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TURKEY'S RtLE IX
HAiVDS OF A FEW SYSTEM ZNCOCR. (GES COR , HUPTIONAXp CRUELTY. Mggjben of Cabinet Selected Be cause of Their Subserviency — Characteristics of Favorites. •-jjere is no other monarchy in the Mtll whose ♦sterna* ar.d foreign affairs have been ■ com 'leJfly centraiJxed n the hands of the few a* have Turkey • jn ibis theocratic, abyclute monarchy public sen —•^r.l ha ? existed as -.■•=•• but jaere'y as an sidertowt There could be no public jr-t-ssion. No kairr.akam, no mufti, ao mutasarif. s-di" or soft* has dared to himself in any v fj-p^iy if his views .--f in snv respect op- Dts^d ta t^ e personal government of the Sultan. This is due to the fact that Harr.M II Is Caliph < tre'.l as Soltasu and in thl« dual capacity of tem «ral autocrat and spiritual head of the Moslem "Id be his heretofore conc^ntratod all powers wttbin his <^ w n person. lie has chosen his own fficials er.tire subserviency to his supreme will jxir.p the essential Qualification demanded. For fear of a rival in public attention he mptly '•KT.oved any one •rho showed s'gr.s of rising sbevc mediocrity; while the constant bickerings and taslrastoi that aflUcted his Cabinet were encouraged ■jj^j^.j-ivr- to his personal safety. The former rrar-i ir.astor of ceremonies. Munir Pacha, once ■ •At-dul Hamid has corrupted his suite." It is rr.ore Just to say that It was litita— of its corruption that the Sulian selected it. . knowing tiV be ccul .-i hold in his hands the strings of these ...W'. who would act only by his orders and -jjvc- <iarr take the initiative. After the massacres ■t rwasttntlJWpie he asked several members of his rt™tbW opinion as to the line of policy to be fringed to the re-establishment of peace la the PO '.Z t . x The chamberlain. F.min Hey. one of the Whih offlclils pos.^sinir character and a con- Ic-e-.c bi^ed him li introduce sweeping reforms f^ HbV"i senie. and presented a scheme on those ~;_ Kfter tt - at day he was no lonper persona SS btS Sublin.e Porte, while ; ■•-■ • Bey. who ;;*l: f -;.. 3 ever, greater coercive measures, with shedding of blood, became the all ?T^«i4» lragths dia the Sultan carry his deter- IliStim to rule alone that when a parrot in the grown accustomed to hearing the Sultan Sp his hands and call his cnuch.. was 1 escueh to imitate- and in strident tones call out •?£}<*! Djafer!" the Sultan strangled him with vie own hands, saying: ~f!.-re must be but one voice to command in this sSitttle respect had the Sultan for the creatures ♦h?t he called about him that in moments of spe cial Inger of nefvotisness he-has often b<-on known -j^g inkstands at their heads ana even to draw h: S "Vvclvcr on the Grand Vizier. Until the resent <-*•<= a half dozen of these figureheads have b^- j>ennlttea to ir.ismanagf tho affairs of a vast ro-'ulatK*. variously estimated (for no- official cen eu= has ever been taken) at from 30.000.000 to ;C6,<K'''.OOo. including the tributary provinces. THE SULTAN HIMSELF. Abd'-i Hamid 11. whose titles rringly rnn from -Fhadow c r O-«d on Earl "Refuge of the World." •Sayer of Men.*? "Father of a!l the p.^^rcigrr.s of the Earth." -'Finest Pearl of the Age." "Ksteemed Centre of tii* Universe." "Crown of nges" and ceir.es thirtj --fourth in line-of the Hou«e of Os nan, whose sovereigns have ruled Turkey since tie foundation of the Turkish Empire, in 1299. St. cf Ablul Mej'd and one of his slaves, he was called to the throne in IST6 by the forced retire ment of his brother, Murad V. said to have been insane. Although feared and hated by his sub »rts.' Abdul HamiJ has mar.a?ed for thirty-two •tren-JfuS j-ears by the most extraordinary pre cautions to safeguard his own person and the throre. Xot cast in heroic rK<-uld physically or mert.illy, fc*- is poss^-ss^i of a shrewd cunning that cnr-bles tiTn to achieve his ends. He has believed no one but hiirsrif, tru^tfd no one but himself, and has earrivei fir.,3 held his own until the present shake- VV- A student of human nature, he has often turned his cr.»mi>s to fri*»n<!s, Whether individuals or cour.tr:<?s. by loading them with favors, honors esd jrifts. Revengeful beyond belief, he has never jardored. Circumstances have fometimes obliged fcini to d-?f-"r his vengeance, but sooner or later his hsir.fl has fallen and crushed the object .if his hatred. Under his "loss" rule a system of espionage ■«■££ established that spared no one. from the Grand VTxer down. As soon as a tjpw official was £rpointec! it was a matter of coiir.