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New-York tribune. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, June 08, 1910, Image 9

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**^" " . lhr fii-er«st terminologies
a s .*rr*l «*•*,*„ is atfoptta*. If. for
£ *T4*r cr ,?t, debate the short-
I**** sired type common
££. -Jig E-rcpe. from cast to
££»&•* SSISSS entirely differ
•S 1: de £f is l,cant when the nam* Is
-jt frtnn ' rT * ':. \- e llow haired opponent*
S** * { ' and tt later areek^ white
&****ZZn** an> mrfem D«tHm
? sscd JlSSfSoat as loose and mean*
* n Amrto-6«on ■*»
— - -VV «-^^ w^ h^e
, , t-S* oivmattloa and bay.
«^»^s » J* t part In the world ha~
JW* */^!^Sflrial. not merely in *>-
e^^ZSt in the sense of lacludin*
* Igin KSrir* rac types. A great na
#& to any one race, though
tJeC r«r« 1 2Sl? bave on« essential.}
5 dt 'f^cf Tet the curias fact re
th lTThe*e great artificial *****
•^.^ «aty that In each one an th.
•^eff^le sympathy, -a move or
aT" ***' * co forward or go back, all
«**! * X«« » *cmc or
«■*££?»«£ powerful, and yet not to
•"iSSJ^yaaTaaaaea. National unity
** "S. art than race unity to be a
» 1 Ck.- with: until indeed we come
* rt t0 ■ -erces .i fundamental as those
&?«S fr-m one another the half
'^^^.r-i, dU-isions of mankind.
so important that differ-,
speech and creed M
Speech and Nationality.
„ ethnological m*V of Europe a which:
Jnr'e were divided I cording to their
"' -I aifl -acial cr.aracteristlrs. such as
iS^SortS and shape of head.
no resemblance whatever to a
** Jv.-”J v .-” the political divisions, the na-
m [jn r of Europe: while, on the con
*:C!t"a "nguistlc mar would show a gen
t^7^ rre =por,dcnce between speech and
sallty The northern Frenchman is m
SS ph^lcal type more nearly allied
I T« GrAi-sP*aking neighbor than to
I iiiiii'TiliiSTi of the Mediterranean sea
1-sßd tht latter, in hi? turn, is nearer
SSSito than to the man who dwells
7 d . the Channel or along th- tributaries
Srtheßhine But In . mtia] characteris- 1
'C m the Qualities that tell in the make
=~J a nationality, all these k nta of
S^cbaea feel keenly that they are one,
■ iffe different from all outsiders, their |
flLnce. dwinolir.g into insigniScance j
SareTwtta the ouaaiiaanr.arUgcia ;
-r^-^i reßemblances which bring them
{signer anfl wall them off from th- out- ;
«^V*-or'l. The Bame is true when w
■L—^rfttw German who dwell? where the :
iC-o s;vr;r.c- cf the Dar.ub* and the
«mJ£ btcriate with th» physically differ-!
of the Baltic lands. The -ame
i .-..- «f v>";t v ma' 1 .. Comlshman and •
Tcrkshirernar. In Er.gland.
!ti dealir.K. r.ot with groups of human
-p pimple and prtmttfve relations.
ru""v:th highly complex, highly special
ty, dvQized cr Femi-civillzed societies.
ABC i? v^f^ of grept caution -. drawing
tsz\nr.?* with what has occurred in the
errplopra^t of the animal world. Yet
♦v<?= bt-th^K cases it if curious to see
row ?otii» of the pher"mcna in the growth ■
iiid d:sarp«-araTice of these complex, art;- .
Wai- group* o* humen beings resemble,
»-hat l.as happened in myriads of Instances j
fc the history cf life on this planet.
Causes if Growth and Decay.
TVhT do rrest artinrial empires, whose;
citaens are kr.it by a bond of speech and ,
cultur* much mor* than by a bond cf
w.^ t^ - periods cf extraordir.arj-;
grr«"t*. ar«i nca'.n of sudden or lingering j
i!»cßr* In son-* rares we can answer read-
BrCBBBXh; m other cases we cannot as vet
tm r- # " "fbat the proper answer should ;
1* If in any such case the centrifugal ,
Tcrtr? overcome the centripetal, The na- ;
tios - of coarse fly to pieces, and the :
reiser, for its failure to become a tuaat
r&rr fore* I* patent to every ... The
r .. „ that th- spirit which finds its
biaHhy dpre'orment In local se!T-govem
s»r;t. AT,i is the sntidoT- to th*> dangers ■
gfaaerat centralization, develops into :
r»TT particularism, into inability to com-.
r'.:i» «K*eth?ely for achievement r.f a com- ,
sr^ rv.d, then it is hopeless to expect
rear result*. Toland ar.d certain repub- j
Bcstlftbe Wertem Hemisphere are thai
ftsafiard example? of failure of this kind;'
r;d Qte Tritfi Btates -*K)uld have ranked I
«TJi ther-.. z.ni its me would have oe-j
crs» a bywnrd of derision, i? the forces at \
saioa hafl not triumphed in the Civil War. ;
f« *• growth or soft luxury after it has j
T»eA?d ■ certain po-.rir becomes a national •
tc&* pti ■ • *o all. Again, it needs but i
B2k < th* vision of a «eer to foretell j
■*iat most happen in any community if j
tbtvTTar* woman ceases to become the i
=rfttr cf s farr.ily of health- chilfiren. if ;
V* Virr&zr rr.an lows the will and the j
mm *a work up to old _•-• and to fight ■
starrer the r,«*?3 arises. If th» homely, {
'""li'iiiittihirt rtrtaes di» out. if strength '
r ' aaatn ranishes in graceful self-JnH i
C-teaes, if th# virile qualities ntrophy. i
tkri tb# ration has lost what no material :
? !1 9J?er;ir car offset.
- Mm Stil! To Be Solved.
Bet th<?r* erp pler.tv of other phenomena !
