receiving apparatus havo
been installed upon our submarine boats octopus
und Cuttlefish, also on tho tender which keeps
track of them during the trials. These vessels
communicate with one another by striking off
quickly to clrnr the way fit street crossing, and
the driver of this engine has .stoutly asserted that
the horses showed increased confidence arid speed
when Uarney piloted their advance.
Among the Bremen's pets are a few St. Bernards.
One of them, Prince, Is quartered in Engine Com
pany 45. H« knows hit* business so well that win n
an alarm sounds he darts out into the street and
barks loudly to attract the attention of drivers and
pedestrians, falling on them to clear the way for
the engine TJm-ji he returns, takes up his position
in front of the (garters, and does watch duty until
the company comes home. Under no circumstances
does he allow anybody to enter the ftrehouse dur
ing the absence of the men.
The moment Bill, a Dalmatian In a downtown
company, .saw any of the visitors, or the Bremen
themselves, giving th« horses lumps of sugar, Bill
would jump on the hack of one of the horses, and
nothing short of main strength could ret him off
until he, too. received his share of the sweets.
lust fts soon as he received his first lump he was
Battened, and would chew away contentedly until
lie was called down. But be must get that sugar
Down In Arverne, Long Island, one of the com
panies hu<l for Its mascot a monkey named Jocko.
He was quite a favorite In his way, and h« did
some very Interesting tricks. When bis master
wanted hia plug of: tobacco he used to touch his
waistcoat pocket, and Immediately Jocko would
jump up take out the tobacco, and proudly hand
it to the fireman. This was regarded as a great
trick, and was particularly appreciated by his mas
ter, until 7 one fine day when the Joke did not seem
BO funny The fireman made the.usiiiii motion to
Fhow Jocko that he wanted his tobacco but he had
quite forgotten that an hour or so before ha had
ulitced a roll of bills, amounting to 182, In that
came pocket. This time Jocko seized the money
Instead of the tobacco, and away he sped like, a
fla«h of lightning up through the sleeping rooms.
Hy the time the firemen caught up with him Jocko
was quietly eating a $10 bill, arid that was all of
the roll that the fireman could find.
There was formerly a pair of monkeys In the
9th nattallion headquarters 4Sth street and Eighth
avenue It was not many days aft»r their arrival
nt the house when the tin-men began to look at
one another in great astonishment. A windfall ot
silver suddenly descended upon 'he engine house.
Where were all the silver backed brushes and the
eilver backed combs cuminz from* To whom did
the new hand mirrors belong? And the silver
narkin rings? What had they to do with the fire
house equfpment? These articles Here found in
various places— on the men's beds, in the officers
MM in the chiefs quarters. In the lockers, in
the recreation room, and on one occasion In the
waxon o? the chief himself. The situation became
v.7y much strained In that particular engine house
Men eyed one another suspiciously. They all wore
a worried look. Some of them began to lose sleep
over the situation. For some days their efforts to
solve, the mystery were unavailing.
Finally the discovery was made and the mystery
cleared up In tho most accidental way. One day
the Morse telegraphic code on thrlr bells or
by using other prearranged signals.
The ability of submarine' boats to talk while
under water, while engaged in an attack on an
enemy, renders warfare all the more diabolical.
Yet in times of peace it removes the. greater
dangers of submarine navigation. The other
day, when one of these tests was being made
with the Octopus, which had been a long while
under water, her tender, using it* new sub
marine ben, signalled:
"How are you?"
"Everything <>. K. Eating," answered the
Octopus from Its Hiding place somewhere down
under the white* ftps.
Doe* It Undermine Integrity and
Lead to Graft?