-e that a spy t* told off to watch him. and. like the flea: TUs Fpy had \e?!>rr Frit—. Ar..j 5-j ad infinltuiu. The?» sycophants were always Fure of prompt End liberal payment, though the soldiers went un paid for months at a tim«\ riehtful claims of gov en-iTn^r.ts remained unaudited and public debts Bultipliefl. To prop \ip his throtM the Sultan has obtained loan after loan from the European pow *?■£, the rilfft hrins always the saiue. "in order to reTom the country.*" Thougji 'king of bosses.'" the BuKan himself, thin, shrivelled, shifty eyed, with narrow, stocking BboaKers a:i<3 senile carriage, is an evc-r present txwdsr- to the most abject f>ar. 'with suspicion that will cot down for a taskmaster. His mag cSfloEnt palace at Y;idiz i.= a veritable fortress, surround^ by walls, one within another, filled *Ith armor jiat«"-s agatnst projectiles. Here is a nty within a city, swarming with Foldiers. and *ith enderground passages and well appointed arir.aTT.ent that might enable him to withstand a prolongf-d siepe. Fo'-ioTiing the Sultan on the rosu-r of Turkish bosses com*s the Sh^ik-ul-Islain. or (irand M-.r- -. TLis official, who -■•.••: and spoken of with extreme respect \<y a.l Moslems, is the supreme :sterpr<>ter of the Koran and first magistrate of ti» empire. He has absolute control over the imam?, mollabs, ulen:as nnd softas and nver the superiors of the various medrassefl^ or theological colleges, and oth»r judicial and religious inMitu t:cns. The dervishes are also Indirectly under bis Msl«, and twice a week ha sits at th<» Supreme Court o! Justice, or Arz-odessi, which Is attached to his palace. His decisions are absolutely irrevo cable. Every i aw urawn up !■>• the Council of State has to be ■atatitted to him and psHßSed upon before teis* fivea to the Sultan for his signature. The E-iltan himself dar^s not lame an irade that *a nt received the fetva of the Sheik-ul-Islam to show ttat the bade U in conformity with Islamic tenets. Although endowed with such immense power, his Position jg a peculiar o;;e. He is appointed by the Sultan Trho, a S supreme h«-ad. has el*} power to taxiss h: n without vouchsafing any Kplanatlon 0a *.h« other hand, while the Sultan can depose the BbeOnal-lEUtin at wi!l. the consent of that dlgni- I*7 ffiuit b~ obtained before the Padishah himself **& b? PeacoveO from hi* high office. As a rule the SlKik-ul-I^lara are of humble tBtgJB, but are j>o«sesed of con?id°rable talent. The ***» bcombent is said to have rinrp through his **teat* as a fpv THE GRA2JD VIZIEE. Aa «Qualljf great personage In ti.e. empire is the Grtafl V:zSrr. whose functions nom<»what -• ir.l.'i* tbose ol nn English Prime 2i!ini«"r, although they *-*« nrJeh m,, T * limited This office is not one to kso-jgfat lightly, mm during the last century a hun kfcd grand viziers, more or leu*, have perished by *** bowFtring or in that terrible "Well of Hlood," •*?* remains may still lx: i*-en in the courtyard *i the Castle of tha Seven Tower?. ' [oat of the t*»ad viziers have risen from the lowest rank*. * v « from slavery. The «rand Vizier Is'aJwaya ad- as • y.jur highness.*' which is about ail J|s Fkry he is sure- of saining from his office, ira **» it is th*- questionable one of having two for ■ra, abject creatures ever standing sentinel at his gV» <ioor, ghastly survivals vl the state which ■Waity-fcv*. j-f-ars ago purround'-d th.: office. [.These on the 'scutcheon are *)*-af mutes, tfce_drunui °* *he*« eais have b»<?n perforated so that they ■■ - cot bear and tcngu'-s cut so that they *■•■•) not speak, bai i<* simply watchers. ■^.ttough all foreign relations are supposed to be trrs *ged through tr.e Grand Vizier or Minister of •*«if> Alt. Uity tavc U-tn *Sle U) dv jioth- teg, promise nothing, but Elmply; stand ready to be manipulated as the head boss saw fit. So un stable is the offloo that grand viziers are made Said Pacha, who has earned the title