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New-York tribune. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, January 06, 1910, Image 8

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Direct Primary Nominations Law Again
Amendment to Make Oral Betting Illegal Urged — Public
Service Law Extension to Telegraph and
Telephone Companies.
State of New York. Executive Chamber.
Albany. January 5, 1910.
To the Legislature:
During the fiscal year ended September
S3, 1903, the total amount received by the
state was J52.255.239 29. This was $504,254 06
in excess of the receipts of the preceding
fiscal year.
included In the total are the proceeds of
the sale of canal and highway bonds and
the sums rt-allzed upon the canal debt sink
ing fund and trust fund accounts, which
»Sprejrat«» 521,127.243 39. being an increase of
5-.b25.783 96 over similar items of the preced
ing year, as follows:
190 S. 1009.
Proceeds of pale of
•■•« r • canal
ber.ds $5,039,61 1 70 $10,227. T0T 25
Proceeds of sale of
!><>ndi= and t.m
l«orary t^ndf I
h I S 1) *' a y ini
provea>ent * . ... 5.950,000 „.i 0.300,000 00
Principal and In
t*rc*t on bonii«
• r d iudzrr.
f< r can a : tobt
sinking fund and
• on <ir
posits of same.. 5.16i<.6:)r> G.") '2., 960.410 26
Trust funds. in
cluding twentjr
year court and
trust funds 2.139.212 OS 1.619.040 88
Totals 118.585.457 4.: $21,127,243 30
The receipts from taxes (apart from mis
cellaneous income of J2.419.007 93) amounted
to the sum of C 5.738.987 97. This shows a
decrease of J2,575/>54 94. as follows:
_ „t 1W?. IPO9.
Special » tax for
jucf*f. st«nog-
r *"'. rt etc.... $36?,09S 31 $330,436 S7
Tax on <-orpora
lion* • 8,937.635 24 8.671.920 20
Tax en organiza
tion of corpora
tions 207.535 49 343,938 99
Tax on transfers
of decedents' es
„ tates 6,605.59146 6.962,615.23
Tax on transfers
of etock 3.907,373 38 6.355.546 16
Tar on trafficking
in liquor* f1.3.V>.31<? 63 R. 140,324 21
Tax on mortgage* 1,666.527 51 1.844.821 45
Tax on racing as
sociations 247.443 31 65.166 74
Tax on land of
r. a n - resident
owners 17.229 58 " 24.018 12
Totals J31.317.052 91 $25. 738.987 97
The explanation of the decrease is found
in th* liquor tax receipts, which are less
by V;,->. 42 than those of the previous
>ea.r. This, however, is not a real loss, but
is due to change in the beginning of the
excise year from May 1 to October 1. thus
throwing a large part of the receipts into
the next fiscal year. It is believed that
the liquor tax receipts for the calendar year
are substantially the s-ime as formerly." but
the above mentioned change of da^e affects
the amount collected to thr close <>; the
fiscal year on September V MM, and the
penerai balance as of that .late.
The total disbursements during the last
Jiscal year were i0i.1 09,227 55. This em
braces the outlays for canals and high
ways, and for f.jrert purchases, which ae
prc^ated Ca.856.530 12, being an excess in
<££££ terns over the preceding year of $20
4.9.156 67. as follows:
„ 1905. 1909.
Cajsale. for all pur
poeet, including
amounts paid from
.ana] d' L,« finking
fund rUK«7. $5.3fif«.
384 45:1908 $1.N).1. -
f.27 £7; 1909, 115. -
555.25T45) $7.236,G4S 33 525.465.258 30
lifphways. for ail pur
1-osee. including loin- *
jior&ry certificate*
(U«I7. K557.42354:
IfK)S. $1. PI 0,000; 1909
*IJSOC}.QOn\ . 7.162,915 25 7.861.481 51
I rust fund transac
tions 437,106 68 2.208.479 01
Adirondack Park and
Cat*kii! Preserve
purchases 537.469 If 231,311 24
Principal and interest
on Adirondack I 'ark
bonds 203.r.0000
P Totals f 15.337.341 45 *35,556,530 12
The remaining disbursements aggregate
525.252.697 43.
The surplus on September M, 1909, ascer
t?.in«»d according to the customary method,
amounted to $8,435,^4816. At the end of th«
prt-cedJns year It was 512.857,784 06. There
vould not havp been this decrease in the
general balance had it not b^n for the dif
ference In the excise year and the conse
quent difference of over $4 MO.OW in the
liquor tax :•••■> iptr. already noted.
The state debt lias been increased to $41.
2UMWO through the Iss-ie of additional bonds
amounting to $15,000,000 for canal and high
way purposes, as follows:
inoK. 1909.
Canal debt 1^.230.060 tM.2&i.wn
Highway debt 6,000,000 11.000.000
Tote!* f 26.230,6<J0 $41,230,660
On September W. ISO 9. th<- sinkine funds
for the canal and highway debts as
gregate.! S22AVI.2G9 W, the debt in excess of
the Kinking funds being $19.174.390 20.
It is with great pleasure that I announce
a rrK'st important public benefaction. In
accordance with the wishes of the late Ed
ward 11. Harriman. his widow, Mary W.
Harriman. has Informed me of her readl
ii<-.-s to convey to the state a tract of
about ten thousand acres of land situated
in Orange and Rockland counties, to be
iieid in perpetuity i^.s a state itarK, and in
faribersnee of UH same object to give 10
;:.. .'tat.' 01 to such buaixi or commission
as may lie authorized to receive and ad
lnjnisu-r the trust tn>- sum of H.OiKMMj.
Airs. )iai*r:inaii stales thai, it was h*-r hut>
i>an<r* wi:-n, and 1. her expectation, . that
this fund .should he us. d by the state to
acquire oilier reels of land adjacent to
the above mentioned tract and intervening
between it and the Hudson River, and in
tin: Improvement of the whole, SO that the
j>ark may ultimate]} have some portion of
river JJ front and thus by improved acc€-ssi
l'Hity br- render*-<I lore useful and more
her.f-ficlikX to the people of New York City
ami the neighboring counties. It: addition
to Lfte condition that the Sand so convoyed
fchould be held fur use as a public park,
the j^ra'it is to be niade upon tl»e further
coqdTdon that if the s-tatc or any person
or corporation under its authority shall
hereafter condemn or seek to condemn
titter land in Orange County belonging to
Mrs. Harriman or her descendants the
land which is the subject of the grant shall
I hereupon rc-v^rt to her or her heirs. This
condition is Imposed for the protection of
»n adjacent tract upon which Mrs. Harri
man r<»Kidrt. I submit herewith the cor
rr»- r M>!:<irn<-e relating to this proposal.
Through this generous and patriotic
action, which cannot bo 100 highly com
mended, there "ill at once fie sltwded a
fcaeis not only for tip'-cssary conservation.
hyt for th" of ■' public recrea
tlen ground in a cesfon of matcl lew ' eauty.
ri'-h 'n historical asfodallon« and clo*e '■■
lljft aV>o J t^ of more than half the people of
tKe ;itr. . '
I recommend appropriate recognition or
thjs munificence and the enactment of suit
hXA*. Tneasures in order to provide for the
acceptance of the gift and Its use for the
I urpos 1 denned.