A dispatch from Washington states that the
United Btates has given offl iiil recognition to thi
tipping evil, Issuing official Instructions as to tho
amount of ti;>n t)int c.in N paid hy our naval oili
er.-'. Thinking people ivc ognUta the tipping " V ;
us simply an unobtru lv< form of bribery, which is
doing much to undermine the hlKli integrity of
IliUl.k I
If you tip a Walter 111 nfl' :• «.. secure COOd service;
If a waiter i« compelled to :.;• ti.-- chef in order
to m ::•■ the best cut* of in-lit for his euMoin
«rs; If t.'io head waiter must torn tipped in order to
secure a good seal and waiter; If a Pullman uorter
is tippet] .ii order to secure better service than your
neighbor, what is the difference In principle/ be
tween these act* and the acts of a railroad In
tipping you, providing you give it favors in the
way of mure freight? What is tin- difference in
principle betweea these first named and a tip to th«i
public official tor convenient lne»« that will »»•
;t persona] flavor? Railroad rebates, official briber*
and many forms of business dishonesty are all
traceable to the general principle that I must have
advantages not enjoyed by my neighbor, regard
lees of how they are obtained. A noted Judge has
recently fined a certain corporation because ;i rail
road paid them "tips" for extra business We won
der If thin name Judge could not have himself
arrested and fined because he had paid waiters and
porters "tips" In order to secure better service and
better meats than his neighbor nt the next table?
If the principle Is wrong for one, why Is It not
wrong for the other?
We believe that the general system of "tips" In
this country leads people, gently and unconscious
ly. Into the frame of mind where rebates, r;ik.-
on*s, political bribery, etc , look harmless and
If you fro to a hotel you pay hi^h rates, which
should Insure you good service and a square deal.
If the man at the next table clips the waiter $1
and pei-ures what be in not properly entitled to
and what you cannot receive without the tamo
Inducement, thrn that man Is encouraging a sys
tem that naturally and rapidly lead* to rebates
and rake-offs In all commercial life. Why not kill
the system at Its fountain head, Instead of trying
to kill it by plucking a faw hftlrs from Its tail.
Just as long as the "tipping system" Is recognised
and officially and socially encouraged, Just that
long will the foes to honest commercial Iffe, re
bates, rake-offs, political hold-tip*, etc., kill and
throttle fair and honorable dealing. If you brtbo
waiters, porters, etc., by giving them money as
"tips," in order to secure something jour neighbor
(Copyright. 1007. by Harper A Bros.)
a fireman happened to be sitting with bla feet up
on the windowsil! In the recreation room, the win
dows of which looked down on the back yards of
tha neighboring houses. He til taking his after
noon siesta, when suddenly a flash of light directly
In his eyes made him blink and alt up. His back
was to the sun, so that he could not account for
the bewildering light. He chanced to lixiK into the
hack yard of a nearby house, and there wnn the
whole explanation of the silverware mystery
spread out l*>fore him. Iletsy, the bigger of the
two monkeys, was cautiously making her way
down the rain leaderpipe of the house, carrying
in one of her paws a silver backed hand mirror
which had cauKht the sun and so thrown the
light into the fireman's eyes. The whole thing was
clear. A very little Investigation was all that was
Deeded t'i show that Betsy and liob were regular
■'second story" thieve*. They had been pillaging
the houses of the neighborhood, by night and by
day. and Btealing every bright article thtft they
could lay their paws upon. Betsy and Bob .were
put behind bars, rot the prison bars, but the tars
of the cages in the Central Park menagerie.
One of the pe«> of Hook and Ladder Company
30. in Mercer street, the old headquarters of the
Fire Department, was a monkey named Jenny.
The men had come back from a fire on a cold win
ter night, after they had been wet through and
their clothlr.!,- (rossn stiff. One of them put his
clothes over a radiator on the top floor of the
building to thaw them out. There were some
matches In the pockets, and tho heat of the radU
« <
cannot have, are you entirely fr*e from the sin
of "•tips." full grown to rebates?— lllustrated World
Htne Much Better Some Things Are
Done in Cities There than Here.
The former president of the West End Asso
ciation, one of the strongest reform organiza
tions of New V..rk city, J. 1.. Brower, ha* just
returned from a six months' sojourn In Ital>.