*toCr cr partially irjexp*icabl«?. It is easy j
ts ks mbf nniT;» trended downward Trhci !
r*£t sia-K? tilled farms spread over whai i
v *3 cc-e rcen a ctuntryside of peasant '
r^rrnror*, vh»n jrrtcd and luxury and ■
•CKality to i;k« acid? into the flbre of |
ft( urrer classes, r«. Ml» the mm of th<; j
"■-•'■. to depend nrt upon their
°«^ exertions but ;jp<in the state fnr their ]
ifczsirzx arii their very iivelihood. But !
t!» ioer not explain why the forward" '
22^tni«T.t Etopp^a at d-ffer<?r:t tim^--. so far j
** ciTTTont Tr-an^rs were concerned— at or" I
5a >* ff reca"l« literature, at another time |
*' r^xards archiu--tur«>. -.-,.•• time as j
: «*2.rcs city buliajag. There Is r.othinjj |
about Ri-m^'s dissolution at the '
tJßfroftbe barbarian invasions; apart from
•■J bspopnlfhment &nd d«T>opu lotion of :
••"• t eap§ tU fail would be quite suffi- j
t " T *Jy •T.plam«'d hy th* mere fact that the !
••"taf* dtbjen bad '-st tbe fs?hting edge— j
'S es£«rti£! <--.p. -jnilT a despot:3m. and!
***"?-on» far more essential in free. ««elf- !
"■err.ing commuafties such as those of
Soflish Fpokirig peoples of to-day.
**c nysierj- is rather that out of th* chaos I
Corrnptioii of Roman society during ;
T* * ar * t Cays of the oligarchic republic j
*houM have spruac an empire able
«wIC thirty wrlth r^a«orab:e Ftea-iines? j
J^^" cr four ctaituries. But why. for j
Un «- st.7u]fl «h< higher iiisds of Jit- j
rr«iuct:\-€!;csr have cease; aboct the I
.j* 4 "^ c ' Jas second century, wher-as !
r*^^°*fag eentarles witnessed a «reat I
of encrxy in the *hap« of city
J2 D tr.». province*, not only in ;
tmtO*Zl EzrOi * fft*c ' t * in Arrlcar V.'c can
w even r-e«E why ihe sprtaaji of one kind !
_«aerry firfcd up v.hllt th-rtr rras r«l »» i
Baj Transformation of Holland.
t," 1 jj .,, anotil * r tnaa.iier lrsiar.ee— that
acrTi 22 * 13 For a «> verin s a lltlie
Unii- " tht centur>. Hol- !
txJt? tZmtt of the Italian city states at
..." T r"r "' rloij - F ' OC <J MS t"« ,:roua !
j y °" r « il *-cef s t.«side nations co vast- i
„ t0 r-^rtorr -^rtor in territory and population
if t - t*^** 6 ?t Inevitab ie that sooner or j
aajOoaT ° " fal: rrOTTI !he c sorlo;is Rnd
«»*«* * tß:n<??s< "- ' . >een j
Eg htr r *^ in2o:a:tablc toul. Her ;
'Jteh- 11 cculr3 nf)t hav * *>cen def
•jit, lt '—c - & "t ;t carop fa.r quicker j
"* JCd *° c<Jme - bw -aus<- cf short- j
STw?? t« wnioh botn I .real i
lia «»;iirj *" " Hf " r government «m
W «-ih* '■"*' "•••..• det*ntralliaiUon
t*t»t th» ** C?>:i tJ rmit the ,-i»b- :
niau! - r:£l - spirit of the prov
■ . °" ! he Cf ntral authority of all
re»i S ac had aa»ash. But the I
p^J"T s-*s -* a ' s Illllt co common to I
**• !• Uonk^r^* s<>< ' iet i«>, *h«?r« men
JJr -J' tb»ir ' f rir aS P " t!fllj !'"-. and try to
*2Ji«r ty h'lv " VT « ljf ~^nce to face it
**• by 1 ia?a" WI " < '* > morai Platitudes or
mmB *by of afaorUigbt^d ma
teriallsm. The Dutch were very wealthy.
They grew in believe that they could hire
others to do their flchtinc for them on land,
I and on sea. where they did their own flght
, mr and fought very we'!, they refused In
J time of peace to make ready fleets so
j efficient as either to Insure the Dutch
I against the peace. beinr broken or else to
| Blve thorn the victory when war came. To
i be opulent and unarmed is to secure ease
! in the present at the almost certain cost of
i disaster In the future.
Mystery in Loss of Dutch Art.
It Is therefor* easy to see wb> Holland
i lost when the did her position among the
powers; but it is far more difficult to ex
| plain why at the same time there should
! have come at least a partial loss of position
in the •world of art and letters Some spark
• sf divine nre burned Itself out in the na
! tional soul. As the line of greet states
' men, of great warrior* oy land and sea,
I came to an end. so the line of the great
j Dutch palnteis ended. The lobs of pre
| eminence In the schools followed the loss
>of pre-eminence in camp and in council
j chamber.
In the little republic of Holland, as in the
great empire of Rome. It was not death
which came, but transformation. Both
! Holland and Italy teach us that races that
; fall may rise again. In Holland, as In the
I Scandinavian kingdoms of Norway and
■ Sweden, there 'vas. in a sense, no decadence
at all. There was nothing analogous to
what has befallen so many countries— no
lowering of the general standard of well
| being:, no general loss of vitality, no de
| population What happened was. first, a
; Cowering time, In which the country's men
of action and men of thought gave It a
j commanding position among the nations of
the day; hen this period of command
! passed, and the state revolved in an eddy,
aside from the sweep of the mighty cur
' rent of world life; and yet the people them
j selves ir. their internal relations remained
I substantially unchanged and in many
fields of endeavor have now recovered
themselves and play again a leading part-
Italy's Wonderful Transitions.
In Italy, where history is recorded for
-a far longer time, the course of affairs
was different. When the Roman Empire
that was really Roman went down in ruin
there followed an interval of centuries
when the g-loom was almost unrelieved.
