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THE PIANOFORTE AND ITS MUSIC VIII. Domestic Music in the Middle Ages— Organ and Lute- B he of the German School The Strange Tale of Froberger— lnfluence of the Protestant Church Service — Kuhnau and His Programmatic Sonatas. Tt is not easy to form a clear idea of what the domestic element in instrumental music— the element which springs first to mind when we think if pianoforte music today— was like In the Middle Ages. To us the pianoforte rep resents the whole world of music in WtCt; stage snl choir loft are charmed by it into the inti macy of the home circle. But the clavier, in its two forms of tangential (clavichord) . id quilled (spinet, virginal and harpsichord) instrument, did not assume this position until long after the v.ork of developing an instrumental art had be gun. The pioneership of England in this work has already received recognition in these ttudirs; its significance lies chiefly in the fact that in that country the supremacy of the lute ks the domestic instrument of music par cxccl leaee was overthrown by the virginal before the clavier had gained dominion on the Continent. That there should have been a greater num ber and variety of instruments in popular use at A CHAMBER ORGAN OF FLEMISH MANU FACTURE, DATED 1602. a time when instrumental music was struggling to come into existence than now, when it has forced purely vocal music out of the churches and suffers only the mixed form to stand beside it on the concert platform, Is anomalous. The v;*st majority of these instruments, however, h:>.d not the slightest influence upon musical composition, and were not designed for do rustic enj u'inent. Pratorius catalogues and <i'Siiii)<-s a hundred of them in his "Syntagma Muskum," but it needs only a glance at his i !;.t ? to see that most of them were din pro <i:i<i»\s, against which private doors had to be shut. With all thcii number and variety, more oxer, they did nothing to advance the orchestra] art. which returned to the principle of a com bination of kind ("consorts of viols" and the like) as soon as the instrumental language had be* n freed from the vocal idiom. In a twofold manner the organ was the Inter mediary between the music of ecclesiastical or c. urtly functions and the home circle. Con- Btructed on a small scale, the instrument itself, under the names "positif," "regal" and "organo picciolo," made its way Into cultured bouses. Its keyboard being Identical with that of the clavier, music composed fur it was easily trans f< rred to that instrument, whereas the lute necessitated the employment of a notation be longing to it alone So it came by the opera tion of the law of survival that the favorite do mestic Instrument of generations of musical amateurs, omnium uutmmentorutn Princept, the mobiltMimo ttromento, the Regina in ftnn.n nt'uiini upon which, by the excrci.se of : ii Incomprehensible skill, all the demands of borne music were gratified, was practically sup planted by the clavier when the time for clavier music was come that is to say, toward the close of the sixteenth century. Jt remained in use a century longer, but not a>; a potent In flu< nee. Th< re are a number of German names which may be added to the list of church musicians who became famous while the musical curreni flowed out of Italy In al] directions. Hans Leo Hj l< r 1 1564-1612) won bu< h n nown In the service of Rudolph l! that that emperor en nobl< I him. Christian Brbai b, Hieronymua Prft torl Adam Oumpeltzhaimer. Ifelchlor Pranclc and Samuel Scheldt may be written down am< ng the distinguished musicians of the 1 - : period on the testimony of their oontem pon ries. Now we reach the Orsf name of large Import thai <>f Johann Jakob Froberger (16::7 XEW-TORK DAILY TRTOFXE, Sr\T>AY, JULY 24, 1910. (fopyrijeht. 1!>10. '»y ■• B. Krelibiel.) '95). He carried his fame and activities as far westward as Dr. Dull had done toward the East. As a youth he was sent by the Emperor Ferdinand 111 to Rome to receive instruction from Frescobaldi. He remained three years in the Holy City, went thence to Paris, thence tn Dresden and then returned to the service of the Emperor of Germany. In 1662, according to the accepted story which has only himself for authority, he got a leave of absence and set out for England vim France. The tale of his adventures is worth telling, if for no other rea son than that it throws a certain amount of light on a kind of music which he and his contem poraries cultivated in a degree not appreciated in this latter day. He says he was robbed be fore he reached Calais. There be set sail across the Channel, but fell into the hands of pirates and had to save lus life by swimming. He reached the English shore and begged his way to London. Tattered and torn, he found his way to Westminster Abbey, and, loitering in WOOD CUT IN AMERBACH'S "ORGEL ODER INSTRUMENT TABLATURE/' LEIPSIC. 