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New-York tribune. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, August 20, 1910, Image 8

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Literary J^etuf^f and Criticism
" .. ~ '?£s£ ■ j
; A Fascinating Book on the His
tory of Family Names.
FA^Bv's ferine-Gould. MA. Svo PP
xH. hi. Philadelphia: Tho J. B. Lip
paßOStt Company.
A xrealth of information and consid
erable conjecture will be found within j
these crowded pages, dealing with Ens- ,
lish family names- and their many ori
gins. British. Saxon. Scandinavian. Nor
man. Flemish and Dutch. Celtic. Welsh.
Huguenot. German, and with their mod- ;
ifications and often almost total changes
in the course of th< if adoption in a
n*w home. A great deal of family his- :
tory Is recorded, by the way. and there |
is here not a little fiction dnessed up to
look like history for the greater glory of J
the family. |
Not all surnames can be traced back j
to their origins and significance; of
many, more than one explanation is pos- j
•Ma. Mr. Baring-Gould deals succes- j
sively with cognomens taken from the
manor and castle, from the occupations :
and trades of city and village, from j
nicknames and descriptive appellations,
with names formed by the addition of
prefixes and suffixes, and with changed
and compound names. He enters at ,
length into the treasured depositories of
historic names, the Domesday Book, the j
Liber Yita\ the Roll of Battle Abbey, the (
list of the followers of the Conqueror in j
lIK Roman de Rou, and ends with the ,
Huguenot immigrants who signed a
"loyal address" in 1744. The total num- '
ber of English family names considered j
and indexed is a little over 3,200, so that
the -work will prove of genuine interest
to an incalculably number of readers. ■
The information it gives if, moreover,
presented in a felicitously interesting
manner. One can dip into it at any ]
time, BOM of tinding- entertainment.
The scope of the book Is larger, how
ever, for Mr. Baring-Gould begins at the
very beginning, with the tattoo and
tribal names. The tattooed tribal identi
fication mark has . ..me down to us In ;
the form of national dress, the tartan of '
I the Scotch clan and the local peasant
costumes of Europe, and. in a more in- ;
«3irect way. in the different fashions of j
trimming hair and beard and mustache.
The coifftav en Inaaae to this day dis- i
tinguishes the Continental European,
and especially the Frenchman and Ger
man, from the Anglo-Saxon: none *ut i
Germans wear the "Es ist erreicht" mus- :
tachios at the martial Emperor, and ]
thos« of us who are not too young re
member the English Dundrearies and
mutton chops of the third and fourth ■
quarters of the last century. Until quite ;
recent years, to make a digression, the j
beard and mustache were also identified
with certain professions. In the early
years of the last century only military
men wore mustaches, while a shaven
upper lip was as much binding upon a
Protestant clergyman as the tonsure
was, and remains, for the Roman Cath
olic priest. With this one exception, the
significance of beard and hair has now i
disappeared, its vanishing last evidence
being seen in the case of house servants
and private coachmen and footmen, and.
both no longer invariably, in that of :
head waiters and their staff.
Tc return to Mr. Baring-Gould and
family names, however. He reminds us
. of that pleasant custom of olden days,
I the eating of a vanquished enemy's
body, or at least of choice parts thereof,
mostly the heart, and the later adoption, ■
instead, of his, name by the conqueror.
One wonders if there can be a connec
tion between this ancestral warlike cus
tom and the still practised one of be
stowing the names of the fields where
battles were won upon victorious war
riors: Ney of the Moskowa, Roberts of
Pretoria. Kitchener of Khartoum.
The early belief that a man's identity
was in some way mixed up with his
name led in the far and distant past to
a custom quite opposite to the later one.
Lest he should hand over his identity,.
his self, to another, a father was care
ful not to bestow his own name upon his
son. If the child was born posthu
mously, on the other hand, the father's
name must be given to it, in order to
preserve the parental identity. The
theory of reincarnation was at the bot
tom of this custom, which, again, has
left its trace to this day in the retention
of certain baptismal names in families
from generation to generation, two
names or sets of names usually being
handed on alternately from grandfather
to grandson. The modern custom of
hyphenating surnames appears to be a
development of this, the preservation of
a socially desirable family identity, "in
nomenclature," observes Mr. Baring
' Gould, dryly, "we add whiskey to water,
never water to whiskey.** The author
thus traces the origin of hereditary fam
ily names:
1. The tribe was first distinguished by
bodily mutilations.