It is ray privilege to announce still other
eifis for similar purposes. The importance
of protecting the shores of the Hudson
River end of establishing a Highlands park
readily accessible to those living in the
ojiijrcftftd quarters of the metropolis has
Inspired a benevolence which cannot fail
to receive the grateful appreciation of the
Tn*-se additional plfts are the result of
tic uctiv'tv of the Palisades Park ComtnlF-
Kjon, •.-. hi< h was created in 1908. Through
imc commission, constituted under the laws
of Jhi.s ptate. and a similar commission.
■nlth Wsritl'.-aJ. membership, established un
der-tl-» lav* of the State or New Jersey,
tliTe !;ae i:etn acquired the face of the
cHffa from Fort I^e Ferry to Piermont.
im-?U(Jlng tie riparian lights for the entire
dittance. The Jurisdiction of the • omrnis
tioti constituted under the laws of t!ii-
Ktat« .1 ti»>t reached only to Piermont
Creek; Jn Rockland County: but by the
amendment of the year 1006 it was extended
bo ac t»i authorize the commission "to se
lect and locate such mountain lands along
lhe west bank of the Hudson River in
I:ockland County north of Piermont Creek
aforesaid and south of f he state reservation
at Stony Point" tJt it might judge u> be
"proper and necessary for the purpose of
extending the limits of said state park,
and thereby preserving the scenic beauty
of the mountain lands along the west bank
o£ the Hudson River in Rockland County
north of the Palisades."
In the work already accomplished for the
protection of the Palisades the commission
has been materially aided by private con
tributions of money and land amounting to
about $300,000. the State of New York hav
ing contributed $400,(MV> and the State of
New Jersey $50,000. The members of the
commission, who have conducted the en
terprise with conspicuous ability and ad
vantage to the ate, not only have served
without compensation, but I am informed
that the total amount received by them for
their personal expenses during the nine
years of their services is. only $457 93.
The commission has developed a plan for
the construction of a roadway along the
base of the Palisades from Fort Leo to
Piermont, for the extension of the present
park northward, as contemplated In the
act of 1906, and for the creation and im
provement under its jurisdiction of a High
lands park, including the land to be con
veyed by Mrs. Harriman, with suitable
connections between these parks and with
the state reservation at Stony Point.
For this purpose it has secured private
subscriptions from residents of New York,
New Jersey and Philadelphia, as follows:
John D. Rockefeller $50i>.000
J. Plerpont Morgan 500,000
Margaret Olivia Sage 50,000
Helen Miller Gould 25,000
Ellen F. James and Arthur (Turtles
James '. 25.000
William K. Vanderbilt 50,00}
George F. Baker 50.000
James Stillman 50,000
John D. Archbold 50,000
William Rockefeller 60,000
Frank. A. Munsey 50,000
Henry Phlpps r«o,t'oo
E. T. Stotesbury 50.000
E. H. Gary 50.000
V. Everlt Macy 25,000
George W. Perkins 50,000
These make a total, in addition to Mrs.
Harriman's gift, which they are intended to
supplement, of $1,625,000. .these additional
subscriptions secured by the Palisades j'ark
Commission are upon the following condi
First— in order that the Palisades
Park Commission may carry out the pro
posed plan and receive and hold the land
and money offered the state by Mrs. Harri
man, its Jurisdiction shall be extended to
the northward alone the west bank of the
Hudson River to Newburg, and to the west
ward as far as and to Include the Ramapo
Mountains, Riving the commission the same
powers granted to it at the time :t was
created and at the time its jurisdiction
was extended in -1906. Including the right
to condemn lr.ud for roadway and park
purr .
Second— That the State of New York ap
propriate $2,500,000 to the use of the commis
sion for the acauiring; of land and the build
iiiK of roads and general park purposes.
Third— That the state discontinue the
work on the new state prison located in
Rockland County, and relocate the prison
where, in the judgment of the Palisades
Park Commission, it will not interfere with
the plans and purposes of the commission.
Fourth— That, in addition to the aforesaid
appropriation from the state, a further sum
of $2,500.00), including Mrs. Harriman s
pledge of $1,000,000, be secured on or before
January 1. 1910.
Fifth— That, in addition to the above $5.
000,600, the State of New Jersey appropriate
such an amount as the Palisades Park
Commission shall deem to be its fair share.
The private subscriptions, Including Mrs.
Harrlman's gift, already aggregate more
than the -Sum of $2,500,000 stipulated, and
I am informed that the commission has
reasonable assurances with respect to a
contribution from the State of New Jersey.
With regard to the other conditions it
may be observed that, in view of the service
already performed by the Palisades Park
Commission and its present jurisdiction, it
Is appropriate that its jurisdiction should
be extended as desired. To this Mrs. Har
riman assents. The act passed at the last
session of the Legislature, to create a re
servation in the Highlands of the Hudson,
should be amended or repealed, so as to
avoid any conflict of authority. I may add
that in the near future it may also be
advisable to consider the desirability of
proper measures to protect by suitable in
terstate action the watershed in Northern
New Jersey and In the adjoining part of
this state, and that jurisdiction for this
purpose might properly be confided to the
same commission.
It is also fitting that the location of the
new state prison should not interfere with
the execution of the plan, and that • an
other site should be found therefor. A
contract has not yet been let for the con
struction of th*» building, and whatever loss
may result from the change by reason of
any work on the prison site cannot fairly
be regarded as a sufficient objection in the
light of the extent and purpose of these
There remains the question of the ap
propriation to be made by the state. In
view of the heavy demands upon the state
treasury, to which I shall refer later, it
will be difficult if not Impossible for
adequate appropriations to he made out of
our annual income. Nor is It desirable
that the completion of this plan should be
delayed to await the raising of the neces
sary amounts by annual appropriations
distributed over a long period of years.
Such delay will inevitably Increase the
cost and obstruct the carrying out. of the
plan. Th<? advisable course, in my judg
ment, would be to provide for the neces
sary appropriation by an issue of bonds
with adequate sinking fund and thus to
make available, as the commission may re
quire it, the desired amount, and to ac
complish the purpose with the least pos
sible delay and without needlessly en
hanced expense. Under the Constitution it
would be necessary that the creation of
such a debt should be approved by the peo
ple at a general • election, and it may be
Fubmitted for such approval next fall. Be
fore these subscriptions were obtained 1
suggested this course to the commission
and they gave their cordial assent to its
adoption. . • '
I submit herewith the correspondence
with the Palisade Park Commission in re
spect to its plans and these subscriptions,
and I recommend that suitable action be
taken in recognition of these Rifts and for
their acceptance, for the enlargement of
the Jurisdiction of the commission and for
the carrying out of its plans as proposed.
Including the change in the site of the new
state prison. And I also recommend that
proper provision be made for an issue of
bonds to provide the necessary moneys to
be supplied by the state, and that this pro
posal be submitted to the people for their
approval at the next genera! election.