Ha spent several weeks In each of the four
principal citlea— Rome, Naples, »Jenoa and Flor
ence. Jn the Interest of his association he made
of the physical conditions in
■. and found that American cities
i to achieve In the construction of
pavements, street cleaning and the collection
Usposal of garbage before the <;m bo fa
.l In comparison with the cities
■ ■•■. In speaking of his experiences to a
representative ..r The Tribune he sail:
"In early boyhood I had been taupht that
Italian cities, ul.uvc all others, were uncleanly
la the highest daosa, und. by inference, that
American cities In general and New York in
particular tlcally immaculate.
"iii my liist visit to Italy, in the early "Tit's.
res were partly opened to the i';i«'-t that
n.y teachers might be mistaken. Every visit
Mn.<' then has confln i this view, and 1 now
know that they kn. w little or nothing about the
real conditions In Italian cities.
"In ths four cities mentioned block stone was
used almost universally for thp roadways, with
the exception that on pome of the heavier grades
dam was us..!, it was the rare excaption
that I found the roadways in any other than a
perfect condition, l <)<> not refer merely to the
principal thoroughfares, but also to the side
streets and alleys In the poorer districts. In
•;t<-t. it was almost Impossible to find any holes
or breaks la.it;e enough to be dangerous to the
"la those cities all openings In ths streets are
md closed by tire municipality, and uitli
the most satisfactory results For example, I
saw an opening made In one of the principal
streets of Horn.-, and it was continued across the
sidewalk for about twenty feet. The work oc
cupied about H.i days, and then the opening
was carefully ailed and levelled and permitted
to s< ttle, and tn less tint ti one week the sidewalk
und roadway had been restored to their previous
serfect condition.
"In New York how differently would the work
have been done! Tho opening would have been
carelessly Oiled with all sorts of material, and s
lot of rough stones would have been beaped on
the top hi from sis to twelve Inches above grade
and left In that condition until complaini after
complaint bad been made, supplemented by
illustrated articles und scathing editorials in th.
daily papers, before the dilatory officials would
properly attend to their work I know of one
case where a dangerous opening was permitted
to remain In a t ro| nln p nt business street for
almost two years before the roadway was prop-
ator set flre to them, and according to this story
the fire Boon spread to the woodwork. Below, all
the men, except tho watch on the ground floor
were sound asleep. But Jenny was on watch her
self upstairs. She saw her duty and did It Seiz
ing some pool balls from the pool table on the lee
reaMon floor, where the fire was burning she
hurled them down the Iron stairway Into the dor
mitory and shrieked a warning. Her chain would
not allow her to go farther than to the top of th.«
stairs. The men were aroused. They saw the
danger, and instantly attacked the flre with ex
tinguishers and put it out.
Then there was Jocko the Monk, whose alias,
when he was on his bad behavior, was, Crowski.
A weakness that the tiremen endeavored to cor
rect In Jocko was his constant effort to clean out
all th« peanut stands In the neighborhood. Th-»
monkey would first make friends with the pro
prietor of the stand, and then, after having se
cured his full confidence, he would proceed in a
leisurely way to rob th« stand. Naturally the
firemen did not wish to see the peanut seller lose
his stock in trade, and they decided upon a meas
ure to make Jocko reform. They suggested that
some fresh roasted peanuts, as hot as possible,
should be put in Jocko's way. The peanut man
followed the advice so thoroughly that Jocko
never again attempted to secure goods under false
pretences. But Jocko, when he felt the newly
roasted and burning hot peanuts, looked at the
man with an injured expression, and promptly
hurled the nuts back Into his face. Then he fell
upon him, striking and scratching with his paw?.
The only thing that saved the poor Italian from
being so marked up th.it none of his friends would
know him was the prompt action of an alert fire
man, who, seeing the danger, pulled Jocko away
and sent him to the enrtne house hayloft to med
itate upon his sins le> m'"iTj -i*"—
erly restored. Such a state of affairs Is un
known in Italy. All such work is promptly and
properly done.