of Turkish Kmergency Grand Vlzer. He has been appointed, removed and reappointed no less than six times since IST9. his periods of power alternating with days of darkness, when ho was in -imminent dan ger of things worse than disgrace. On one occa sion he fled to the British Embassy for sanctuary, and did rot leave It until assured that he would retain life and freedom if he woiiM promise to leave TJurkey. The Kizlar-Ashassl or chief of the black e:muchs. ranks officially next to the Grand YlzW. He is a very great man. indeed, bearing also the title of highness. Although the regiment of eunuchs under his command has greatly dwindled during the prrsont rHgn, th?ir number is still formidable, for tholr presence is still indispensable to the harem system. Flat and flabby, with droop ing jaws and bulgini. beaxdlaa* lips, long legged, short bodied, and with all the defects of his mis shapen fijrurc accentuated by a black frock coat and European trousers, he bears a whip "f hippo potamus hMe in his hand as an insignia of his office. At the great spectacular Selamlik. -when each Friday the Sultan goes to pray for his people in the Hamidieh Mosque, it is the Kizlar-Aghassi who, with long, padding step, precedes his royal master from the gates of Yildiz to the mosque. As he is always sure of- the Sultan's ear, he makes a good go-between for the wives of the officials who have fallen from the Sultan's good graces r.d desire to be restored to favor, or for hieh dicnataries and foreign diplomats who have some political axe to grind. As all 'hese requests for "piill" are accom panied by penerous bakshish, or graft, the pocket book of his highness has waxetl correspondingly healthy, until he is to-day believed to be one of the richest men in the empire. SAID PACHA. Agpcinted Prime Minister but resigned. EMIN BEY. Advised reforms and lost Sultan's favor. While the Sultan has really \,^n his o^\n For eipr. Becretary for the last thirty years. Tewflk P . }--\s h*-. n the nominal Incumbent. For a number of year* he whs the ambassador of the Turkish Empire to Berlin, where be was a well known figure in Berlin society, with the reputation .-• being ■ pleasant n:.--.n and diplomatist who was much averse to gf-itintr into trouble. Infinitely preferring a quiet and enjoyable life. He Is said to lie with a facility somewhat remarkai.lt.- for ■i ( jri-'ni: I diplomat. Riza Pacha, head of the War Office, just dropped and arrested, is one of the palace favorites and a particular friend of the Sultan's. He has been in ori:<-*» for years, and while other officials have one by one been dropped into the waste basket Riza held his place ecause, it is whispered, he and the hfultan have had too many secrets in common. THE MOST COERUPT OF ALL. Corrupt as moat of the other Turkish bosses have been. Izz^t Pacha, who has just had the path to exile smoothed by appointment as commissioner for the H«\Jaz railway in Syria, has been by far the most corrupt and most cordially detested by the ■ ition at large. A low Arab by birth, but by ■dopti the chief familiar of the Sultan, he h.in borne the offlclnl title of "communicator of the verbal commands of his Imperial majesty the Sul tan." Hi* influence over the -Sultan has been so marked thaj sttperstitlous Orientals have regarded it as almost sapernaturaL His peculiar gray eyes have favored this hypothesis. He was originally a lawyer, then a Judge. then a spy. In this capacity he performed such prodigies of valor, supplementing lu.s wide range of observation by a remarkable fertility of tnvention and lack of conscientious scrvplea, that he was soon ad vanced to the dignity of counsellor. With his va ried Machiavellian paasports to the consideration of the Porte, he speedily distanced a!! the former advisers of Abdul Hamid and began to lead his sov ereign. It was his whispers and Innonedoes that destroyed Kaimil Pacha and unseated Kutchuk Said; Is counsels that brought into office a Cabinet composed of bis own creatures. He per suaded the Sultan that he was constantly benet by would-be assassins and revolutionists, from whom no one could protect him but himself. But to do this soooessfally he must have full authority. He niaded the Buitan that he was