We may thus at an early day secure the
conservation of the natural beauty of the
west bank of the Hudson River and the
provision of a public park of Inestimable
advantage to the people, which will remain
as a memorial of the generosity of the pri
vate contributors and of the value of en
lightened co-operation between individuals
and the state.
So far as state appropriations, are con
cerned, we confront an exigency in connec
tion with acquisition for the forest preserve
similar to that existing in the case of the
Highlands Park. Our total holdings in the
Adirondack and Cat skill mountains now
amount to 1,641,523 acres, of which 52,«V<9
acres were acquired during the last year.
But the area of the proposed Adirondack
Park Is 3.313,564 acres and that of the pro
posed Catskill Park 676,120 acres, making 1
a total of 3,889,684 acres. It is obvious that
we cannot extend our holdings, as the In
terests of the state require, without larger
outlays than annual appropriations permit.
The state has decided upon Its policy, and
it should be promptly executed. It In
little short of absurd that this state, with
Its great wealth, should .unnecessarily de
lay the securing of control of these forest
tracts, the preservation of which is of such
vital importance to our continued pros
perity. The only business-like method, hav
ing decided upon the tracts to be acquire
and the Imperative necessity of their
acquisition. Is to make the purchases as
rapidly as possible without waiting for
valfes t" increase, or risking the peril of
further depredation. Reliance simply upon
such resort as may be made to annual in
come, In view of the other demands upon
the late, means purchases in driblets, ex
tending over a long period of years, with a
vastly increased outlay for many of the
properties acquired and with the Inevitable
failure of our forest policy In an Important
degree because of the want of prompt pro
tection. Further, the outlay is for a capital
investment for th« benefit of the people of
the state for all time and not In any sense
for the ordinary expenses of government,
ana it i* eminently proper that Us cost
should be distributed over a lonp period of
>'ear 6.
These objects, to provide for prompt ac
quisition and for a proper distribution ot
l i n ;l. may be met by the creation of a: state
debt represented by long term bonds, with
annual contributions to a sinking fund ade-
QQ*te to discharge both interest and the
principal at maturity. Under the constltu
'lf >n it is for the people to say whether they
desire the forest policy of the state to be
carried ont promptly jind without unneces
sary tosses, and are willing: thai the means
should be thus provided, if in the case ot
the Highlands park the necessary appro
priations are to be provided for by a bond
issue, and if under the constitution, despite
the close relation in policy of the two in
vestments, separate submissions U> the peo
ple are deemed to be required, it Would
probably be considered advisable. In view
of the contributions which private individu
als have offered, to give preference to the
indebtedness for th? Highlands park and
postpone to another year the submission of
the creation of a debt for forest purchases.
Tt may be that still further postponement
may be deemed wise to make provision for
the carrying out of the plans for develop
ing the water powers of tne state, to which
T shall presently allude.. But within a com
paratively short period, if these matters re
ceive prompt consideration mid the people
approve, the state may be put in a posi
tion to care for all those interests in a
manner worthy of their importance and its
own dignity, and according to the approved
financial methods which a large business
concern would adopt in its own case.
The gTeat progress thm has been made,
under the legislation of the last session in
protecting the forests from fire is most
gratifying, and not only should the present
stringent regulations be maintained, but all
additional protection which may be found
practicable should be provided. Continued
encouragement should be given *o tree
planting, and the work oir reforestation
should be extended as rapidly as our means
will permit.
With regard to the treatment of our
forest possessions I repeat what I said in
mv last annual message:
''Our present constitutional provision, in
so far as it prevents the proper care and
nurture of our forest preserve, interferes
with its own object. The time must short
ly come when, no longer having reason to
fear the grasp of the selfish hand and
having settled the inviolability of the pub
lic interest in our priceless forest posses
sions, we shall make possible their scien
tific protection and their proper utilzatioii
for the public benefit. We may thus not
enly secure needed advantages In safe
guarding our streams and industrial pow
er, but we may also properly promote the
health and enjoyment of the people. We
shall not realize the full benefit of these
great resources until we not only preserve
our forests by intelligent treatment, but
also by means of suitable roads and well
kept trails we make our mountain pleas
ure grounds, under wise regulations pro
tecting woodland and nature's beauty, more
accessible to our people and render avail
able to the many the Invigoration and the
inspiration which few may now enjoy. 1 '
But in making any change in the con
stitution with respect to the forest preserve
extreme caution is needed. The present
provision represents an effective protest ana
barrier against schemes of spoliation, an<l
It will not be and should not be changed
under the suise of providing opportunity
lor improved forestry methods without
complete assurance that the amendments,
either through undue breadth or from am
biguity, will not prepare the way for th^
subjection r>f the public domain to private
interests. As long as private lumbering
enterprises, in their anxiety for immediate
gains at the expense of the future, coun
tenance destructive and wasteful methods
in place of scientific nurture and conserva
tion, so long must we protect from falling
in any way under similar control the
neighboring public forests, for which they
would certainly not be more solicitous.
Until standards of administration with ex
clusive regard for the public benefit are
more securely established in public senti
ment so that in adopting a permaner
forest policy we may feel ,sure that t
strong and constant public demand will a -
ford reasonable protection against the in
sidious attacks of those who look greedily
upon the public treasures and against the
efforts to maUe public officers serve the
favorites and allies of political managers,
we must maintain our harriers, even at the
less of some advantages.
There is general agreement that provision
should be mad" to give authority for the
sale of lands which though within the pre
serve are wholly outside the boundaries of
the Adirondack t.nd Catskil! parks In
many cases it would be well if these should
be exchanged for. or sold and the proceeds
ii- vested in, properties within the parks.
With regard to any others matters, de
sired objects should be so specified and
limited that the precise matter to be au
thorised by any amendment may be cle.nriy
perceived," strictly defined and an improper
invasion of the forests of the state made
The Water Supply Commission is about
to make a most important report of the re
sult of . its investigations under the act of
1907 " relating to the development of : the
water powers of the state. An exhaustive
examination, with the assistance of com
petent engineers, lias been made of the
Hudson, Gene-see and Racquette river
watersheds. Four great reservoir projects
have be»?n examined so as to furnish full
detail with regard to location and design of
dams and power plants, lands involved,
cost and probable revenue and benefits.
Additional Studies have been made of ether
rivers which have importance as sources of
prwer. Facts with regard to existing
powers, the relative Import nice of different
streams aid the probable results of ad
ditional development and the market for
increased power have been carefully ascer
tained. - , "'■■'.' ''!_• ■■'
It is estimated, for example, that com
plete regulation of the Hudson River with
the storage required for that purpose would
raise "the present minimum flow of the river
in a dry year from 900 cubic feet a sec
ond to a minimum of 4.600 cubic feet at
Spier's Falls, and that with this increased
flow and with full advantage of all power
possibilities, the present development could
be increased by 246,000 horsepower. It is
said that a low rate for the increased
power would not only provide an adequate
carrying charge for a complete system, but
a considerable additional revenue to the
state. One of the projects relating to the
Hudson development Is that upon the
Sacandaga. the cost of which in the first
stage, which can be dealt with separately.
is estimated at $4.C»n,000. Its effect would
be to add 1.900 cubic feet a second regu
lated flow to the river and an estimated
Increase of power upon a conservative
basis of 85,000 horsepower. At $5 a horse
power this would provide a sum sufficient
to give a considerable revenue in addition
to the annual charge for Interest, sinking
fund and maintenance. This apparently
would not involve the use of the present
forest preserve property of the state.