Every form of luxury and frivolity, of con
temptuous repugnance for serious work, of
enervating self-indulgence, every form of
vice and weakness which we regard as
rro^t ominous in the civilization- of to-day.
had been at - work throughout Italy for
penerations. The nation had lost all pa
triotism. It had ceased to bring forth
fighters or workers, had ceased to bring
forth men of mark <■' any kind, and the
remnant of the Italian peopte cowered in
helpless misery among the horsehoofs of
The barbarians as the arts! northern bands
rode !n to take the land for a prey and
•ie cities for a spoil. It was one of the
great cataclysms of history, but In the end
it was seen that what came had been in
part change and growth. It was not all
mere destruction. Not only did Rome leave
a vast heritage of language, culture, law.
ileas. to all the modern world, but the
people cf Italy kept the old blood as the
chief strain in their veins. In a few cen
turies came a wonderful new birth of Italy.
Then for four or five hundred years there
was a growth of many little city states
which, in their energy both in peace and
war. in their fierce, fervent life, in the
high quality of their m»n of arts and let
ters, and in their utter Inability to combine
so as to preserve order among themselves
or to repel outside invasion, cannot un
fairly be compared wit.i classic Greece.
Again Italy fell, and the land was ruled
by Spaniard or Frenchman or Austrian,
and again in the Him I Hill century there
came for the third time a wonderful new
The End of Roman Life in Africa.
Contrast this persistence of the old type
in Its old home and in certain lands which
it had conquered with its utter disappear
ance in certaln^other lands where it was
intrusive, hot where it at one time seemed
as firmly established as in Italy— certainly
as in Spain or Gaul. No more curious ex
ample of the growth and disappearance of
a national type can be found than in the
case of the Grseco-Roman dominion in
■Western Asia and Northern Africa. All
told, it extended over nearly a thousand
years, from the days of Alexander till
after the time of Betadtaa- Throughout
these lands there yet remain the ruins of
innumerable cities which tell how firmly
rooted that dominion must once have been.
The overshadowing and farreaching im
portance of what occurred la sufficiently
Fhown by the familiar fact that the New
Testament was written in Greek: while to
tbe *»arly Christians North Africa seemed
a<= much a Latin land as Sicily or th«>
valley of the Po. The intrusive peoples and
their" culture flourished in the lands for a
-rriod twice as lone as that which has
cla^e* since modern history; with the
royi« or Columbus, may fairly be said
to "have begun: and then they - withered
■. k e d— grass before the flame of the
Arab invasion, and their place knew them
„„ mnro They overshadowed the ground
theY vanished, ana th€ old types reap
psared la their old homes, with beside them
a new type, the Arab.
Many Changes Still Hidden,
Not- a = to all these change* we can at
vv j 5 , «:. jr «. of the main facts. We know
ir-aY •■, Hollander remains in Holland.
hou-. tbe greatn-ss of Holland has
lis-d- w* know that the Latin blood re
mains in Italy, whether to a greater or less
extent an« that the Latin culture has died
out in tbe African realm it once won. while
it M lasted in Spain and France, and
thenc has extended Itself to continents
beyond the ocean. We may not know the
causf* of the fact., save partially: but the
'act- themselves we <1« know. But there
are other cases in which wo are at present
hmorant even of the facts: ™ *» no
know -chat the changes really were, still
1( .c S the hidden causes and meaning of
those changes. Much remains to be found
out before we can speak with ans
tainty a« to whether some changes mean
the a-- .a! dvir.g out or the mere trans
formation of types. It is. fo- J"**"g
astonlsbtns how little permanent ehaaa^ in
♦ v. c physical make-up c? the people seem.
To have been work*fl in Europe by the
rrbrrattona of the races in historic times.
X "all fair haired, lor- skulled race per.c
;r; ra '^' • pome souihere country and •*;
tWishe? a commonwealth. The genera
te* pa=. There is no violent revolution
no break a continuity of history, nothing
in the written records to indicate an epoch
raak'rir change at any given moment; and
™f a"fer a time we f.r-i that the old type
kaa raan>ear«a and that the people of the
locality do not eubstantlally differ in P^ sl -
Zl form from the people of other ocaltJ«s
tfcftt «id not suffer such an invasion.
Possible Theories Advanced.
Do-s this mean that gradually the chUJ
of the invaders have dwindled and
JJo or. as the blood is m,xed with the
anrlor-.t blood, has" there b*en a change,
.n and part assimilation, to the
ancient type in It. old surroundings? Do
tint of skin, eyes and hair, shape of skull
and stature change In the new environ
ment, so a. to ke like those of the older
people who dwelt in this environment? Do
£c P intrusive race«. without change of
blood, tend, under the pressure o. their
now surroundings, to change in type so as
,o resemble the ancient peoples of the
land? Or. as the strains mingled, lias »•
new strain dwindled and vanished . from
Zltaa as yet abacas*? Ha« the blond of
the Lombard practically disappeared from
Italy and of the Visigoth from Spain, or
does 'it stll flow in large populations where
the old physical type has once more be
eom, dominant? Here in England the long
Bkulled men of the long barrows, the «non
Btorf!*! men of the round barrows, have
22 blended, or ha* one or the other type
ISuaUy died out. or are they merged Jn
,01=5 older race which they, seemlnc* tup
planted, or have they adopted the tongue
and civilization of some later race which
seemingly destroyed them? We cannot pay.
We do not know which of the widely dif
ferent stocks now speaking Aryan tongues
represents in physical characteristics the
ancient Aryan type, nor where the type
originated, nor how or why It Imposed Its
language on other types, nor how much or
how little mixture or blood accompanied
the change of tongue.
Period of Greatest Develcpment.
The phenomena of national growth and
decay, both those which can and those
which cannot be explained, have been pe
culiarly in evidence during the four cen
turies that have gone by since the dis
covery of America and the rounding of
the Cape o: Good Hope. These, have been
the four centuries of by far the most in
tense and constantly accelerating rapidity
of movement and development that the
world has yet teen. The movement has
cohered all the fields of human activity.
It has witnessed an altogether unexampled
spread of civilized mankind over the world,
as well as an altogether unexampled ad
vance in man's dominion over nature; and
this, together with a literary and artistic
activity to be matched in but one previous
epoch. This period of extension and de
velopment has been that of one race, the
so-called white race, or, to speak more
accurately, the group of peoples living in
Europe who undoubtedly have a certain
kinship of blood, who profess the Christian
religion and trace back their culture to
Greece and Rome.