"The streets In these cities are kept clean:
not only tha principal ones, but the side streets
and alleyways. One of the best proofs of this
statement is that there is scarcely any dust,
even on windy days. In New York, even on
Fifth avenue, it Is a common thing to see ridged
of dust near the curb, but I have never seen
such a thing In Italian cities.
"The methods employed In the collection and
disposal of the garbage of these cities yield the
most satisfactory results. The carts are care
fully loaded and driven to the dumps, not only
without giving forth offensive odors, but also
without leaving a trail of bones, egg shells, to
mato cans and other refuse, as 1b done in New
York. While It is a common sight In New
York to see hundreds of unsightly garbage cana
filled with filthy refuse standing for hours on
the sidewalks in front of the houses. I have
never seen anything of the kind In Italian cities,
and I do not believe that such practices would
be tolerated.
"The cause of Imperfect conditions tn New
York City and, doubtless, in other American
citlea lies In the fact that our whole system of
civic government Is permeated with politics.
Until such influences are eliminated there is
not much hope for any marked improvement.
The conduct of civic affairs on a non-partisan
basis would do much toward attaining the de-
Bired end."
Many Devices Used by Popes — Use
of E Pluribus Unnm.
President Roosevelt has eliminated the motto 'In
God We Trust" on a United States coin. He says
"that to put such a motto on coins, or to use it
In any kindred manner, not only does no good but
does positive harm, and Is in fact Irreverence
which comes dangerously near to sacrilege."
The President, however. Is not the only head of a
government who in recent years has caused the
removal of the motto on the coin of his country.
The statesmen who are ruling France. In the
earlier part of this year, decreed that the exhorta
tion "Dleu protege la France!" (God protect
Franc*) shall not appear on the coin of the French
Republic to be minted henceforth, as It does on tha
present coins. The explanation for France's action
In th© matter may be found In the fact that the
European republic Is al present under the absolute
regime of radicals and anti-religionlstg, who have
relegated everything pertaining to the Bible or
religion to the background. President Roosevelt's
action, according to a statement given out at the
White House, was Inspired by feelings of reverence
for the words "In God We Trust'Uand his opinion
that the placing of the same ot coin tends to
cheapen it.
In this connection it may be of interest to know
that for centuries the Popes expressed in Biblical
phrases or moral sentences lessons of charity and
kindness in the legends stamped on their coins.
These coins have bees out of circulation for ■ long
time, but the Popes evidently believed that the In
struments of charity should be regarded as preach
ing a sermon on charity. It would be impossible
to relate here more than a few of these brief ser
mons which the Popes preached to the people over
whom they ruled and which undoubtedly contrib
uted to the exercise of the virtue of charity which
was thus so universally inculcated. The legends
or inscriptions are all In Latin, and each almost
tills the r. verse side of the pieces, whether gold or
silver. "There Is no one wickeder than the miser"
is the pronouncement made by a gold seada
(or crown) of Pope Innocent XI. who filled the
Papal chair from 1676 to 1689. Another coin of the
same Pontiff, a half scudo In value, says, "The
miser will not be filled." and still another hears
the phrase "The things preserved perish." Pope
Clement XI (1700-172) Issued a silver coin on which
it Is said. "Silver kills many." and on a golden
scudo he offers this counsel: "Obey not the empire
° i gold. "I>o not .].-s!re money." Is another conn
pel or bis, and th* suggestive phrase "It is not
for avarice" Is seen upon another of these coirs.
"'"'"■" follows Increasing wealth" cries out a loin
of Pope Alexander VII.