It is impossible here to state with any
degree of : fulness the interesting results of
these important studies with respect to
the practicability of these proposed devel
opments.-in connection with the rivers of
the state, and their advantage to the state.
Some of the projects Involve the use of a
portion of the land within the forest pre
serve. But It is said that In all only 43,000
acres of land now owned by th« state, in
cluding 10.0 CO acres of land under water
(out of about 1.500,000 acres owned by. the
state), would be involved by the construc
tion of all the reservoirs which it would
be practicable to construct in the A.'iron
dack*, and this includes many possible res
ervoirs which it would not be necessary or
economical to build. Excluding the land
under water, the greater part of the re
mainder of these (3.090 acres is described as
low. swampy and. valueless, and only about
8 000 acies Is said to be really timber land.
The investigation has proceeded far
enough to raise the question as to the
acticn which should he taken by the state,
and 1 commend this subject to your most
careful consideration. The following prin
ciples should, I believe, be accepted:
(1) That the flow of water in our rivers
should be regulated and our water powers
developed to the fullest extent that may
be practicable.
• This >Is essential to prevent unnecessary
damage from floods and to insure our in
dustrial progress and the future prosperity
of our people.
1 (2) That with respect to streams having
their headwaters within the boundaries of
the forest parks, ,ill plans of regulation or
power development should be executed only
by the state, and all reservoirs and their
appurtenances and the Impounded waters
should No the property, of the state and
under exclusive state, control, and not be
permitted to pass into private hands. ,
Any such plan should embrace, all neces
sary safeguards to Insure the proper pro
tection Of the forests.
; (3) That with respect to any other streams
flowing through any other public park or
reservation of the state, such plans should
likewise be executed by the state, and it
should retain exclusive ownership and con
trol in order adequately to safeguard the
state* Interests.
(4) That further, as it Is of great public
Importance that the water powers of the
state should be developed in a comprehen
sive manner, and that these natural
sources of Industrial energy should not be
come the subject of an injurious private
control, such development should be un
dertaken by the state whenever such action
appears to be feasible and for the general
| (5) That in any case of state development
of water power provision should he iii.nl<
•for the granting of such rights as may be
proper to use the power. so developed upon
jLsnultnhle terms and conditions.
| (6) That the state should not undertake
any plan, of regulation' .or water power de
velopment save upon a basis which woulu
make its investment v fair and reasonable
one from the public standpoint by virtue
of practicable measures for Insuring such
h return -upon -the Mate's outlay as would
be equitable In the particular circum
(7) That any amendment of the constitu
tion at this time for th- purpose of per
mitting any portion of the for. -hi preserve
to be used for any such purpose should by
Its terms, or by appropriate reference suit
ably define the property within the pre
serve which Is to be used and the manner
Of It* Ufi«. No amc&dnient and no i..-v* of
development should meet with any favor
which, after thf» moat rigid scrutiny, does
not afford absolute assurance that in no
way will the public Interest in the forests
bo parted with or jeopardized.
The contracts in force for the barge
canal Improvement amount in total price
to 148.229.467. and the contract, value of
the work performed to December 1. 1909.
was $16,821,275. It is estimated by the
State Knglneer and Surveyor lint during
1910 work will be completed amounting to
$16,000,000, and: it. is expected that the
work for the- -entire length of the barge
canal system will bo under contract by
April I, 1910. .At the present rate of prog
ress it is said that it is not unreasonable
to expert that the barge canal system will
be completed by the end of the year 1914.
It is further stated that the work is being
carried on within the original estimates.
This enterprise should be pushed to com
pletion as speedily, as economically and as
efficiently as possible.
It is of great importance that adequate
terminals for the barge canal should be
provided, and in accordance with tho rec
ommendation in the last annual report of
the' Superintendent of Public Works pro
vision was made at the last legislative
session for proper inquiry in connection
with this subject. The commission ap
pointed by the 'Legislature is making a
careful investigation to the end that suit
able terminal facilities may be 'secured,
and It is highly desirable that this inves
tigation should be continued and be fol
lowed by appropriate, action.
Important progress has been made in the
construction and improvement of our high
ways. Of the 520 miles of roads under con
tract when the new state Highway Com
mission entered iijion its work at the be
ginning uf last ye;ir. IXI miles have been
completed and accepted, and ot" the re
maining 819 miles, 75 per cent of the work
has been done, in connection with these
roads supplemental agreements were mart*
for construction of lUI miles of bituminous
macadam, of which 88 miles have been
During the last year there have been ex
pended for the improvement of county
roads $2,847,261, of which the state contrib
uted $1,78.{,5:>7 and tne various counties $1,
(»';M">4. Special attention has been paid to
repair and maintenance, and ism.OJO were
expended during the la»st year upon roads
previously completed. Three hundred and
seventy-live miles of road have been oiled
with a heavy asphalt oil and covered with
screenings or gravel.
The total amount available for town high
way purposed during the last year, which
was expended under the direction of the
commission, was $3,901,732, of which there
was raised by highway tax on the towns
outside ot incorporated villages and cities
the sum of $2,4^6.190. and the state contrib
uted $1,365,533. There was also raised for
bridge purposes $747.34".
Provision should be made to promote tire
efficiency of the important work of the state
in the protection of the Interests of asri
ci.lture and to afford suitable advantages
for agricultural education. In the chang
ing conditions of our life the prosperity of
the state requires the improvement and in
creased appreciation of agricultural oppor
tunities, and every practicable effort should
be made lo this em.
During the last year an outbreak of the
foot and mouth disease In Western New
York and the appearance of the browntail
moth in Central and Eastern New York
were dealt with so eificiently that the last
trace of danger was removed. In the light
of experience elsewhere this prompt action
has probably saved the state, and par
ticularly those engaged in agriculture,
losses amounting to millions of dollars.
I renew the recommendation that con
sideration should be given to the subject "of
meat inspection so that there may be
I roper .supervision over the slaughtering of
animals in the State of New York and the
public health protected accordingly. The
state cajinot rely upon the federal service,
as it dots not reach establishments aoing a
purely local business. 1 am informed that
animals which could not pass federal in
spection are he'ng slaughtered within the
state and the meat is being constantly
sold upon our own markets. This is not
only s«?rious from the standpoint of the
public health, hut is against the interest of
{he livestock business of the state. im
provement should also be made in connec
tion with the inspection of milk for food
by such measure.' as will protect the public
and will conserve the just interests of the
T again urge t hat there should be a re
vision of our taws, so as to concentrate in
cue department the supervision of milk and
dairy products and the administration of
the pure food law. and thereby to avoid
either conflict of statutory provision or un
necessary duplication of work.