White Supremacy Recent.
The memories of men are short, and It
is easy to forget how brief Is this period of
unquestioned supremacy of the so-called
white race. It is tut a thing of yesterday.
During the thousand years which went be
fore the opening of this era of European
supremacy the attitude of Asia and Africa,
of Hun and Mongol. Turk and Tartar,
Arab and Moor, bad on the whole been
that of successful aggression against
Europe. More than a century passed after
the voyages of Columbus before the mas
tery in war began to pass from the Asiatic
to the European. During that time Europe
produced no generals or conquerors able to
stand comparison with Eelim and Solyman.
Baber and Akbar. Then the European ad
vance gathered momentum, until at the
present time peoples of European blood
hold dominion over all America and Aus
tralia and the islands of the sea, over most
of Africa and the major half of Asia.
Much of this world conquest is merely po
litical, and such a conquest is always
likely in the long run to vanish. But very
much of it represents not a merely political
but an ethnic conquest, the Intrusive peo
ple having: either exterminated or driven
out the conquered peoples or else having
imposed upon them its tongue, law, culture
and religion, together with a strain of its
blood. During this period substantially all
of the world achievements worth remem
bering are to be ci edited to the people of
European descent. The' first exception of
any consequence Is the wonderful rise of
Japan within the last generation— phe
nomenon unexampled in history, for both
in blood and in culture the Japanese line
of ancestral descent is as rernof* as possi-
He from ours, and yet Japan, while hitherto
keeping- most of what -was strongest In her
ancient character and traditions, has as
similated with curious completeness most
of the characteristics that have given
power and leadership to the West.
The Rise of Spain and Portugal.
During this period of intense and fever
ish activity among the peoples of European
stock, first one and then another has taken
the lead. The movement began wH*h Spain
and Portugal. Their flowering time was as
brief as it was wonderful. The gorgeous
pages of their annals are illumined by the
figures of wairiors, explorers, statesmen,
poets and painters. Then their days of
greatness ceased. Many partial explana
tions can be. given, but something remains
behind, some hidden force for evil, some
nidden source of weakness, upon which we
cannot lay our hands. Tet there are many
signs that in the New World, after cen
turies of arrested growth, the peoples of
Spanish and Portuguese stock are entering
upon another era of development, and there
are other signs that this is true also in the
Iberian peninsula Itself.
About the time that the first brilliant
period of the 1-adership of the Iberian peo
ple? was drawing to a close, at the other
end of Europe, in the land Of melancholy
steppe and melancholy forest, the Slav
turned in his troubled sleep and stretched
out his hand to grasp leadership and do
minion. Since then almost every nation of
Europe has at one time or another sought
a place in the movement of expansion, but
for the last three centuries the great phe
nomenon of mankind has been th© growth
of the English speaking peoples and their
spread over the world's waste spaces. l
Rome and Britain Compared.
Comparison is often made between the
empire of Britain and the empire of Rome.
When judged relatively to the effect on all
modern civilization the empire of Rome i?,
I f course, the more important, simply be
cause the rations of Europe and their off
shoots in other continents trace back their
culture either to the earlier Rome by the
Tiber or the later Rome by the Bosporus.
The empire of Rome is the most stupen
dous fact In lay history; no empire later
in time can be compared with it. But
this is merely another way of saying that
the nearer the source the more important
becomes any deflection of the stream's
current. Absolutely, comparing the two
empires one with the other In point of
actual achievement, and disregarding the
immensely increased effect on other civili
zations which inhered in the older empire
because it antedated the younger by a
couple of thousand years, there is little to
choose between them as regards the wide
and abounding interest and importance of
their careers.
Lack of Resistance to Rome.
In the world of antiquity each great
empire rose when its predecessor had al
ready crumbled. By the time that Rome
loomed large over the horizon of history
there were left for her to contend with
only decaying civilizations and raw bar
barism?. When she conquered Pyrrhua
she strove against the strength of but one
of the many fragments into which Alexan
der's kingdom had fallen. When she con
quered Carthage she overthrew a foe
against horn for two centuries the single
Greek city of Syracuse had contended on
equal terms; it was not the Sepoy armies
of the Carthaginian plutocracy but the
towering genius of the House of Barca
which rendered the struggle forever mem
orable. It was the distance and the des
ert, rather than the Parthian horse bow
man, that set bounds to Rome in the east;
and on the north her advance was curbed
by the, vast reaches of marshy woodland,
rather than by the tall barbarians who
dwelt therein. During the long genera
tions of her greatness, and until the sword
dropped from her withered hand, the
Parthian was never a menace of aggres
sion and the German threatened her but
to die.
England's Great Achievement!.
On the contrary, the great expansion of
England has occurred, the great empire of
Britain has been achieved, during the cen
turies that have also seen mighty mili
tary nations rise and flourish on the con
tinent of Europe. It is as if Rome, while
creating and keeping the empire she won
between the days of Sclplo and the days
of Trajan, had at the same time held her
own with the Nineveh of Sargon and Tig
? th the Egypt °f Thathaaaa and Rame
* and t be kingdom* of Persia and Mace
3eS in the red flush of their warrlor
~°n The empire of Britain is vaster in
da m , n in population, in wealth, in wide
space, o f possession, in a history of mill
\ n«d and manifold achievement of every
llp " than even th« glorious empire of
kln * yet unlike Rome. Britain has won
? Q °minion in every clime, has carried her
na« "by oenqueat and settlement, to th«
uttermost ends of the earth, at the very
time that haughty and powerful rivals. In
their abounding youth or strong maturity,
were eager to set bounds to her greatness
and to tear from her what she had won
afar. England has peopled continents with
h^r children, has swayed the destinies of
teeming myriads of alien race, has ruled
ancient monarchies and wrested from all
comers the riirht to the world's waste
spares, while at home she has held her
own before nations each of military power
comparable to Rome's at her zenith.
Self- Mastery Secret of Power.
Rome fell by attack from without only
because the ills within hrr own borders
had grown ipcurable. What is true of
your country, my hearers. Is true of my
nvn: while we sh'c-uld be vigilant against
foe.? from without, yet we need never
really fear them so long as we safeguard
ours-lves against the enemies within our
own households; and these enemies are
our own passions and follies. Free peo
ples can escape being mastered by others
only by being able to roaster themselves.