2. "Mutilations were abandoned ! for cos
tume, differentiating tribes.
S. TIN tribal name fell away, and the
personal name alone was left.
4. Personal imm were found to be in
fcufficient for differentiating man from man.
T.. Consequent Introduction of descriptive
Bnpellatfans. These were personal, and ex
pired with the bearer.
C. Finally surnames became Hereditary.
The patronymic is the oldest form of
rhe' hereditary family Dame. John's son
became Johnson, and, by abbreviation,
Johns. The Welsh Ap before a father's
name was abbreviated in an analogous
manner: "Ap Owen" was contracted
into "Bowen"; "Ap Rice" into "Price."
The Scotch Mac and the Irish O' need not
detain us. The Norman- French Fitz, for
•■file." the author informs us, by no
means indicated illegitimacy originally.
He also combats lbs theory that sur
names derived from a feminine baptismal
Basse proclaim birth out of wedlock.
"Many personal names," lie points out,
"had a male a.-' well as a female form, as
Julian. Only In the eighteenth century
did the name become Juliana In the
feminine, 'kelson* and 'Letts' are not
necessarily descended from Laetitia or
Lottie.-, nor are "Nelsons' the illegiti
mate sons of a Nelly, but the legitimate
offcpring of Xigol."
The combination of a trade name with
<:..- patronymic ending may be men
<,'<:.<-■■! here, Incidentally, as in "Clerk
won," "Cookson." More curious is the
!' ';aikiij:-!.:;.s have formed surnames — a
thins not easy at explanation. ".\>ames'"
Ki^niQcs uncle, ,-ii.i "Mcmv" i. nephew,
Jiame is in A. S. a maternal uncle, hence
"fiiißfi." "Cousins" we Jiave nan also
"brothers" iti.'i "Freres,*" as irnsniris
••Savins" stands Cor "Nevinsoi}," the irre*t
kwanov. • Tt'^'jf »•♦-••." becoming "Beau
f«.r:,' and then "liuffer," gave a surname,
its also it:-- equivalent, "Fasrbrotht-T."
Animal names carry us into the realm
of tot ism, family tradition, heraldry,
r.nd )up and tavern signs, not t« apeak
tit nicknames due to some fancied rc
f»eiT:Llancc to the animal named, though
in that aaae, n>. Mr. liaring-Gould points
out, tbe epithet would not /willingly be
«jtiu ¥ hy the son. Here there eaters.
moreover, the obscuring: and confusing
fector of the shortening and corru^lon
of surnames. "Salmon" is a shortening
of "Solomon";, ."Palfrey" is a contraction
of "Le Falafrt'." the man with the scar;
"Whale" stands probably for "Welsh,"
"Otter" for the German "Otto" or "Otho."
"Spratt" may bo a contraction of "St.
Privat" or. "St. Pratt."
From castle and manor r\e have a
multitude of names, among: them "Cham
berlain" and "Chancellor." "'Spenser" and
"Si encer" (from '•(leppenser"). "Skrimig
,r" and "Skrim>hire" (from "Eskrlmig
er." an instructor in the use of arms),
and •I'ajrc" and "Paget."
The chapters on village and city names,
mostly taken from trades, and on place
names, so many of them derived from
French sources, must be passed over, ie
order to make room for a few curious
metamorphoses of patronymics in the
course of time: "Fisher" was originally
"Fitz One," "son of the bear"; "Phill
potts" may be derived from "Philippeau"
("little Philip." and a French family
name to this day), as well as from some
humble occupation in a kitchen. "Tib
bets" is from "Thibault," which also has
piven us "Tibbalf; and "Prosser" was
originally "Prussian." From the Dutch
"Yollenhove" we have "Fullalove":
Surnames ending: in love have nothing
amatory in their origin, but derive from
some "lowe," hill or tumulus.
The degradation of "Sevenoaks" to
"Snooks" deserves mention: so does that
of "Radbod." the ferocious, to "Rabbit."