The question of protecting our streams
from Impurities deserves your serious and
prompt attention. The dangers from sew
age pollution are so well known that no
argument is required to point the necessity
Of insisting upon proper methods of sewage
disposal, and at the same time we should
proceed a.s rapidly as possible to free our
waters from the contamination of industrial
wastes. There should be such amendment
of our present law as will give adequate au
thority to deal with these inait'jrs by effec
tive and impartial regulation, and existing
provisions which are relied upon as afford
ing exceptions or immunities interfering
with such authority should be eliminated.
Gratifying progress lias been made, but it
should be hastened and we should not only
remove hindrances that are found in the
present laws but should also, particularly
in the case of industrial wastes, conduct
suitable laboratory experimentation under
Mate authority, so that difficult problems of
disposal may promptly be solved.
At the last session of the Legislature it
was sought by suitable measures to pro
vide checks asrainst the spread of tuber
culosis. Tliis movement should be strength
ened in every way that may he found ad
I have formerly called attention to our
anomalous BVStein of supervision of the
sale of drugs under the present Board of
Pharmacy. The bill passed at the last ses
sion with relation to this matter was dis
approved, as it did not provide for the con
stitution of a board of .suitable Dowers,
the members of which should be properly
designated by and amenable to state au
thority, l submit this subject for ycur fur
ther consideration.
I again recommend that the Public Ser
vice commission:-! law should be exended
to telegraph and telephone companies, and
that these companies should be brought
under appropriate regulation as to rates,
service and other matters similar to that
which has been provided for corporations
al present subject n> the law. The events
of the last year have served to emphasise
the importance of adequate supervision and
regulation, and 1 know of no sound reason
for excluding these activities from the es
tablished policy of th' state.
Such amendments of the Public Service
commissions lav. as experience has sbowii
to be advisable, to improve Its provisions,
to ii i<i administration or to carry out the
Intent of the statute, should be supplied.
I disapproved the consolidated railroad
law passed at the last session, because the
inclusion in the consolidated statute lif en
acted as worded) of the provisions of Sec
tions :;? ami "< of the railroad law. with
regard to rates ami charges, might form
the basis for a claim that it was the in
tention of the Legislature to continue these
provisions, notwithstanding the subsequent
enactment of the Public Service commis
sions law. I advise the formal repeal of
these provisions of the railroad law. And
if a consolidated statute, without a general
revision, is enacted the wisdom of which
is open to Bcrious question— they should be
There is just and widespread demand for
improvement in election methods. \s I
stated in my last annual message, progress
in solving the problems of state govern
ment would seem to Involve the concentra
tion of responsibility with regard to execu
tive powers. To accomplish this there
should be a reduction in the number of
elective offices. The ends of democracy
win be better attained to the extent thai
the intention of the voters may be focussed
upon comparatively few offices, the Incum
bents of which can be held strictly ac
countable for administration. This will tend
to promote efficiency in public office by In
creasing the effectiveness of the voter and
by diminishing the opportunities of politi
cal manipulators who take advantage of
the multiplicity of elective offices to per
fect their schemes at the public expense.
I am In favor of as few elective offices as
may be consistent with proper accounta
bility to the people, and a short ballot.
nut while this Is ■ desirable aim, 1 it docs
not justify closing our eyes to the situa
tion as it exists and losing sight or im
provements which are more closely within
our reach..
The Governor, Lieutenant Governor Sec
retary of state, State Controller. Attor
ney General. State Treasurer, State X n _
frlncer and Surveyor,"* Senators, Uuemblv
men, sheriffs, county clerks, district at
torneys, county register! and supervisors
as well as Judge* of the Court of v,,'
peals. justices Of the Supreme Court conn
lv judges, surrogates and justices of .he
peace are elective oflKvrs under the state
constitution It would be an Improvement
I believe, in state administration If th ;
executive responsibility were centred in
the Governor, who should .appoint a onbl
net of administrative heads accountable to
him and charged with the duties now mV
posed upon elected state officers. Hut it la
, M parent that such a change would reaulr*
revision of our constitutional scheme >i '„,,„
progress might be made by the reduction
of elective officers in municipalities and in
the case of certain minor statutory offices.
It -is Idle, however, to expect under the
present constitution to achieve what is
really a short ballot, and those who limit
themselves to this effort neglect, in my
judgment, present opportunities so far as
this state is concerned.
What Is practicable and helpful now
should not be ignored. In considering
visable changes, or amendments of the law,
there may be noted:
(1) The Form of the Ballot: ■
The defective form of the present ballot
has lately had conspicuous illustration, it
became such a monstrosity in the recent j
election in New York City as to receive j
wellnigtl universal condemnation. The bal- ,
lot there presented to the voters was about
four feet wide and* had nineteen columns
for city candidates. The name of one can
didate for Mayor appeared eight times, in
as many separate columns; another four
times; while the names of five candidates
for Mayor appeared but once. The names
of certain candidates for Controller ana
for President of the Board of Aldermen oc
curred seven times, and of others five,
times. The names of three candidates for
Justices of the Supreme Court occurred four
times, and those of their principal com
petitors three tlnus. Th* third party col
umn upon the ballot contained no nomina
tions for the general city ticket, while the
name of the candidate for Mayor asso
ciated in the public mind with the name
and emblem of this party appeared in the i
eighth column. For example. In the 10th ,
Election District of the :»th Assem- |
bly District, in the County of New York, .
the ballot contained IS* names, although
there were only nineteen offices to be filled
and only eighty-four separate candidates:
In addition, much space was wasted in
blanks, and one party column contained no
nominations whatever.
Th« use. under legal sanction, of such an
unwieldly ballot, with Its absurd duplica
tions, in the most important municipal elec
tion held in this country, is such a serious
reflection upon our capacity to devise suit
able election methods that we should i
hasten, out of very shame, to make needed
correction. <
This form of ballot is the outcome of a
desire to favor party arrangements and |
straight voting, by providing separate .
columns for the various parties respec
tively, which involves .similar provision
for the ephemeral associations or inde- j
pendent bodies which may spring up with 1
their emblems and candidates. It is plain
ly an unfair advantage for the same can
didate to appear- in .several columns and
in different combinations; nor should an
official ballot favor schemes to capture
party columns and emblems.
I have repeatedly recommended the !
adoption of a simplified form of ballot in
which the names of the candidates for the
respective offices shall appear but once,
grouped under the names of the offices.
Party designations and emblems may ap
pear opposite the candidate's name. The
party column is not essential to proper
party lvork, and what is fair for one party
is fair for another. The party voter and
the independent voter should be on the
same footing in the polling booth. It is of
the highest importance to the community
that the voter should be encouraged to
exercise rare in his choice, and this will
be favored if he is required to express his
preference separately in the case ox* each
office. The large number of elective of
fices is no reason for making it easy to
vote without discrimination, but we should
insist upon proper care and thus enforce
attention to such further improvements as
may be advisable.
(2) Corrupt Practices:
The law with respect to corrupt practices,
while not yet achieving all the results de
sired, has proved to be of great benefit In
its requirements of publicity and account
ing. There should be a constant effort to
perfect it in the light of experience. I re
new the recommendation that provision
should be made for publicity as to all cam
paign expenditures, without exception, and
that a reasonable limit should be placed
upon the number of those who may be
compensated as poll workers in any elec
tion district.