And of how little use money will be when th*
curtain falls on life Is brought home to the minds
of most men . by the warning that speaks from
coins of Innocent XI: "They will not p^rit thee
in the day of Judgment." The pontificate of Inno
cent XI. though only thirteen years in duration,
seems to have been rich in the variety and beauty
of the sayings on the coins Issued, "lie that loves
gold ail] not (»• saved" i* the motto on a golden
crown, and another reads. "He who trusts In
riches will fall." The same Pontiff asks: "What
doth It avail a man? What doth It aval! a fool?"
and the quest!.. ii. meeting you on a coin, has a
special directness that one cannot avoid.
Innocent XII peaks touchlngly to those whose
hearts are fixed on the accumulation of wealth
when, on a coin of about two francs nominal value
.- says. "Let it not be to thy perdition."' And l th«
effect avarice on the mind is admirably sue-
Rested by the words of another c«in of the ....m
i ope, "Money has no color for the avaricious"
The money grabber Is universally denounced "Who
Is Poor? The miser,'' Is the question and answer
which another coin gives "What l have i give
to the*, Is the phrase on another coin on which is
represented St. Peter healing the lame man. The
bearer of the coin may not be able to heal other
wise than by giving what he has Another pertin
ent question Is asked on one of these pieces of
money, "Hut these things which thou hast gathered
whose will, thfy be.?" Such a question must raise
serious considerations m the mm.is of thoughtful
Bui the owners of money re recommendeU to
bestow It w«U. Clement XI on a golden Julius
says, "Lei it abound to the alary of Uod." When
rightly employed moae; may do much good, and
this |s declared by Clemen! X on the real which
bean this pronouncement, •"It diminishes evil and
Increases good ' And on another coin a generous
glvet Is described. "He hath oprned his i .m.i t.i
'■'"' needy. "I>o not forget the poor.' is the rec
ommendation on ihe coins of two pontiffs \
piece of the value of a threepenny-bit hears this
Inscription. "A little to the just." and on a much
■mailer coin is the truism, "it hurts leaa." "For
bid th.it I should glory save in Thee." \v;ts the
motto on the coin or medal of Pius V which was
made a memorial of ti;e battle «■:' Uepaato. -He
who gives to the poor will not wait" is a consoling
reflection, as it suggests that the reward of the
just will •>.. bestowed soon on the charitable man
"Use moderately iike a man." is a saying that
awakens universal response.
'That It may be given." tells the purpose for
which the coin was struck thai Is to suy. to be
passed on to those in want. "He lends to the I»rd
who has mercy on the poor," is the Inscription on
a silver piece of about eight pence nominal value.
And so the series goes on in various phrases, all
more or less directed to the objects, already noted.
These are the uses of wealtn to which Popes
called the attention of"4he possessors of money,
and this throws Hgtn on (he character of the.
The motto. "X Plurlbus L'niim, 1 ' never authorized
by law to be placed on the coin of the I'nite.l
states, first uppeared on an American coin in i7>^
Then was no I'nlted States .Mint then. and. in
fact, no United States, the Constitution funning
the Union not having as yet been adopted. There
was a private mint at New'uurg. N. V., and "X
Plurtbus L'num" was first placed on a copper coin
struck at that mint. Few collections have speci
menu of this eosa, and It Is valuable. In 1787 a New
York goldsmith coined a piece of money which was
known as "the sixteen dollar gold piece," and
upon It the motto was stamped in this form.
"I'num X Plurlbus." Only four of these coins are
known to be In existence. They are valued at more
than H.OOO each. New Jersey Issued various copper
coins in 1787 with the motto stamp*** upon them
A great many of the early coins, before there was
any legal authority for national coinage, were
made in England. Most of these were copper, and
were coined for different states, and all bore the
words "E Plurlbus I'num." The United States
Mint was established In 1792. but the use of the
national motto on any of the gold, silver or copper
coins was not authorised or .directed by any of the
provisions of the act establishing It. The motto
remained on th* early gold and silver coins until
1834, when it was omitted from the joM coins. In
1536 It was omitted from the 23 cent pieces, and in
1537 from all silver coins. It was not stamped on
any coin again until it appeared on the nickel
and the standard silver dollar.