wearing him jself out with overwork and offered to relieve him at much of the responsibility. WOMEN IN GERMAN UNIVERSITIES. From Daily Consular Report*. Consul Thomas H. Norton, trritlng from Chem nitz, says that the testlon of admitting women to equal rights with men In the privileges of tho German universities is ■till far from being gener ally . ttled. He adds: •Th<- universities In Saxony and in the southern half of the empire— Bavana. Baden and Wiirtem berg—have all cpened their doors to female stu dents, and granted them all academic rights, ma triculation. graduaUMi. etc. other* admit them only as visitor* to lectures, but refuse to them nil other priviWjes. The University of Berlin has adopted a compromise, refusing matriculation to women, but owing them to attend courses of study as visitors, and ilao, with tlie appr val ot th^lr instriiftors, •<. present themselves as randl datea for the ninatlons leading to the doctor's d«gree. "During i lie last winter th»- twenty-one iiorman univerpities enrolled •'-' matriculated women and 2JMH female visitors. Tlu-ie mi an increase over the ')rece-ling wir.u-r of this'ty-five, matriculate and of '^9 visitors. Tho matriculate* were divided among the <ici.t universities where they are al lowed entrance as follows: Munich 125; Heidel bers C 5; Freiburg, .--3: Jyripsic, 2C; Jena, 20; T«'hiji geo, 'j, Wtirzburg, 5, and Krlansen, 4." NEW-YORK DAILY TRIBUNE. SUNDAY. AUGUST 9, 1908. HEALTH DEVICES MADE AT HOME CHEAP AND PRACTICAL HE BOX AND CRADLE. Association for Improving the Con dition of the Poor Aids Tene- ment House Mothers. Home made weapons ere being used effectively this summer in the fight which the charitable or ganizations are waging against disease and death in the congested tenement house districts. The poor cannot purchase Ice boxes, shower baths and other desirable hot weather properties wblch are of aid in fighting off disease, and as it is beyond the financial powers of the charitable organizations to furnish such equipment to all their beneficiaries, a novel expedient has be*?n adopted. This consists of demonstrations by the charity workers, at which the tenement house dwellers are shown how to make Ice boxes and other home made appliances which answer their moderate requirements. The Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor took the initial step in this instructive campaign, when it placed on exhibition in each of its milk depots a home made Ice box which can be buiit for less than 30 cents, and will keep a five SOME MEN WHO NOW ARE OR RECENTLY HAVE BEEN PROMINENT IN THE AFFAIRS OF TURKEY. THE SHEIK-UL-ISLAM. Before whom the Sultan made oath to support the new constitution. R!ZA PACHA. Former War Minister, who has been ar rested. cent piece of ice for twenty-four hours. Before taking this step. Investigators for the association had found That hundreds of babies and children had been made ill during The first hot ppell by drinking milk which had stood for hours In a warm place and was teeming: with bacteria. In many cases lack of ice boxes was directly responsible for the illness of these children. Dr. Atfred S. Hess, of the Department of Health, Invented the home made k • bo* which the associa tion adopted. This box. which is now in use in hundreds of East Side tenement houses, Is made from an ordinary so;jp box. two tin pails, which lit one. Inside the other, and a bucket of sawdust or a package of newspapers. The larger pail is placed Inside the box. and the intervening space packed tightly with either sawdust or newspapers. The smaller pail Is then placed inside the big one. All that remains to be done to complete the ice box is to place a 5-cent piece of ice in the inner pail, fill it half full of water, and place a heavy news paper covered top on the box. A bottle of milk plared in the inner pail will remain at a tem perature of SO degrees for twenty-four hours. At such a temperature bacteria cannot multiply, and the milk will remain sweet. The eagerness with which poor parents have come to the milk depots of the association to have the making of this home made Ice box explained to them and the faithfulness with which they have copied it in their own homes, show, according; to