! (3) .Constitutional Amendment:
Our experience at the last election with
regard to the constitutional amendments
submitted for adoption shows a lamentable
lack of sense of responsibility on the part
of our citizens? with respect to changes in
the fundamental law. This in part may
be due to want of familiarity with the pro
posals. And I again urge for your con
sideration that appropriate means should
be devised to apprise voters of the nature
of amendments submitted. The delivery of
the text of the amendments at the time of
registration in districts where personal
registration is necessary, and suitable noti
fication elsewhere, would be of no little
In my message last year I stated the rea
sons which have led me to favor the adop
tion of a system by which party candi
dates for elective offices shall be nominated
directly by the party voters. It is unneces
sary to repeat them. They are based upon
facts commonly known and upon the exist
ence of evils which arguments cannot ex
plain away and to the continuance of
which the people remain unreconciled. The
ordinary party member, who cannot make
politics a vocation, feels that he is practi
cally helpless, a victim of a system of in
direct, complicated and pseudo representa
tive activities which favor control by a few
and make party candidates to a great ex
tent the virtual appointees of party man
agers. Party voters are largely out of
sympathy with their party organization be
cause they believe that its powers are
abused and its purposes perverted.
Favoritism in departments of adminis
tration, the non-use or misuse of super
visory powers, and the shaping or defeat
"of legislation to protect particular concerns
or interests— in short, the degree of success
which has attended the efforts of those
who have not been intrusted with govern-
mental authority to dominate the action of
public officers, and to place and keep in
power those who will be amenable to their
control— be traced in large measure to
the methods which have been in vogue in
making party nominations. Through these
abuses not only has the general public
suffered, but parties themselves have had
their efficiency impaired. And even those
who have sought ably and honestly to di
rect party affairs have, to some extent,
been involved in the disrepute which has
followed upon the manipulations of the un
scrupulous. A system which favors
autocracy in party government is opposed
to every proper Interest.
Against the proposed change has been
urged the familiar argument that human
nature cannot be altered. But the present
system is not an essential part of hum.in
nature. Our keen appreciation of the fail
ings, weaknesses and temptations which
must always he conspicuous in human
activity should not cause us to yield to the
counsel of despair, but should rather stim
ulate the effort to make every possible im- ;
provement in the methods of political ac
tion. The fact th.it human nature cannot
be changed is no reason why we should not
provide safeguards against the play of its
It should also be observed that while in '
considering remedies we should avail our
selves of all pertinent Information and ex
periment, we' must ultimately deal with
the facts ,of our own experience. Variant
conditions in the different states may be
useful for the purposes of general history,
but can afford slight help in the solution
of our own problems. Arguments derived j
from opinions which are addressed to a i
different state of facts or to measures not I
analogous are of slight value.
There is no matter of graver public con
cern than the methods of party action, i
Our officers of government are usually
those selected by one or the other of the
two great national parties. The constitu
tion of the state expressly recognizes po
litical parties, ami confides, in equal rep
resentation, to such parties as. cast the i
highest and next highest number of votes
at general elections the discharge of the
important public duty of registering voters,
distributing ballots to voters at the polls
and of receiving, recording and counting
the votes of electors. Political parties
which enjoy these privileges and oppor
tunities cannot justly be regarded as mere
associations whose methods and transac
tions lie outside the domain of reasonable
and Impartial regulation In the public in- :
terest. Ii is of the highest consequence to !
the party voters and to the public at large i
that so far as possible there should be pro
tec ion gainst abuses in th • conduct of
party affairs. *
There must bo party committees and
those who take charge of the nianaermetit
of campaigns and are intrusted with the j
supervision of party administration Hut
the method of their selection should pro
vide proper checks upon efforts to defeat
the wishes of the party voters or to per
petuate their power by using the narty
machinery for their own advantage. Mem
bers of party committees should take and
hold title to their offices through the direct
choice of the party voters, to whom they
should be directly accountable.
The party primaries should be sur
rounded with all possible safeguards. I
urge again the recommendations for this
purpose that I made last year:
"(It That provision be made for the en
rolment of party voters throughout the
state, and that participation In primary
•lection* he limited to the enrolled party i
voters, with strince-nt measures to prevent |
fraud. The enrolment may be muie | n
substantial^ """■ same manner us Is pro
vliif-d for with reirard to •"**i«t.-ntli»iv
'(•••i That the e^pfuse of holding orttnarv
•J**ttnns. Including the "riming or official
ballots, provision of polling places and th<j 1
liV.. be borne by the public.
"C3> That the .oriui t nracMces ;•• 1 he
extended po »■ '" !»****»ribe ♦♦»<», expenses
which "'•> l"" f ""\ be Incurred In muni
tlon with •' 'I'lillii ■■«■• ■•■»* for nomination and
to ins 1 "" Ihf publicity Of all e.\li.-'l.-es.
"(4i Ti'"t the "mount which may be ex
nVrded .by candidates for nomination bo
"(5) That generally, with such changes as
may be necessary for adaptation, the safe
•rrards of th.* law governing general elec
tions be extended to primary elections."
I also renew the recommendation that a
system of direct nominations by all r>ar
tles for nil elective offices, other than those
of Presidential electors, filled at the No
vember election or at special elections
sailed '" fill vacancies la such offices, be
Primary elections should not only be
safeguarded, but they should accomplish
their purpose, and that is to make the par
ticipation of the. voters effective and their
wishes decisive in the selection of those
who are to hold party positions and of
party candidates f or . oOlc«*. The party
voters can act more Intelligently In the
direct choice of candidates than in the
choice of delegates. • The former are pub
licly discussed; their qualifications are
analyzed: the genesis of their candidacies
Is considered 1 and the public opinion of the
respective districts, may be ascertained.
Delegates at the best are uncertain, < and
public attention cannot be riveted upon
them to the same degree. If they are ab
solutely pledged they are simply register
ing devices and an unnecessary ana a.
cumbersome addition to the party ma
chinery. If they are not pledged absolutely
the party voter has no proper assurance
either of their allegiance or of their de
liberation. They lend themselves easily ta
secret control by party managers, and fur
nish the means not for true representation,
but for non-representation or misrepresenta
tion of the party. It is not difficult to pro
vide and provision should be made, ■ for all
necessary consultation and recommenda
tions by party leaders.. But they do not
constitute the party, and their re «m
n.« ndatlons. which should be made In a
responsible and public manner, a3 well as
all other proposals of candidacies, should
be subject to the final decision of the party
It is no more complicated or expensive
to have a primary election, under due pro
tection and with an official ballot, at which
the party nominee shall be directly chosen,
than to have a similar election of dele
gates. There are no greater opportunities
for fraudulent practices In the former case
than in the latter, nor as many, it is
difficult to Interest the people in Inter
mediaries, and general participation of the
voters in the primaries Is conditional upon
their appreciation of th* fact that they
accomplish something by such participa
tion If it he desired to have the form
without the substance, to have representa
tives who as a rule do not represent, ana
those chosen for deliberation who usually
do not deliberate, and to transfer the
absolute decision to party leaders witn
the alternative to the party voter of bolt-
Ing his ticket and meeting the reproach
of party disloyalty, the present Mrtem
may be defended. But if It be defired to
have true party representation and that
the party members should express de
cisively their wishes, this may be accom
plished through a direct vote.