We Americans and you people of the
British Isles alike need ever to keep in
mind that among the many qualities In
dispensable to the success of a great de
mocracy, and second only to a high and
stem sense of duty, of moral obligation.
are self-knowledge and self-mastery. You.
my hosts, and I may not agree in aU our
views: some of you would think me a
very radical democrat — as. for the matter
of that. I am; and my theory of imperial-
Ism would probably suit the anti-Imperial
ists as little as it would suit a certain
type of forcible-feeble imperialist — but
there are some points on which we must
all agTee if we think soundly. The pre
cise form of government, democratic or
otherwise, is the instrument, the tool,
with which we work. It is important to
have a good tool. But even if It is the
best possible. It is only a tool. No imple
ment can ever take the place of the guid
ing Intelligence that wields it. A very
bad tool will ruin the work of the best
craftsman, but a good tool in bad hands
Is no better. In the last analysis the all-
Important factor in national greatness Is
national character.
Fewer Births a Grave Peril.
There ar<? questions which we of the great
civilized nations are ever tempted to ask of
the future, l? our time of growth drawing
to an end? Are we as nations soon to come
under the rule of that great law of death
which is Itself but part of the great law of
life? None can tell. Forces that we can
see and other forces that are hidden or that
can but dimly be apprehended are at work
all around us. both for good and for evil.
The growth in luxury, in love of ease, in
taste for vapid and frivolous excitement, is
both evident and unhealthy. The moat
ominous sign is the diminution In the birth
rate, in the rate of natural increase, now to
a larger or leeser degree shared by most of
the civilized nations of central and western
Europe, of America and Australia; a dimi
nution so great that if it continues for the
next century at the rate which ha** obtained
for the last twenty-five years al! the more
highly civilized peoples will be stationary
or else have begun to go backward in popu
lation, while many of them will have al
ready gone very far backward.
High Hopes for the Future.
There is much that should give us con
cern for the future. But there is much also
which should give us hope. No man is more
apt to be mistaken than the prophet of evil.
Aft«r the French Revolution in IS3O Niebuhr
hazarded the guess that all civilization was
about to go down with a crash, that we
were all about to share the fall of third and
fourth century Home— a respectable but
painfully overworked comparison. The t>ars
once expresse-i by the followers of Malthas
as to the future of the world have moved
groundless as regards the civilized porttOT
of the world: it ia strange indeed to :ook
back at Car'.yle's prophecies of «ome, sev
enty years ago and then think of the teem
ing life of achievement, the life of conquest
of every kind, and of noble .effort crowned
by success, which has been ours for the two
generations since he complained to high
hea%-en that all the tales had been told and
all the songs sung, and that all the deeds
really worth doing had been done. 1 be
lieve with all my heart that a great future
remains for us, but whether It does or does
not. our duty is not altered. Howe
battle may go, the soldier worthy of the
name will with utmost vigor do his allotted
task and bear himself as valiantly in defeat
as in victory. Come what will, we belong
to peoples who have not yielded to the cra
ven fear of being great. In the ages that
have gone by, the great nations, the na
tions that have excianded and that have
played a mighty part in the world, have in
the end grown o!d and -weakened and van
ished, but bo have the nation? whose only
thought was to avoid all danger, all effort,
who would risk nothing, and who therefore
trained nothing. In the end the same fate
may overwhelm all alike, but the memory
of the one type perishes with It. while the
other leaves Its mark deep on the history of
all the future of mankind.
National Regeneration.
A nation that seemingly dies may be born
again, and even though in the physical
-seriSP n die tmerlv it may yet hand down
a history of heroic achievement, and for all
time to cgrne may profoundly influence the
nations that arise In its place by the im
press of what It has done. Best of all is it
to do our part well, and at the same time to
see our blood live young and vital in men
and women fit to take up the task as we lay
it down, for so shall our seed Inherit the
earth. But if this, which is best, is denied
uk, then at least it is ours to remember
that if we choose we can be torch bearers,
as our fathers were before us. The torch
has been handed on from nation to nation,
from civilization to civilization, throughout
all recorded tir.-.e, from the dim years be
fore history dawned, down to the b!.iz::i^
splendur of this teeming century of ours.
Tt dropped from the hand of the coward
and the sluggard, of the man wrapped in
luxury or lo\.> c-f ease, the man whose soul
was eaten away by solf-lndulger.ee; it has
been kept alight only by those who were
mighty of heart and cunning of hand. Whiu
they worked at, providing it was worth do
i!;'^ at all. was of less matter than how
they worked, whether in the realm of tl.e
mind or the realm of the body. If their
work was good. If what they achieved was
of subetance, then high success was really
Growth of Ethical Standards.
In the first part of this lecture I drew cer
tain analogies between what had occurred
to forms of animal life through the pro
cession of the ages on this planet and what
has occurred and is occurring to the great
artificial civilisations which have gradually
spread over the world's surface during the
thousands of years that have elapsed since
cities of temples and palaces first rcse be
side the Nile and the Euphrates, and the
harbors of Minoan Crete bristled with the.
masts of the jEaean craft. But of course
the parallel is true only in the roughest and
most general way. Moreover, even between
the civilizations of to-day and the civiliza
tions of ancient times there are differences
so profound that we must be cautious in
drawing any conclusions for the present
based on what has happened In the pant.
While freely admitting all of our follies and
weaknesses of to-day, it is yet mere perver
sity to refuse to realize the incredible ad
vance that has been made in ethical stand
ards. I do not believe that there Is the
slightest necessary connection between any
weakening of virile force and this advance
in the moral standard, this growth of th« :
eensn of obligation to one's neighbor and of
reluctance to do that neighbor wrong. We
need have scant patience with that silly
cynicism which Insists that kindliness of
character only accompanies weakness of
Character Above Intellect.