one of thn officers of the association, that the box Is fill ing a long felt want. Moreover, the nurs. s in the milk depots state that in the districts where the cheap ice boxes have been introduced there are now fewer cases of stomach trouble among the children. Before the introduction of the cheap ice boxes they found that even when they supplied mothers with the best kind of modified milk for their babies ir often went to waste because there was no piace in tl>* hot rooms to keep it cool. A HOME MADE CRIB. A sanitary home made crib, costing a few cents, has also been devised by the association for tho use of tenement house mothers. This crib, how ever, while cheap enough for the poor, is equally recommended for the wealthy, as the hcspitaJ staff believes it is as good a crib as can be made, from the point of view of keeping the baby well. This crib was invented by K. P. Greene, of the associa tion, and was first used for experimental purposes in the Junior Sea Breeze Hospital. Last year the hospital was equipped with regular iron baby cribs with ordinary mattreasea It was found that these mnttrepses. In addition to being warm, were not easily kept absolutely clean. As most of the cases in the lio«-pital are those of summer complaint, this was a serious objection. This year, however, all the mattresses were thrown out. and at a cost i f a few cents a bed the stxty ribs in the hospital were equipped with the new appliance, which is made in tli»* following manner: Kieiit-iii' h boards, thirty inches long, are fitted at the li.ad and foot cf each cot. A strip of can vas with a three-inch hem on each side takes the place of a mattress, and is held in position by two poles, or broomsticks, which run through the hemmed sides and into holes bored at the upper cornt-r of The head and foot board.", thus locking them into a solid frame Over the canvas are placed a rubber eheet, a quilted pad and a 6!v-et The advantage of tho canvas is that the air cir culating beneath it makes it cooler than the usual mattretis. \\ t.<-n it becomes soiled the canvas can be sterilised or washed, like ordinai> bed clothing. At the •■'id of the summer, if the parent wishes to return to the ordinary mattress, the fiams can simply.be lifted out of the crib, as the Iron frame work is not damaged. The new crits have had a thorough test this summer at Junior S»a Breeze, as the many hot spells have taxed this babies* hos pital to its full capacity. The same canvas Idra employed in the new crib is excellent for camping or for sleeping on the roof, as the crib can be made by boring holes in two grocery bases or packing cases, or ordinary carpenter's hors*»s. and running the poles through them, instead of the head board and foot board of the regulation crib. The cost for transferring a crib into a sanitary summer Bleeping pla.ee is about twenty cents for canvas and five cents apiece for broomhandles or curtain poles. Any sort of board longer than the width of the crib will do for tha end pssoaa FLOWEH POT SHOWER BATH. News travels fast in the tenement house districts, and the fact that a social worker gave a little child a refreshing shower bath by means of a casual sprinkling pot has made this form of ablution "etyllsh for babies." A man worker who showed how some bagging and a few barrel hoops could be transformed into a shelter tent on a roof has also started a new "style." The putting of a barrel hoop covered by green baize over one end of a clothes basket, which Is a common form of crib first used professionally by the nurses at Caroline Rest Home, has led to the saving of many babies' eyes from the glare of buildings and asphalt. The visitors are ready even to show the mothers how to make proper hot weather and other cloth ing for the baby and other children. One source of sickness amonp babies is that they frequently have to stay in the kitchen while the mother cooks on the coal range. The temperature can be imagined. It co happens also that almost all the cheap meats require long cooking, and the result is many hours of blaring fire in a range. IZZET PACHA. The Sultan's ciosest friend and adviser, who fled. ZEKI PACHA. Inspector of military schools. Just dis missed. The