And who but a specialist would have
traced a relationship, in name at least,
between Oliver Cromwell and Mr. Vin
cent Crummies?
Some Pleasant Stories, Chiefly of
American Life.
.1. Hopkins. 12mo, pp. 297. Boston: The
Hoiighton Mifflin Company.
HAPPY ISLAND. A New "rncle Will
iam" Story. By ffwrittf Lee. Colored
frontispiet-f. 1880, pp. 230. The Cen
tury Company.
bob. 12mo, pp. 321. The John Lane Com
THE GOl>Ti TRAIT,. By Harold Bind
loss. Colored frontispiece by Edwin
M-ear^ee. 12mo, pp. 367. The F. A.
Stokes Company.
Dorrington and A. G. Stephens. Illus
trations by John Rae. 12mo, pp. 371.
The Maeaulay Company.
odor.- Roberts. Illustration? and
decorations by Charles Livingston Bull. ;
12mo, pp. 308. Boston: L. C. Page &
Co. ' j
"The Clammer"' and his wife play j
parts in Mr. Hopkins's new book. "The
Meddlings of Eve." and so do their two !
children, lovable tots both of them, but j
the reader who has missed the earlier .
story will not have the slightest diffi- |
culty with the two/ shorter ones that j
constitute the new volume. Eve mcd- !
dles, not too much, in the love affair of i
Cecily in the first tale and with that of i
; Margaret in the second, but there is a j
third case of young love and the rough- \
'nesses which it makes for its own feet j
running through both, that of Alice Car- ;
bonnel. which appeals to us most of all. '■
i The material is diaphanous, amusingly ;
sympathetic, as young love always ap- ;
| pears to. be to married folks, and the
! manner is that of "The Clammer," per
} haps a little less spontaneous now, but !
I sufficient unto its end. which is the j
i spinning of two light summer stories, i
' The "simple life" of all these people is ;
: made mightily attractive by enough j
money distributed- - judiciously among j
them to make them "easy."
Ujicle William sounds as real in Mrs.
Lee's new chronicle of his doings and j
I sayings and philosophy of life as he did
when first she introduced him to us. j
"Happy Island" it is, indeed, and, '
i though she keeps its name and its ex- |
act location from -us, we feel that it is
: real, nay more, that we, too, can find it j
i if we but travel down East and up along,
i looking for it with her eyes. One for- j
! gets that this is excellent work in the i
I pleasure of realizing the sea and the j
: rocks, the sky and the sunshine, Uncle |
i William's snug house, put in order now '
by Celia, who turns the old "man into
I the craftiest, most delightful of match- j
| makers—in the realization of this sane, j
genuine simple life of which the ma- !
jority of us get but a brief glimpse from
I time to time in the scant hours of our
i leisure. To busy workers the story will
i prove a benefit as well as a delight, a j
bit of the open in crowded days and
j places, a moment's repose in the midst
of the struggle, a smile from human nat
; are at its truest and simplest best.
In the Albanian mountains a relig
! ious fanatic loves ' a maid for a day,
: then deserts her in an agony of selfish
■ remorse, to expiate his .«in and save his
' soul in a monastery. Only one course
lis left open to the girl, a daughter of
j the warlike Arnauts. to rehabilitate
, herself in the eyes of. her family and
; her village — she must kill him herself,
for she has no brothers to avenge her,
• and her father is an invalid. So. dis
: guised in man's clothes and armed with
her uncle's yataghan, which has washed
his honor clean in blood many a time,
she follows the man to his retreat on
! the heights— "Forbidden Ground" for a
! woman— and gains admission as a lay
brother. Here begins the many compli
■ cations of a story whose remoteness of
| scene and characters gives it the merit
lof comparative novelty. One must take
: the author's pictures of the region and
: of the ways and views of its wild inhab
; itants on trust, and find his profit in
j doing su. It is all primitively violent,
: there on the ago-old (selvage of Chris
| tendom, and sufficiently well duno to be
! worth reading, even though the author
I has fallen abort of writing the excep
: tional book that, one feels, could have
been mad': with such material.