On the contrary. Just an in private life
many of the men of strongest character
are the very men of loftiest and most ex
alted morality, so I believe that in national
life as the agoa go by we shall find that
the permanent national types will more and
more tend toward those In which, while
the intellect stands high, character stands
higher; In which rugged strength and
courage, rugged capacity to resist wrong
ful aggression by others, will go hand in |
hand with a lofty scorn of doing wrong to
others. This is the type of Tlmoleon. of
Hampden, of Washington and Lincoin.
These were as good men. as disinterested !
and unselfish men. as ever served a state; i
and they were also as strong men as ever !
founded or saved a state. Surely such
examples prove that there is nothing
I Utopian in our effort to combine Justice
and strength in the same nation. The
really high civilizations must themselves
supply the antidote to the self-Indulgence
and love of ease which they tend to pro
Means of Meeting Crises.
Every modern civilized nation has many
and terrible problems to solve within its
own borders, problems that arise not
merely from juxtaposition of poverty and \
riches, but especially from the self-con- j
Bciousness of both poverty and riches, j
Each nation must deal with these matters j
in its own fashion, ' and yet the spirit In |
which the problem is approached must j
ever be fundamentally the same. It must
j be a spirit of broad humanity; of broth
■ erly kindness: of acceptance of responsi- J
bility, one for each and each for all; and \
j at the same time a spirit as remote as the
| poles from every form of weakness and :
; sentimentality. As in war to pardon the ;
coward is to do cruel w/ong to the. brave ;
j mp.n whose life his cowardice Jeopardizes.
| so in civil affairs It Is revolting to every
j principle of Justice to give to the lazy, the j
i vicious, or even the feeble and dull wttted,
| a reward which is really the robbery of ;
j what braver, wiser, abler men have earned.
| The only effective way to help any man Is '
j to help him to help himself; and the worst ■
| lesson to teach him Is that he can be per-
I manently helped at the expense of some
I one else.
The Rights of Minorities.
True liberality shows itself to best ad
i vantage In protecting the rights of others, j
arid especially of minorities. Privilege |
should not be tolerated because it is to '
; the advantage of a minority, nor yet be- ;
j cause it Is to the advantage of a majority.
No doctrinaire theories of vested rights or ;
j freedom of contract can stand in the way i
j of our cutting out abuses from the body
politic. Just as little can we afford to fol
low the. doctrinaires of an Impossible— and
j Incidentally of a highly undesirable— social
revolution which, in destroying individual
rights (Including property rights) and the
family, would destroy the two chief agents
In the advance of mankind, and the two
j chief reasons why either the advance or j
j the preservation of mankind is worth while, j
It Is an evil aad a dreadful thing to be j
' callous to sorrow and suffering, and blind ;
to our duty to do all things possible for j
the betterment of social conditions. But It !
is an unspeakably foolish thing to strive
for this betterment by means so destructive !
that they would leave no social conditions 1
to better. In dealing with all these social
! problems, with the intimate relations of ;
i the family, with wealth in private use and
business use, with labor, with poverty, the
one prime necessity is to remember that. ;
though hardness of heart is a great evil, '
It is no greater an evil than softness of
Questions of Colonial Rule.
But in addition to these problems the j
j most intimate and Important of all which
j to a larger or less degree affect all the
I modern nations somewhat alike, we of the j
• great nations that have expanded, that
are now in complicated relatlc*3 with one j
another and with alien races, have special
i problems and special duties of our own.
j You belong to a nation which possesses the
greatest empire upon which the sun has
e--°r shone. I belong to a nation which la j
! trying, on a scale hitherto unexampled, to j
I work out the problems of government for, ;
i or and by the people, while at the same
j time doing the international duty of a
j great power. But there are certain prob- j
! lems which both of us have to solve, and
: as to which our standards should be the
I same. The Englishman, the man of the
; British Isles, in bis various homes across
' the seas, and the American, both at home j
i and abroad, are brought into contact with I
! utterly alien peoples, some with a civiliza- i
' tion more ancient than our own, others
! still in, or having but recently ansen from,
: the barbarism which our people left behind j
1 ages ago. The problems that arise are of
I wellnigh inconceivable difficulty. They can- j
I not be solved by the foolish, sentimentality
: of stay-at-home people, with little patent
j recipes, and those cut-and-dried theories of |
the polltcal nursery which have such lim- ;
i ited . applicability amid the crash of ele
mental forces. Neither can they be solved i
by the raw brutality of the men who,
| whether at home or on the rough frontier j
of civilization, adopt might as the only
: standard of right in dealing with other men, i
| and treat alien races only as subjects for :
j exploitation.
The Rights of Subject Races.
No hard and fast rule can be drawn as
applying to all alien races, because they
differ from one another far more widely
| than some of them differ from us. But
I there are one or two rules which must not
be forgotten. In the long run there can ;
be no justification for one race managing j
or controlling another unless the manage- j
ment and control are exercised in the in- j
terest and for the benefit of th:it other race, i
This is what our peoples have in the main
done, and must continue in the future ir.
even greater degree to do, in India, Egypt
and the Philippines alike. In the next
place, as regards every race, everywhere.
at home or abroad, we cannot afford to-dc
viate from the great rule of righteousness j
which bids us treat each man on his worth
as a man. He must not be sentimentally
favored because he belongs to a given race;\
he must not be given immunity in wrong
doing or permitted to cumber the ground
or given other privileges which would be .
denied to the vicious and unfit among our
selves. On the other hand, where he acts j
In a way which would entitle him to respect ,
and reward if he were of our own stock, |
he is just as much entitled to that respect \
and reward if he cornea of another stock, ]
even though that other stock produces a !
much smaller proportion of men of his ;
type than does our own. This has nothing
to do with social intermingling, with what
is called social equality. It has to do mere
ly with the question of doing to each man '
and each woman that elementary Justice
which will permit him or her to gain from
life the reward which should always ac
company thrift, sobriety, self-control, re
spect for the rights of others and hard and
Intelligent work to a given end. To more
than such just treatment no man Is elk
titled, and le3s than such Just treatment
no man should receive.
The Duty of Nation to Nation.