The words "In God We Trust" were first placed
on the 2-cent piece, which came Into the sub
sidiary coinage in ISfiS. The motto «was placed there
by direction of James Pollock, then director of th«
Untt.-d States Mint at Philadelphia, and not by any
legislation of Congress authorizing the minting of
the S-cent piece. The motto was subsequently
tt&niped 03 the silver half, and q^r.er dollars.
Property Worth More Than $200?
000,000 Destroyed in 21 Yean.
Fires started through crime or mischief hxw
cost the people of the United States $210.552,84«
In twenty-one years, according; to official fire In
surance tables. To these causes the ftre Insur
ance experts attribute about 31.000 of the 369.298
fires that have occurred In twenty-one years.
Incendiarism, or. as E. R. Hardy, lecturer on
fire Insurance of New York University, described
it. "the friction of a thousand dollar policy on
$200 worth of goods." explained about • per cent.
or $199,755,504 of the total loss of more than
$2,000,000,000. Tramps, burglars, drunken mea
and lunatics are responsible for about $3,500,000
of the loss in 1.846 fires. .Mischievous children,
playing with matches or starting bonfires, tn
the period covered by the computation probably
did more, than $1,000,000 worth of damage
rather a tidy sum to pay for this form of amuse
The fire bill for crime and mischief, how
ever, is far less than the bill for carelessness
in handling heating and lighting apparatus,
matches, cigarettes and firecrackers. For their
carelessness in playing with fire In the twenty
one years people of the United States have paid
a bill cf $266,340,033. or 12 per cent of the total
loss, if the Itemized percentages for the years
given hold for the entire period. This source
of fires is more than double the total fire bill
for electric wires, lightning, cyclones and earth
quakes prior to the San Francisco disaster.
Even forest and prairie fires can be added with
out equalling the loss through carelessness.
The losses in twenty-one years in the United
States due to different kinds of carelessness are:
. No. flr»s out
/ 0 f3A&.295. Total I"**.
Careless use (if matches $.» • 1 2-!«£2
Cigars, cigarettes and pipes 2.»» JrSS,
Uiiiij) accidents and explosions I*.*** <"•££ •"}
Oil Btov« accidents and «rlosinn». - - »« ..t« -J'ilJ.-S
Defective flues and smokestacks m'??5 -tv\
Stove* and stovepipes *••« HZ&nL
A*hes hot coals, open fireplaces.... 2-«tt ««?'Sa
Fireworks 31u I - 3 ° l *
In contrast with this loss of more than $2««.
000,000 through carelessness may be cited the
fact that, excluding San Francisco, cyclones,
floods, earthquakes and sun's rays caused not
more than thirty-six fires and led to a fire loss
of only $443,900 in twenty-one years. Lightning
In a like period did only $4,573,395 of fire damage,
and started only 5.919 fires. To forest fires and
prairie fires, with their disastrous sweep, a fire
loss of only $92.0"0.r>0<> is attributable, or less
than the bill for defective flues, which a little
forethought would have *aved and for which
carelessness was responsible.
In addition to figures such as these, the In
surance people have kept such accurate account
of all fires in this period-- that they answer off
hand such questions as these:
"How many human hair stores burned In four
teen years?"
Answer: "Forty-three."
-How many bird stores went tip In smoke In
ten years?" «
Answer: "Twelve."
Th. also know how many dwellings, b«->ard!ns?
houses and hotels had tires in them; what the>
tendency of cider mills is t.> burn, and have
actually recorded such queer facts as "thirty-five
Jails burned In 1H95," "230 police and fire stations
burned in twenty-one years.' and that in eleven
years seventy-two water tanks, which seem to
be incombustible enough, have needed the at
tendance of firemen.