Mr. BindloM has made the great j
| Northwest his province, and from it I
quarries stories whoso numbers do. not
affect their quality; ho always gives us
! the best that is apparently in him, and
lit1 it is always readable, if not of excep
; tionally blgti quality. He has his favor- I
ite formula for his plots— the English
I immigrant, th« Canadian empire builder'
j and his daughter, hard work at the fron
tier, good look and reverses, adventures
in the wilderness, love and ultimate suc
cess being the chief ingredients; be pre
i sents many types produced by a life that
! resembles in to much that of our own
frontier fifty years ago, but as j*et has
) not succeeded in placing a single MM
j that will live beside the gallery of notu-
J Lie pioneer portraits in our own fiction.
This is, however, asking more than he
even pretends to five us. Within his
' limitations lie Is always entertaining
land Informing.
1 For a. shilling shocker "Our Lady of,
■ ■■ ■■.■■*■
Daxkneaa** to more than triple measure.
It is imagination broke loose, and in
venting the most incredible things with
out let or hindrance. A mysterious
woman of untold wealth, the death of
her iover 1 n adi el. her revenge, which
sends the man who kills him to New
Caledonia on a charge like that brought
against Dreyfus, her wanderings on the
Seven seas in a yacht which Is the shrine
of her beloved's body, her strange fan
cies under the influence of the drug to
which she surrenders herself as she
grows older, the refinement of the
cruelty of her revenge, which is not
content with her enemy's suf* wrings in
the penal colony — all this is woven into
a fantasy that at times becomes a
nightmare. Withal, there is a happy
ending. The book is a curiosity of Its
In "Comrades of the Trail" Mr. Roh
erta has written a capital book for
boys, filled with information concerning
the ways of hunters and trappers in the
Canadian wilderness, and with enough
adventure in it to keep the interest go
ing. An English youth and an old
Indian start out together in a canoe.
They pitch camp, set traps and catch
and shoot all the fur-bearing animals
of the region. The Indian reveals some
of the superstitions and legends of his
race, and, last but not least, there is a
mysterious being that follows their trail
and robs their traps. This sort of story
cannot be written too often to suit our
boys. Mr. Roberts tells a most accept
able one.
M. Alfred Capus on the Fate of a
Student in Paris.
Paris, August 12.
"Robinson," the new novel by M.
Alfred Capus, published by Fasquelle, is
the story of Sebastien Real, a young
student, who after the ruin and disap
pearance of his family in the Depart
ment of the Drome, between Dauphin^
and Provence, comes to Paris to make
his way in the world. It is the Paris of
to-day, 'so very different from the Paris
of fifty years ago, which Alphonso
Daudet and Zola delighted in describing,
and in which they placed their young
provincial heroes. The Paris of to-day,
admirably depicted by M. Capus, is a
busy, strenuous arena, open to all, seeth
ing and tumultuous, but lacking the
grace and finish of former days. ;■
No one is more familiar with real
Parisian life than M. Capus, nor is there
any writer better qualified to reveal the
pathetic as well as the joyful sides of
the struggle of a youth who finds him
self almost as much isolated in the great
tfirobbing capital as wag Robinson Cru
soe on his island. Sebastian R6al is,
after all. a declasse", and his stout fight,
single handed, to secure fortune and
position vibrates with nervous strength
and passion. Grouped about the young
student are cleverly drawn types of
women and men of the day. In spite of
violent contrasts there is one point in
common between M. Capus and M.
Maurice Barres. They both deal with
the problem of the everincreasing de
classes and diSraciiies who throng to
Paris from the provinces. In fact, as
M. Capus points out in one of his plays,
the declasses are now so numerous that
they already form a "class" of them
selves, with their rich and their poor,
with their victors and their vanquished.
Sebastien Real, the Robinson Crusoe,
meets a charming Parisian woman who
becomes devoted to him. and with ten
der sensibilities and refined feeling
seeks to win him away from his cold
isolation. She says to him: "Don't re
main alone. It Is absurd to imagine that
the world is a desert, where you are
forced to fight against tempests and wild
animals. The world is not a desert, but
a salon, where one should advance by
cleverness and skill, where one should
laugh and satisfy one's vanity. Let me
organize your existence for you? Take
my hand, let me be your pilot!" This
woman has a strong influence on the hero,
who at last, and in a most brilliant man
ner, realizes the rose colored philosophy
of M. Capus, and after many vicissi
tudes turns out to be successful. "Rob
inson" is one of the best novels of the
day. Its appearance at the same time
as the "Theatre Complete" of the ver
satile dramatist, M. Alfred Capus, Is
welcomed by all lovers of Paris and the
Parisians. C I. B.