The other type of duty Is the international
duty, the duty owed by one nation to an
other. I hold that the laws of morality
which should govern individuals in their
dealings one with the other are just as
binding concerning nations in their dealings
one vsith the other. The application of the
moral law must be different in the two
cases, because in one case it has and in the
other It has not the. sanction of a civil law
with force behind It. The individual can
i depend for his rights upon the courts, which
| themselves derive their force from the po
! lice power of the state. The nation can de
pend upon nothing of the kind, ami, there-
I fore, as things are now, It is the highest
I duty of the most advanced anil freest pe°~
b|m to keep themselves la such ■ stale of
readiness as to for Lid to any barbarism or
despotism the hope of arresting the prog
ress of the world by .striking down th»» na
tions that lead in that progress. It would
be foolish indeed to pay heed to the unwise
persons who deSßra disarmament to be be
gun by the very peoples who. Of all others,
\ should not be l»*ft helpless befere any pos
sible foe. But mm must reprobate, quite as
strongly both th« leaders and the peoples
who practise or encourage or condone ag
gression and iniquity by the strong at the
expense of the weak. W* iheuld tolerate
lawlessness and wickedness neither by the
weak nor by the strong, and both weak and
strong we should in return treat with
scrupulous fairness.
,'.? : Individual Honor th© Guide.
The foreign policy. of a great and seir
respectlng country should be conducted on
exactly the same plane. of honor, of Insist
ence upon one's own rights and of respect
for the rights of others as when a brave
and honorable man Is dealing with his fel
lows. Permit me to support this statement
out of my own experience. For nearly eight
years I was the head of a great nation and
charged especially with the conduct of its
foreign policy, and during those years I
took no action with reference to any other
people on the face of the earth that I would
not have felt lustlfled in taking as an indi
vidual In dealing with other Individuals.
I believe that we of the great civilized
Congress Does Nothing for Navai
[From The Tribune Bureau.]
Washington. June 7.
are greatly disappointed over the decision
of Congress to do no thins; for the relief
of the commissioned personnel at this ses
sion. The subject has been before the
House Naval Committee in the form of a
special measure drafted by experts, of
whom Captain Roy C. Smith, on duty at
the Naval War College, at Newport, R. 1..
was the foremost. Captain Smith has ap
peared before the House committee three
or four times, and explained the bill, and
there were to be additional sessions at
which the measure was to be taken up by
sections. There has been much complaint
on the part of naval offlcera concerning
some of the provisions of the bill, which,
however, had the indorsement of the Secre
tary of the Navy and was submitted to
Congress with a special message from the
President. The principal was the elimina
tion feature. It was feared this would op
erate to the disadvantage of officers, in
that they would be retired while still able
to perform duty and with compensation
so much less than the present three-fourths
of the active pay that those of less than
fifteen years" service would find themselves
seriously embarrassed.^ This created alarm
among those officers who apprehended re
tirement on account of disability when they
would not be able to engage In any income
yielding pursuit in civil life. There was
somes hope that the House committee would
at least draft a substitute measure which
would be reported, and which. In Its sim
plicity of provision, would stand some
chance of enact-n?nt. It has £>een decided,
however, to permit the whole question to
go over until next session.
There are officers who take a pessi
mistic view of the situation, and believe
very little may be expected of this Con
gress. There are a number of Independent
features relating to the navy personnel
which they ihin ? < can very well be enacted
aside from any general proposition. One
of these would provide for the commission
ing of midshipmen as c isigns on the com
pletion of the four- course at the Naval
Academy, instead of two years later, after
a tour of duty at sea. during which they
are midshipmen without tbe privilege and
protection of a commission. Another project
of considerable interest would make the old
engineers, who are now line officers, extra
numbers. Increasing the commissioned of
ficers to that extent and helping promotion
correspondingly. There is no Indication
thit either of these projects will be ap
proved by Congress. The prospect is that
without legislative relief there will be stag
nation in the Junior grades beyond any
thing experienced hitherto, and that the
graduates of the Naval Academy of the
next four or five years will remain a long
time in the ade of Junior lieutenant. There
is even a chance that some of them will
be twenty years getting to the grade of
full lieutenant. An outlook of this sort
is most discouraging to the Junior officers
and to those now going through the Naval
ORDERS ISSUED.— The following orders
have been issued:
Retirement of Colonel JAMES W. POPE; as
sistant quartermaster general, announced
Captain WALTER M. WILHELM. ordnance de
partment, detailed as chief ordnance ofllweT
camp of Instruction at Pine Camp, August
1 to 10.
Captain "U'ILLIAM C. RIVERS (colonel, assist
ant chief of Philippine constabulary), from
l^th to Ist Cavalry. .
Captain DE ROSEY C. A BELL, from Ist to 12th
Captain LESLIE A. I. CHAPMAN. M Cavalry,
detailed for duty at camp of instruction at
Pins Camp during: August.
Captain MONROE C. KERTH. 23d Infantry, to
places specified to make observations of
military efficiency for field service. etc.. of
organized militia participating with regular
army in joint camps at those places: Gettys
burg. July 1 to 31; I^eoc Springs. Tex. Au
gust 2 to 13; Fort Rile\ . August 15 to M:
Fort Benjamin Harrison. September 1 to 15.
Major DANIEL L. TATE. 3d Cavalry: Captain
ERVIN' L. PHILLIPS. 13th Cavalry: First
Lieutenant ROBERT A. BOYEJRS. 2»th In
fantrr. and Second Lieutenant GEORGE TV.
EDGERLY. 2d Infantry, detailed for duty
at camp of Instruction at Pine Camp during
August. •
Genuine Hand Colored Photogravures, Ml-* by 19&
This charming landscape has been chosen
• as the seventh and LAST PICTURE in the
Tribune Series
Repeated requests for a landscape have prompted this selection-
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farm. A flock of sheep is grazing in the foreground. The noonday
sun casts its lights and shadows over the scene. The hand coloring
brings out the beauties of the picture to the best advantage.