Such exhaustive information as this is col
lected by flre experts who have been specially
trained to analyze fires and their causea and la
detect what changes in buildings would have
prevented a fire or stopped its spread. On this
information and the figures show ing how
many buildings or businesses of a certain sort
may be expected to burn to the thousand th*
companies fix their rates tern the classes of,
structures and kinds of occupants. If a build
ing has in it elements which make It less likely
to burn a lower rate may be granted. The in
surance people even need men who are expert
psychologists and trained character readers to
arrive at explanations for mysterious fires which
may or may rot be due to the policy's friction
on a small stock of poods. .These experts natur
ally are paid good salaries, and yet the insurance
companies cannot find enough of them fitted fur
this delicate work.
The demand for such men. however. Is now
being supplied in mas degree by the School of
Commerce, Accounts and Finance of New York.
University which under the advice of prominent
fire insurance men started ■ course to train fire
experts under the direction of an expert of th*
Fire Insurance Exchange About fifty men ars
studying in the course this year, learning how to>
rind insurance data, inspect buildings and fires
and to use this information as experts in ar
riving at statistical and financial conclusions:
for fire inspection to-day, it is found, requires
a great deal more than a nose for kerosene.
To Be Established in Compliance with Lav
Forbidding Coeducation of Races.
Kentucky Is to have a school for negroes, con
ducted on the same lines as Hampton and Tusk'e
pee. It is to he established by Here* College,
which until the passage of a law recently for
bidding the co-education of the rac»i» accepted
ru^roes, .is well as the mountain whites, aa stu
dents. The authorities of the college have been
l. sting the law, and part of it has been set aside
by the Kentucky courts. 11 Is btlieved by the offi
cials of the csjObbjS that the remainder will fall in
the Supreme Court. While the coOscs might
eventually find Itself legally able to continue the
coeducation of the twt> r.u-.-s, y.-t it Is bdhmsl
advisable, in view of piiSlic opinion and the proba
bility of the adoption of other laws aimed at th>*
same result, to carry out the intent of the present
The trustees of th>> college, therefore; have de
cided "that the decWOB of the courts cannot be
the controlling aOHBMM in our problem. The real
problem grows out Of the QSHOSjSOSdasj opposition
to any 'mixed school' on the j.art of ti..- <!->minant
white element in the South, and the real preference
Of the colored people, umler the circumstances, for
a school of l!»»-:r Mm While maintaining our
teaching of the duty of impartial benevolence. we
must make it our plan, in view of circumstance^
beyond our control, to establish v department espe
cially for persons of color."
To meet the conditions up to the present tlma
Bereu. < '0i1... has paid railroad fare and OthCTWtBO,
assisted its form* r negro itudmti to attend
Ocbootf outside the state. Th* amount of funds
in Ihe treasury oi Herea College whose income
is available for work sjuoiik the negroes ia
tL'ni.Lxu. It is essential. in establishing „ new
si#ool, to have lands, saMBSgS and other equip
ments. The amount needed to bring the plans to
pass is MfBvOM, Two or three small, struggling Ken
tucky schools for negroes will probably be merged
with the new school. Its object will be to train
negro teachers for the negro schools of the South.
« ,
Last summer ther,^ filed at Washington a law
yer who for many years had shocked a large num
ber of his friends by l.is rather liberal views touch
ing religion.
A friend of the deceased, who cut short a Ca
nadian trip to hurry back to Washington for the
purpose of attending the last rites of bis colleague
entered the late lawyer's home some minutes after
the beginning of the service.
"What part of the servW Is this?" he Inquired
In a whisper of another legal friend standing In
the crowded hallway.
"I've just come myself." said the other, "bat I
believe they've opened for thek defence.**— Harper's
A little girl was being put to bed one aumme.
night, and after she had said her stayers hei
mother kissed her good-night, and said:
"Now. go to sleep, dear. Don*: he afraid, fo»
God's angels are watching over yon.**
In a short time, while th* mother and father
were at tea. a small voice from upstairs was beard*
"Yes. little one; what is itr* \
"God's angels are bussing around, and oae's fin*.
tea ine."— Harper'* .Weekly.

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