With Some Remarks on the
Uses of Literary Academies
i From The Illustrated London News.
A distinguished historian, who reads
the faits divers in the newspapers, in
! formed me to-day that I am an Acad
emician. For various reasons, apart
from the newspapers, 1 happened to
know that I had been a member of the
British Academy for some time. I am
not a Free Mason, but the secrets of
the works and ways of the British
Academy shall be guarded by me with
a mystery "more than Eleusinian." as
Leo Adolescens wrote In a charming
| skit by Mr. Matthew Arnold. Mr. Ar
nold used to t=igh, publicly and in print,
for an Academy like L"Academle Fran-
I guise. That does, indeed, as far as I
i can learn, seem to be a ~'easant sort of
learned society. If I err not, the mem-
I bers are paid for each attendance on its
councils— not much, about what we give
! a British juryman. But the proceedings
i are believed to be a little more gay than
: those of a jury.
My only experience of juridical delights
was not gay, but comparatively brief.
It is my notion that I must have been
the foreman, for there was a New Testa
ment on the desk opposite my seat, and
f there was a small brazen" plate. No
| literature exqept the Testament (in a
j modern and inartistic edition) was pro
j vided. I buried myself in the book, and,
I as nothing was going on, I attempted to
converse with my nearest neighbor on
j New Testament criticism, beginning
with the genealogies, a subject on which
much has been written by the learned.
My neighbor, though quite courteous,
appeared to be preoccupied in his mind by
reflections, probably, on other studies;
the genealogies did not seem to have
engaged his attention.
He appeared, on the whole, to regard
me as a lunatic at large, and, not know
ing what line I was likely to Hake, ho
observed the strictest reserve. About
the case on which we were going to give
our verdict I entertained the most cruel
apprehensions. It might be a mys
terious murder, or one of those affairs
in which a man (or woman) claims to
be. a. Long-Lost Heir (or Heiress), and
those trials often last a long time.
There was the Tlchborne case; it
] lasted for months, and for months
we might be shut up liku a kind
of first class misdemeanants. It might
|be some sort of Dreyfus business.
! All that I could learn from the reserved
juror was that our case was concerned
with pianos, perhaps with the pirating
of pianos by some American T'.ro;tdu oml.
an in "The Wrong Box," by EL L- Stev
enson. "Alas, Sir!" I' cried, nor cheeked
j the rising tear, "in the art of music I
am totally ana congenially inexpert! To
know the tune of 'jßonnie Dundee' from
that of - 'The liunnie, Bonnie Banks of
Loch Lomond' Is the imiit of my simple;
♦skill. Were it a question tot a doubtful
sample of the art of Late Minoan 11, of
etchings, of mezzotints, of CH*ek perns,
| or of Stuart miniatures, ray poor opin
! ion would not bo grudged to my coun
try's courts. But pianos!- — : You over
whelm me." - "~" ..
At this moment the learned judge
about an hour and a half too late—en
tered the court and took his seat upon
the Bench of British Themis. Turning
to the jury, he asked if Mr. A. Lang
were present? I stood up and bowed
with deep humility. "Mr. A. Lang may
go," said his lordship." Probably he was
aware that I am no authority on pianos,
or he had some other motive for mercy
at which it is not holy for me to con
jecture. I rushed, forth, a free man, but
relicts non bene parmula; I left my um
brella behind me.
The meetings of the French Academy,
whatever may be done at those en
counters, must be more joyous than
those of » jury in this country. On re
flection I do sit feel at all certain that
a Scot, born and bred, can be lawfully
summoned on an English jury, our law
being quite unlike theirs, which knows
nothing of expediting Letters of Slalna,
or of multiplepoinding.