association saw a way out of this, and is now showing the mothers and fathers how to make a satisfactory flreiess cooker out of soap poxps and excelsior or newspapers. With this cooker all that the mother need do Is to let the meat or vegetables come to a hard boll and then put It into the tireless cooker, which In some hours cooks the meat thor oughly without drying it up. Meanwhile the fire can be put out and the flat made cool. This idea has led to what might be called communal kitchens. The woman who is doing ironing anyhow Invites her neighbors to get their tireless cooking started on her range, and the rest do not light fires at all. The effect of this absence, of a blazing stove when the outdoor temperature is running In the 90's can readily be appreciated. By way of contrast, for winter U3e the association's workers have taught the people how to make out of a board a ventilat ing strip for their windows which will give the baby plenty of fresh air without exposing it to a direct draft. So rapidly are the tenement house folk beginning to appreciate the value of these home made appur tenances that the charity organizations are pre dicting that the fight against disease and suffering in the poorer districts of the city will soon be much easier to wage. "Our greatest trouble up to date," said one char ity official recently, "lias been to get the poor peo ple to co-operate with us. Now that they arc will ing to fashion weapons against disease and suffer ing: with their own .lands, however, the fight will be an easier one to win, for nine-tenths of the sickness among babies in the tenement house dis trict's of this city ha* been caused by lack of sani tary appliances and household necessities such as the ice box and the bath." HOW COULD THE GRAND JURORS LAUGH? Harvey Larson, who recently made an escape from the workhouse, where he had been sent lor stealing Junk, has be»-ii in times "past accused of other thefts. One of the most notable of the stories related by his accusers i» said to have been told to the grand Jury by a second-hand dealer, who complained that tAWSon hnd stolen a pair of sec ond-hand shoes from his store. "The scoundrel cume into my shop and asked for a pair of shoes," the second-hand man is related to have told the grand jury. "1 gave him several pairs to try on and be at last found a jmir which he said ho liked pretty well. He walked around in them a little while, nnd then asked me h< W much l would take for them. l said *2. That's too much. he said, 'you'll have to make them n little cheaper." 'Can't.' said I. '\\ hy, man, 1 had to pay %\ 9S wholesale for them.' '\V>ll. they're a leetle high, hut I guess I'll take them.' he said. ■Can you change a $20 bill?' No.' -aid I. 'but 1 enn tak<- the bill out and gel it changed. 'Never mind ' snld he "we'll iust go Into the saloon next dcor and I'll sei 'em up. We'll g.-t the change there ' 'All right.' I said, and, like a fool, 1 went in with him. I took a cigar, and he told trie barkeep to take one on h]tn. He had no sooner swallowed his beer than he doubled up with pain. "Oh, >•!'.!' he cried, vxcus»> me for n minute till I go to the back door for some fresh air— l'm aw fully sirk." V* "Wh.il do you think, gentlemen! With my shoes on his feet and his old shoes und<>r his arm. he ran to the bark door, and that's the last I ever saw of him." The second-hand man told his story in a pa thetle tone and in broken Knglish so amusing that by th» time he had finished (he grand jury were all smiling. The witness seemed a little bit hurt on account of their smiles, and he ndded: •'G»ntlem«*n, it was no Joking matter— V had to pay for the -Indianapolis News. STOPPING HIM. "At the risk of being considered egotistic" he gnn the conceited feUOW ■I'onstant exposure." interrupted Miss Peppery, "mak.-8 you minimize the risk, 1 suppose, Mr. Bragg."