In view of the evils Incident to specula
tion and of the Importance of sound busi
ness methods in connection with our vast
transactions in securities and commodities.
I requested in December. 1908. Messrs.
Horace White. Charles A. Schleren. David
I^ventrltt. Clark Williams. John B. Clark.
Willard V. King. Samuel H. Ordway. Ed
ward D. Page and Charles Sprague Smith
to collect facts, receive suggestions and
make recommendations with regard to tne
following question: .
"What changes, if any. are advisable In
the laws of the state bearing upon specula
tion in securities and commodities, or re
lating to the protection of investors, or
with regard to the instrumentalities and
organizations used In dealings in securities
and commodities which are the subject of
speculation?" „ _ ,t, t
While in the absence of authority a
formal commission was not constituted, 1
believed that the opinion of these gentle
men, after full Inquiry, by reason of their
established reputation and varied experi
ence, would be a most Important aid to a
proper understanding of the subject and to
an estimate of the value of legislative pro
posals. Their report, which I received
after the adjournment of the last session,
reflects their careful study of the difficult
questions involved, and for the laborious
and unselfish 1 service which they have ren
dered, without compensation and at their
own expense, they are entitled to the grate
ful appreciation of the people of the state.
I transmit this report herewith, and I
commend it. and particularly Its specific
recommendations with respect to legisla
tive enactment, to your most serious con
Existing conditions Tilth regard to em
ployers' liability and compensation for
v.orkmen's injuries are so unjust that there
should be remedial action as soon as It can
be taken intelligently after competent in
vestigation. The present methods are satis
factory neither to employer nor employed.
and the rules of law governing legal liabil
ity offend the common sense of fairness.
Under the legislation of the last session a
commission. broadly representative in
character, was appointed and authorized to
make full inquiry with respect to industrial
accidents and their causes, and also Into
the causes of unemployment and the means
of securing a better distribution of labor.
The work of this commission should be
Ft-pported. and it is hoped that Its labors
and recommendations may lead to the
Hd< ption of comprehensive measures which
•will avoid the present waste and Injustice,
and promote contentment and prosperity
by securing improved conditions for those
efgaged in industrial occupations.
The commission appointed under Chap
ter 210 of the Laws of 190S has made its
report to the Legislature, and I invite
your attention to the importance of suit
able measures to remedy, so far as may
be, the evils which it disclosed. Our laws
should be adapted to meet the exigency
which arises from the introduction of so
many into our population who are un
familiar with our usages and laws and
are the ready victims of manifold imposi
tions. We cannot afford to regard with
cynical indifference the condition and op
portunities of those who have recently
come to us from foreign lands, and we
should be solicitous to make such improve
ment In our laws and administration as
will reach the special abuses which have
been found to exipt. It should be consid
ered to what extent they may be reached
through existing governmental agencies
and how far it may be necessary to Im
prove these agencies to insure practicable
correction. It is desirable that there should
he legislation imposing more effective re
strictions upon the "business of private in
dividuals who receive, deposits of money in
small sums. The conditions of labor camps
in connection with public works snould
also receive proper attention. The Impor
tance of suitable vital statistics and of
public records of aliens remaining in our
state should be recognized, and it should
also !>e considered whether it is not feasible
to adopt so;ne means to promote their bet
tor distribution.
The able report of this commission has
also shown the importance of better
methods in the selection and supervision of
notaries public. These are now appointed
by the Governor with the advice and con
sent of the Senate, if in session), and are
removable by the Governor upon charges.
There are ..approximately twenty-six thou
sand notaries public in the state. It has
be.en customary to appoint them upon
recommendations which appeared satis
factory. It is manifestly impossible for the
executive department with its present
equipment to deal with the matter satis
factorily. The qualifications for appoint
ment should be subject to a more careful
examination. This matter might perhaps
be confided to the Supreme Court under
rules for ■ the granting and revocation of
licenses and examination, through com
mittees or otherwise, with respect to the
reputation and character of applicants, and
these rules, to secure uniformity, might be
formulated by the Court of Appeals.
The needs of our charitable Institutions
and hospitals for the insane are very
urgent. Provision must he made in the
near future for the New York Training
School for Boys and to 'carry out the
plans with respect to Letchworth Village.
Several of our hospitals for the insane are
overcrowded, and It Is estimated that after
all the accommodations already provided
tor have been supplied then* will be a
shortage, by October. 1910. of proper ac
commodations for 1.600 patients. The an
nual increase of patients Is about one
thousand. The need of a new hospital at
an early date is apparent. We must also
proceed with the work of providing addi
tional prison accommodations.
I have repeatedly emphasized the im
portance of co-ordination in our institution
al work. It Is doubtless of advantage that
the work of different classes of institutions
should be under separate control. But it is
entirely consistent with this ccntrol to pro
vide for consultation, for harmony of ef
fort and for iolnt action wherever It will
be to the advantage of the state.
It is not wise to have salaries of sub
ordinate employes fixed directly by the
Legislature, and these should be determined
by a board representing those In charge of
the different classes! of Institutional work)
bo that there should be a reasonable degree
<r uniformity. Where Joint purchases are
profitable, there should be authority i>
make them, and provision through $ueh a
representative, board as I have mentioned
for an Interchange of experience and united
action. If feasible.
I lie various sjcencies of the state should
hoi bo estranged from each other, and the
Knowledge of each department should be
"vailed of by the others. For example.
UKricuHurul experts in the employ of the
*tuic should examine the different farina
connected with our state Institution! ami
their advice should be obtained with regard
JJ» their best uses and methods of culttva
»on. and provision should be made 1 ■>■ such
exchange of products between the institu
tions us may be found desirable.
NiiPnlieH. as fur as possible, should be
standardized and there should be proper
I provision for Inspection •■ Insure conform-,.,
ity to standard specifications.
In passing upon the appropriations made
! at the last session I swrKCSted that there
should be provided some permanent method
for comparative examination of depart
mental budgets and proposals for appropri
ations In advance of th legislative session.
; m» that the legislature tnnitu bt» aided by
preliminary ltivi-sujfaiion aii<i report in de
termlnimr witn ju«t ,if..^oruon me amount*
, fiat can properly be ailuwwi. It la tfrati
■ iyni« la rune tn: pio^rts*, mat has already
i been ma. in u.'ib comparative esU
| :r.ut.~i of the aotda to Ik; provided for at
I \ms legislative deafen Bui there shomu
; be a d<- unite plan adopted for tne fature.
i iKuinmtnil iliac it be provided that oo
! or before UeceniOcr I in *acn year tact*
shall be filed with the Controller l»y euetj
; state orHcer, h»-a<i of department or com-
I mission, and oy any Ms« person or
association siring appropriation* tor *
particular purpose, a statement tn detail
of the amounts required ana of the reason*
tnerefor. ant! that the Controller should b*
Instructed to tabulate these requests ana
submit the tabulation in printed form with,
comparative data and estimates of income
to the Legislature and to the Gov«rnor un
the first day- of the suasion.