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the earlier subjects in the TRIB- TH TPTRTTNF orints a
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53* Remember— Hour" is the last picture to be an
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Due notice will be* given, but it will be well to secure pictures
at once.
nations of to-day have a right to ffaaff that
long careers of achievement If* before our
peveral countries. To «ach of us is voucn
•afed the honorable privU»je of doing IB*
part, however «maii. in that work. Let M
strive hardily for success even If by a© da-
Ing- we risk failure, spurning th« poorer
souls of small endeavor who know neither
failure nor success. Let ns hop* tlrat &nt
own blood shall continue In the lane?, that
our children and children's children to end
less generation* shall arise to take our
places and play a mighty and dominant
part la the world. But whether this be de
nied or granted by the years we shall net
Me, tet at least th* satisfaction b* our*
that we have carried onward th* lighted
torch, in our own day and sjeneratiTn. If
w« do this, then a* our eyes < Jos* and w*
go out into th# darkness, and other hands
grasp the torch, .it l*ast we can «ay that
our part has be*n borne well and valiantly.
captain* WTIXIAM vkttma.n- M Tnfar.trr:
GEORGE S. <>ooriAr.K ZM Infanrr-r. *->■»
H. B. MYERS, *h Cfcvalry; F'r« Uect»n
•nt» ROBERT D. CARTER, tfirh Inrartrr;
THOMAS T. r>LTCE. ZM. Tnfantry. *ni
■wiLX,rA.v ST. 3. JERVET. Jr.. VKti iTifarv
try: Second U*utenants RES=OI.,VE p. HAI
MBit. «th infantry, and JOSEPH A. AT
KIN l«th Infantry, detailed for duty a:
ramp of Instruction at '>.ii-k»r«ii»» Par*
<*ir!n« Jblt.
Captain* Et>'V.Vß!> R. rRISMAN. lfeh Infantry,
and RALPH !*-'T>Y. sth Infantry: Ftr«t
Lieutenant* GEORGE M. SOtJ.ET. Ml In
fantry: CREED F. ••".\. 11th '.'awa an-i
CHAIOES F. SEVERSON. 2!*t Infantry.
d»?ai!M for duty as ramp of Instruction at
Sparta. W!». . during vsari^t.
Captain HALSET E. TATES. lTth Infantry,
and First Lieutenant CHARLES H. BOICE.
7th cavalry. <totaii**» for duty at -amp or
tastructloa at Fort Rl>y. August ■ to Sep
tember I.V
FcnorrtCK oSloers «««tal!»<s for duty at camp •*
Instruction at American LaJc* -luring August:
Captains LE"SV: 3. SORUET. l*th Infaatrr.
and ANDREW MOSES, coast artH!*nr. sai
Second Lieutenant E>ARr.B M. WILSON. 9«!»
Following officers detailed for duty' at camp of
Instruction at Leon ■•-trigs, Tes.. dvirla*
August: First Lieutenant* LOCHLIN W.
CAFKET. 15th Infantry, and HAROLD
COBUR.V. ?th Infantry.
Following omcem detai.'M for duty at camp c?
Instruction at Fort D. A. R. Ru»se!?. lily 13
to Ausru*t 15: Second Lieutenant HUGH H.
BROADHURST. lStfc Cavalry, upon corc?l«»
fion of pr»' l ient eourw? at Mounted Servlc*
School. Fort BBsy, M -amp si Instruction.
(••railed to r?pr»sent dental corps a? masfinsT
of National Der.tal Association in Denrw.
July 19 to 22.
Leaves of ab»«rv» Captain ROBERT *>. VA*»
IIORX. 17ta Infantry, -<• month and ffftsan
day* from June 15; Captain LINCOLN F
KILBorRNS 28th Infantry. twe months)
from June 15: rHptatn GEORGE W. MOBSII,
15th Cavalry. July .'> to August 15. Lieuten
ant ALBERT L. LOL'STALOT. coast ar
tillery, June 8 to August V.
Lleot^nant I. C JOHNSON. Jr.. dstac&ed t»«
Wisconsin; to the Amphltrtte,
: Esslra J. H. HOOVER from Naval Hospital.
New York; to Bath Iron Works tn ccanectJca
with fitting out the Pauldlng.
Midshipman R. C. WHITE*, detached the N*w
J»rsey, to the Wisconsin.
lowing movements of vessels have been re
ported to th* Navy Department:
June a The Fsusser. th* Lamsoa. the Preston,
the Reid and the Smith at Newport; tt»
lowa, the Indiana, and the Massachusetts at
Hampton Roads the Brutus at Bradford:
the Hist at Manzani' :•. the Michigan a:
June — The lowa, the Indiana and th» Ma*»»
chssetts from Annapolis for Hampton Road*.
Four More of Dr. Macdonald T s
Deacons Decide to Resign.
It became apparent yesterday that har
mony had not been restored in the Wash
ington Avenue Baptist Church, in Brooklyn,
when four more of the deacons— Hiram
Bennett, lon* treasurer of th* Long Island
Baptist Asociation: ErJzar B. Mansam.
Frank Deacon and Edwin T. Braman — rc
> signed. On Thursday John K. Ireland, on*
of th« wealthiest members of the church.
resigned as a deacon, say-. that he never
again would enter th© church white Dr.
Macdocald was its pastor.
The trouble in the church was raoaaad
originally by the statements of those w'n->
dissented from th© views of Dr. MacdonaM
that he was trying to carry them away
from the established doctrines ot th*
! Church, especially in the matter of immer
sion being essential to membership, and
that they never would agree to aaswefeßt*
membership and other departures from tha
"true standard of a Baptist church."
Dr. Macdonald was characteristically op
timistic when asked about the resisrnation
cl the deacons. He said: "Why. we'll g->
. right ahead and elect more deacons. Cour
age Is a fin© thin;;. We have plenty of
good material In our church for the making
of deacons. We are progressing finely and
growth and good feeling are here to stay.
When we elect deacons now we will chcos^
men who put Christianity first and men
denominationalism second. I am not at a';
Harry Cutler, of No. "' Montgomery
street, the love-crazed cleaner and dyer
who shot his cousin. Sarah Saroldn. seven
teen years old, of No. 12 Pike street, at
Jefferson and Cherry streets on Monday
because she refused to marry him. was ar
raigned yesterday before Magistrate Cor
nell in the Essex Market court. Cutler wa.i
held in C3OO bail for examination on Thurs
day to await the result of the girl'? wounds.
■The prisoner said that he easjM get JLOCO
bail, but the magistrate refused to r*duca
the ball.

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