- Philadelphia Press LEAR\ TO WORK IX WOTE3IBEBG IXDVSTRIAL SCHOOLS FOR YOUNG AND OLD Localities Forced to Maintain Them- Attendance Compul sory for Three Years. The interested American traveller who enters Germany from the east by way of Cracow usually hangs out of the roomy window of the railway carriage in order better to see the seemingly endless string of mills and smoking chimneys. The scene, perhaps, reminds him of the crowded Lehigh Valley near its Junction with the Delaware, and it certainly gives him a vivid impression of the industrial awakening which has taken possession of Germany. It helps him to realize why "Made in Germany" has become a better known phrase than "Made In France" or "Made in Austria." The perusal of an article by Albert A. Snow den in a recent number of the "Tochers College Record." entitled "The Industrial Im provement Schools" will let the reader Into A KIZLAR AGHASSI. Chief of the black eunucKs. TEWFIK PACHA. Minister of Foreign Affairs. secret of this rapid growth of Germany, If It Is any longer a secret. Wilrtemberg 19 a country not so large as New Jersey and having only a little larger population, wedged in be tween Baden and Bavaria, in Southern Ger many. It Is styled the kingdom of contentment, because the "stout and hardy men and the nut brown maidens there" are busy doing things that they like to do. The condition of the coun try to-day is a triumph for the clear eyed men who saw how to make a land with few natural advantages obtain for itself a place in the in dustrial procession. It has salt mines, to be sure, but it has little <.oal or water power for manufacturing purposes. Its government owned railroads cannot be depended on to re duce the taxes, for the country is unfortunately located. The shining rails of no transcontinent al route stretch across its territory and it is the victim of traffic discrimination. Tourists, the salvation of some sections of Europe, trouble Wiirtemberg little. It is a comparatively hilly country, one-third of which is covered with forests owned by the government. Indeed, the forests are the chief resources of the govern ment, producing last year through the scientific methods of forestry pursued a net income of nearly $8,000,000 without injuring the forests in any way. There are no bonanza farms scat tered throughout the little kingdom. Surrounded by Industrial competition, one would think that Wurtemberg's opportunities for growing wealthy were not 6o bright as they might be. The people of many years ago saw that their way out of the difficulty lay in making quality their aim and schools the means of attaining It. The result Is that while the kingdom is not wealthy it Is prosperous ana" contented. NO ILLITERACY. There Is practically no illiteracy in Wurt emberg. In Nebraska, the state which leads the roll in literacy In the United States. 2.3 persons In every hundred are unable to read or write, but in Wurtemberg out of eleven thousand recruits for the army examined each year only three individuals on the average are found who cannot do either of these things. The Wurtrmbergers say that these are inva riably Germans from other states, or from out of-the-way cokmtes. Every boy or girl, or young man or young woman In Wilrtembers who becomes an ap prentice in any Industrial or commercial occu pation must attend a school devoted to tho teaching of th» pursuit, according to a state law recently n lopted. It Is Intended to give a broad vocation.il training to boys and girls from fourteen to eighteen years of age who have left the common schools at the end of the compulsory period, as nenrly all do, and have gon<- to work. The Instruction hereto fore has been given on Sundays or holidays, or in the evening, but under the new law It Is to be given in the daytime on week days. This German state Is the first to make what Is styled vocational education compulsory by state law, with (lay instruction for all appren- UcM engaged in indnstry or commerce. The appreciation In which theso schools ar« held Is niu?trated in the ester.! to wh!c?t *"-- compulsory schools or this character hay« b^n attended In the pa«t. Until the new Taw waj I adopted schools of this nature mlsht be xnMim compulsory in a given district if the people of that seclKm desired them to be so. In IC*3 there were Ml industrial ar..i commercial im provement schools, public drawing schools mxr * "women's work" schools *ca«< throushent the Jtingdom. with a totnl of - s "T I students. Of these Institutions 19t were indnstrial iia provement schools for younjr men. Only twenty two of these were compulsory, v^th an attend ance of 1.349 students, or «n average of 6131 for each school. The mpi:l.