This will insure destrable publicity with
respect to the demands upon the state. will
greatly facilitate ithe legislative committees
In dealing with dWattona of appropriation,
a work which . constantly grows more
laborious, and will tend to expedite • the
business of the session. It will also pre
pare the way for such further methods or
i examination, comparison and criticism as
experience may ?how to he . advisable.
While the Legislature will have the power
to. make suitable appropriations whenever
requested. it will not be difficult to establish
i the tradition that, except In cases of emer
! gency, requests for appropriations will not
be regarded with favor unless filed at the
! stated time.
The pressure upon the state Is so {Treat,
! not only from the Increasing work of. the
departments, but more particularly by rea
! son of the extent of the demands In con
1 nection with the erection of public build
: ings and the growing retirements °*
; state chanties, hospitals for the insane,
and prisons, that the strictest economy
must be pursued. Whatever outlays ara
! needed to insure proper efficiency should
! be- provided. It is idle to maintain costly
; state departments of supervision If ex
aminations are a mockery and a mera
cover for favoritism and illicit opportuni
ties. If It is the business of a depart
ment to make examinations. it should
make them, and whatever force is neces
sary to have them made thoroughly and
with reasonable frequency should be pro
vided. But wasteful expenditures when
ever ascertained should be stopped. And
it should be the constant desire of every
head of a department to find out. not sim
ply how he may extend his work for the
good of the state, but how he may save
the state by abolishing unnecessary places,
concentrating effort and securing mere
faithful and expert service.
In connection with outlay* for pubila
buildings, and for Improvements and ex
tensions of institutional work. Including
education and charities, it seems to me
that the effort should be made to provide, a
tentative programme for a series of years
which, while of course not binding: upon
succeeding legislatures, would have an im
portant influence In shaping appropriate 3
in accordance with a comprehensive plan
and avoid, so far as possible, ill timed or
indiscreet allowances. The various de
mands could be classified so as to deling
(1) those relating 1 to enterprises which ar&
In progress or to whlcn the state is al
ready committed; (2) the further outlays
that may be required to bring existing in
stitutions as units of state works to th*
highest available degree of efficiency, and
such additional facilities as may be need
ed in connection with the expected increase
In population; (3) such new institutions or
lines of state activity as present judgment
would approve in case there were means
sufficient for their establishment.
The amount necessarily required each
year for the purposes of the first two
classes, and the order of requirement and
the surplus of expected income available
for the third class, should be ascertained.
The necessary amounts should be so dis
tributed that no more than that reasonably
required by the proper progress .of the
work should be charged against the income
of any one year. In this way a conspectus
may be provided^ say. for a period of fH"<*
years, showing tho imperative demands
upon the treasury of the state- and the out
lays deemed advisable. Those urging the
state to undertake new enterprises would
thus Bee the relative Importance of the
various requests, and there would be less
risk of improvident or inopportune out
I believe that special appropriations for
roads, river improvements and other pur
poses for the benefit of particular localities
should be avoided so far as possible. All
improvements of highways should be nadir
the supervision of the Highway Commis- -
sion, and any amendment of the law needed
to give the commission full- Jurisdiction
should be supplied. Similarly, the law re
lating to river improvement should d*
amended, if necessary, so as to remove any
question as to the power of the Water
Supply Commission to provide- for such Im
provement of waterways (outside of th*
canal system) and for such supply of
. ditches, dikes and the like as may be neces
sary, after due ascertainment by the com-
I mission of the extent to which the expense
i should be borne by the localities benefited
and the part, if any. to be charged upon
I the state. The practice of providing" for
such improvements by special acts or by
items in appropriation bills, which place
the entire cost upon the state, without re
gard to the benefit derived by the cities,
towns and counties concerned, is unjustifia
ble and should yield to a general method
which will permit these matters to be dealt
with in justice to all Interests.
The work of the department shows th*.
Importance of frequent examinations, and
I recommend that adequate provision be I
made for this purpose. The statute pro
viding for liquidation of companies under
the supervision of the department has
operated to great advantage and has made
it possible to avoid the ■wasteful and ex-,
pensive methods formerly incident to liqui
dation proceedings. Such force should be
supplied as may be necessary to carry its
provisions into full effect.
I also advise that the business of Lloyds"
insurance in this state should be put upon
a proper basis, and that such legislation be
adopted as will make if impossible for
business to be conducted except under con
ditions which insure adequate protection.
The supervision of co-operative fire in
surance companies should also be made
more effective by legislation adapted to se
cure safe and suitable methods.
I am Informed that a proposed uniform
I bill regulating the policies which may be
issued by insurance companies against ac
cidental bodily injury or disease, drafted by
a committee of their members, after in
vestigation, has been adopted by the stat*
Insurance commissioners, at their national
convention. I recommend this proposal fol
lowing upon the effort which has been
made to provide either standard policies, or
standard provisions in policies of insur
ance, to your careful consideration.
There should be constant effort la mini
mize the amount of special legislation
sought for in connection with municipal
charters. Where amendment is needed the
aim should be to provide a general pro
vision, which at least will mat© further
application to the Legislature unnecessary. '■.
While the problems of municipal govern- i
ment are being studied and various experi
ments are pointing the way to their solu
tion, we should endeavor to enlarge the
freedom of local government and remov*
from the field of legislation the host of
petty demands which annually encumber
the work of the Legislature. T^*re should
be early revision of the charter the city
of New York.
The adoption of the constitutional amend
ment with regard to the debt' limit in that
city Imposes upon tho Legislature the duty
of prescribing the method by which, and
the terms and conditions under which. the
amount of any debt t<» be excludod in as
certaining the extent of the city's borrow
ing power shall be determined. This should
receive the most careful attention to the
end that, while the Intent of the constitu
tional amendment shall be fully can out.
the city shall be protected by proper an«l
accurate methods computation and ac
; The work of the criminal courts of in
ferior Jurisdiction la our large cities is of
the greatest importance In the admlnistra
tio»-of justice and has close relation to to*
respect in which the law and Judicial au
thority are held. I trust that the inquiry
which has been prosecuted under legisla
tive direction will result m esta*Uabla«
these courts upon a better basts and In Im
proving their work.
There is obvious necessity ' for the Im
provement ofvthc regulation of motor traf
fic. I believe that a substantial license tax
should be .imposed for. the privilege of
1 operating motor vehicle.* -within the slat*.
the proceeds to be d'cvotcJ to highway re
l>alr. But the matter of first Import 1
for your serious consideration (a the pro
vision of adequate safeguards to protect
the lives of our citizens. The operation of
motor vehicles should be prohibited sav«*
by those who upon proper examination anrt
after tests specially adapted t<» thqir work
are found to be duly qualified and ara
licensed accordingly under proper state,
authority administering a system of uni*
form appllcaticn. These licenses should ■
subject to suspension and revocation, un
in case of related infractions of the lav"
th« guilty person should not only forfeit
his license, but bo debarred from receiving
! another in the future. It should l«p mail ft

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