1571. thp church after the service, met the organist — H must have been Christopher on bons— who discovered him while locking the door?. nr.d hired him to bl<>w the organ. At the wedding of Charles II and Catherine of Portugal so the story gors, awed by the pomp of the function, he neglected his duty, and the organ stopped. breathless. I>ir< were the imprecations poured out upon the head <>f the luckless blower by the organist; who promptly disappeared into an ad joinir.s apartment after be, too, was breathless. Then Froberger saw bis opportunity. Filling th bellows he rushed to the keyboard and began to play. A lady of Charles's court who had been in Vienna recognised the artist's manner. He was summoned into the presence of the King, told his story on his knees, was bidden to rise, a clavier was hurriedly brought, and for an hour by the dial be improvised on the instru ment t<> the d« light of king and court. Charles gave him a necklace, and he became the lion PORTABLE ORGAN. From an engraving, end of the fifteenth century. of the hour. He returned to Vienna loaded with gifts and distinctions; but calumny h*d pre ceded him. and he vainly sought an audience with the Bmperor, whose mind had been poi soned against firm This is the story, and it is surely worthy of a modern theatrical press agent. An organist playing long enough with a single inflation of the bellows to impress his individual style upon a casual listener, that detail might have served to arouse suspi. u,n; but if it did not why have not the English critics called attention to the fact that Charles H was not married in state In London, but privately at Portsmouth? How- ever, Froberger in all likelihood did vls!t '. -- don, and failing of rehabilitation at the imperial court of Germany on his return to Vienna, went to Mayence, where he perished miserably years later. Obviously, he was a brave raconteur who essayed to be as entertaining in his musi cal anecdotes as in his verbal; for Mattheson, who reports the London story, also tells of hear in ; one of Froberger's allemandej?, which pur ported to describe in musical tones incidents, to the number of twenty-six, of an eventful Rhine journey — among others how a passenger, in at tempting to hand his sword to the skipper, fell overboard and was struck oil the head .th a pike while struggling in the water. We shall hear more of this kind of music presently. Froberger was the first distinctively great Ger man clavierist. In his other musical activities he had a colleague contemporary and compa triot in Johann Kaspar Kerl (1625-1690 or 1623 1693), who, like him. was sent by Ferdinand 111 to Rome to study; but though it is su?pecteil that lie, too. availed himself of Frescobaldi'3 skill and learning, his direct purpose was to study under Carissiml. Some of Kerf's compo sitions have been preserved for the modern stu dent, but to English reader his name is likely to be best known as the author of the melody of "Egypt was glad when they departed," which Handel borrowed for his "Israel in Egypt' from one of Kerl's toccatas. George Muffat -..•*! in 704) spent six years in Paris under the influ ence of Lully and Couperin, and is said to have transplanted the latter' agrttnens to Germany. His son, Gottlieb Muffat (born about ''■•'■. was clavier teacher to the family of Emperor Charles VI and. like Kerl. an involuntary con tributor to Handel's oratorios. There now sprang up in the North of Ger many a group of organists who found inspira- JOHANN KUHNAU. tion in the Protestant Church service akin to that which had so long come from Koine. In this service there had existed from ■■ early period an element of romanticism borrowed from the folksong which had bound itself UP intimately with German h\ ■m ' C Luther, though far from being an iconoclast, was de sirous from the beginning of the movement which he led to give a national trend to the music of the new Church— to have all the feat ures of the service German in spirit and Ger man in manner. It was a tendency embodied in him which brought it to pa* that in Ger many contrapuntal music based on popular tunes, like that of the Nethoxland school, soon developed into the chorale in which the melody and not the contrapuntal integument was the essential thing. In the hymns ami psalms which Luther himself sang and heard the bor rowed secular melody was almost as completely buried as in the masses which the books would have us believe scandalized the Church before the coming of Palestrina. The p«ople •"•■ in vited to sing the paraphrases, it Is true, and to sing them to familiar tunes (later in France they did so, and with a vengeance, sometimes using the melodies of popular dances with the versified psalms of Marot). but the choir's polyphony practically stifled the melody. Soon, however, the tree spirit so jowerfully promoted by the Reformation prompted a man ner of composition in which the admired mel ody was lifted into relief. Now the monophonic style entered so that the congregation m'Sht join in the singing— a distinctly romantic ste;*. The musicians who fe!l under this influence were the direct predecessors of th great Kach, In whom the polyphonic style culminated. L>ied rich Buxtthude was a Dane who attracted so much attention with a sen-- of concerts that he gave for years at Liibeck that Bach, then nineteen years old, walked from Amstadt to Liibeck — more than two hundred miles — to hear them. When Butohnda grew old both Slattb* son and Handel went from Hamburg arul re ported themselves m candidate- for his posi tion as organist; they fled Incontinently, how ever, when they learned that one of the condi tions attached to the post was that the new organist must marry the daughter Off his prede cessor. Some of liuxtehude's organ music may yet be heard, but what were probably the best of his clavier compositions seem to be Irrevoca- Cuntluurtl un ei«hth i>as<*. LONG SANG Tl CHINESE CURIO CO. tO3 Fifth Am, b«t. SOth and .mi.. N«-w York. Their booklet (TV 111— 111 the history of oriental Art and atones to be worn tor g— o .*.».-. J. .Terra* iljjs. now rvii<l>.