-ory echocls b«j< an average attendance of 142 pupils ea"h. or IT.- ISC for the whole number. This numher *loufct less will be Increased through the tsml of the new law. Of the four commercial improve ment fchocls. two were compulsory, «rltl a total attendance of 22.".. and tiro were r.on-.-ompui sory. with a total attendance of 1.020. There were also 42 drawing *c*oote. with i»O4 pupils; registered. Fcr the girl* there were 13 in dustrial schools, with 1.042 pupils in attend ance. and 32 "trade schools" for gir'.a anil women, with 6,ST»S names on the rolls. OLDER WORKMEH AITEND. The interest which these schools have for the people is illustrated in another way. Ol*?r workmen as well as apprentices are anxiouj to attend them. Mr. Snowden te*la of a man fifty-two years of age who entered the ofilee of the director oC the Stuttgart industrial improve ment school one evening, while he was con versing with that official, and enrolled for tho thirtieth half-year in the institution. Mr. Snowden says that he talked with many persons who had been in regular attendance for ten or a dozen years. The new law. which will t>« In full op*ration tn 1000. compels all localities having for a period of three successive years at least forty youths under eighteen years of age engaged In industrial or commercial pursuit* to establish an industrial or commercial school and to main tain It so Irmg as the number of such youth* employed does not fall below thirty for thr«s y^ars In succession. Not only will the factory hand and the counting house assistant b» obliged to take this special training-, but tr.» grocer's clerk and the errand boy. odd as Ml may seem to an American, will b« obliged to go to school In order to improve hirr.seif in his work. The chief object of the law is to furnish opportunity for instruction during work days, instead of evenings. Sundays or holidays as heretofore. The Instructors are to Be spe cially prepared for th"ir work by long courses of training and the courses in the schools are to extend over a period of three years, instead of two. as tormerly. The time which the eii» ployer will be obliged to give up for the su:t« ble instruction oi his apprentice will amount Mi two *chool days a week. European Advertisements. LONDON SHOPS. NEW A, EXCLUSIVE DESIGNS >> IN SiLKS FOIR X^V* 1908 X^X X^^X LACESt RiBBONS i&SpX HOSIERY, FLOWERS, v>^ AND DRESS MATERIALS. VERE STREET & OXFORD STREET, 1 . LONDON, W. I Foreign Resorts. FSANCE. BELGIUM AND HOLLAND. PARIS (Favorite Afncrican H»as:; HOTEL CHATHAM, fIRIS HOTEL DE L'ATHEfiEE PARIS HOTEL di L'ATHENEc Opposits the Grand Opora "Th« Modern Hotel of Pari3." F. ARMBRUSTER. Manager. PARIS HOTEL DE LILLE ET d'ALBIOH, •23. Rue 6t. Honor*. elcia to Placa Vendoma. Klrst clmmm. All modern Improrenwnt*. Every horn* comfort. Ur<« fcaJJ Resiaurar.t luncheons «nd dinner* »t fixed price 3* • U carte. Tei «r*ms: ULLAi£IO.V. i-A*,S.-d.tit Abrdle. Proprietor. i — — — ** ITALY MD SOUTH OF FEASCE. 61— sal *>k A IN BFAVTirUL. lIUAi PRIVATE PAKi "EDEN PflLflCE," HOTELS IN GERMANY. AIX-LA CHfIPELLE Nueliens Hotel __^ — ■ BE 919 1 IE! Op»r.e.l 1907. ZOO Room* CnLlii 100 rrlvat* Bath* Lataat ComfotT*» "iSS" THE FURSTEMHOF I m UNICH NN t fe7.« * Most HOTEL D£ RUSSIE NIIDCIADCDI2 Th ' Ho( ** *• I - oz «- UnClflDCnU - Ju «<>««»• »'tu u^m*. Sendig's Wuriieir,berger»Hof — — • AUSTRIA, HUNGARY & SWITZERLAFIL r AUSTRIA.) VIENNA T!l3 Fnn] W3-Jl * HOTEL BRISTOL Locate 1 I th* Fcshlonafcls Karnthnerritr* -:.: •nd tha favorite resort ol American*. Per-", feet French Cuisine and choke wine*. j^ni BUDAPEST GD' HOTEL HUNGARU lirsl-Clas* Hotel with Panoramic View over t"i3 Danube- t>cr> modern comfort. Lxdusive \mer • can & cnqlish patronage. CIUM.IS J. SUti*.i. Manager, lormerK of imperial llutei. Vienai. INTER LA KEN. "-««„_ BEGSNA-HOTEL.JUKOFRTuBUOf, . ,__ DKUQUTFCI. VIK.W-* OVEtt OI.ACICBS ANU U&EB. j. OESCH. Proprietor * Muaacrr. LAUSANNE (MOTOR GARAGO '. HOTEL BEHU-SITE HOTtL KIOHE-MOftf The modi:k\ kkOTJSI<SoM l.h .-..i.v.va l«uprrb \irn> uf Li>h.e .m>l Mounnln-. U(>t Auirili-jn And l.ii£li-li l'»truuj<«. •iultts »itU l*rivut« B4C«- :■ 7•"