The French Academy has. presumably,
finished its Dictionary. When last heard
of it was at "Crab." or. rather, at Ecre
visse, defined as "a little red fish which
walks backward." To this it was ob
jected that a crab is not a fish (contrary
to the dictum of Mr. Frederick Bayham),
that it is not red, and that it does not
walk backward. After that, probably
they gave up the Dictionary. Surely,
the new English Academy will not tack'"
a new dictionary, for that Oxford Lexi
con, edited by Dr. Murray, is already
exceeding abundant. In default of a
dictionary, I do not know how they are
going to bestow their learned labors; in
fact, I do not know who all of them are.
In France, when one of them dies, all
the swells not previously elected put on
evening dress, and pay visits, as candi
dates, to the surviving mfimb^s. solicit
ing their votes and Interest. Tiie nev
man, I think, pronounces an eloge on
the deceased. May mine be composed by
Mr. G. B. Shaw!
Current Talk of Things Present
and to Come.
"Qrover Cleveland: A Record of
Friendship," by the late Richard Wat
son Gilder, leads off the autumn list of
the Century Company. The book is
based upon the artu less which Mr. Gilder
published in his magazine last year. It
will contain a number of illustrations.
Doubleday, Page & Co. will publish in
a few months a new novel by Miss Ellen
Glasgow. It is entitled "Tho Miller of
Old Church."
It was in 1908 that Mr. Aylmer Maude
brought out "The Life of Tolstoy: First
Fifty Years." He is now completing his
work, and "The Life of Tolstoy: Later
Years" may be expected among tJie
books of the approaching season.
Mr. Walter Sichel, whose capital book
on Laurence Sterne we reviewed not
long ago, is nothing if not industrious.
He has edited "The Olenbervie. Jour
nals,"' which are soon to be published.
These journals were written by Sylves
ter Douglas, Baron Glenbervie, and it is
said that they throw new light on the
political and social world of England be
tween 1793 and 1815. His wife was one
of Lord North's daughters.
The announcement in England of a
new novel, "The Exception," by Mr.
Oliver Onions, reminds us of his "Little
Devil Doabt," and moves us to wonder
why that book never appeared in an
American edition. It is an uncommonly
clever performance, traversing with a
grave satire and yet with sufficient
lightness of touch the conflict in the
modern literary world between high
ideals and a crass materialism. And
while we are on the subject of neglected
authors we may further wonder why we
do not see on this side of the water all
of the novels of Mr. Bernard Capes. It
is true that they are not invariably en
trancing, but they are certainly cleverer
and more amusing than some of the
stuff of British origin which it is con
sidered worth while to reprint here.
"The Manchester Guardian," discuss
ing the question of a poet's judgment of
his own work, cites a recently published
note of Paul Verlaine's. It runs as fol
lows: "My Dear Theo—Will you have
the goodness on receipt of this to send
me in an envelope the torn fragments of
manuscript?" This note, we are told,
was addressed to the manager of tho
Cafe Procope, one of the poet's favorite
places of work, and the story thai it tells
is that Verlaine. having written a poem
there, tore it up as worthless, but on
afterthought decided there was a good
thing in it and reclaimed the fragments.
The afterthought was correct. The poem
was on Louis XVII, and was the most
important poem left behind h!m in man
uscript after his death.
An English version is in preparation
of M. Frederic Loliee's biography of the
Due de Moray. It will contain, of
course, much amusing gossip about the
Second Empire. The author is well
enough known for the skilful treatment
of a glittering social epoch in France,
and this newer book of his will receive
attentive consideration, but we have no
expectation of his giving us a definitive
life of Moray. For that the reader must
wait, we dare say, for many a long year.
When it comes we shall have the por
trait of one who was not in any sense a
great man, but whose career embraced
an amazing series of experiences and
Thomas Y. Crowe! 1 & Co. have in hand
"The Literature of the South," by Mon
trose J. Moses. The book is exhaustive
in scope, beginning with Captain John
Smith and carrying the subject down to
the present time. Every literary worker,
"of however slight pretensions," is men
tioned in the book.
From the Baker & Taylor Company
there com* two welcome reprints, illus
trated editions. Of the Lambs' "Tales
from Shakespeare" and Charles Kings
ley's "Water Babies." The pictures,
done in colors and In black and white,
are by Mr. George Soper, who has a
pretty fancy, drawn his figures grace
fully and discloses in all his designs a
quick sympathy for the sentiment of his
subjects. There are decorative end
papers, and a green binding effectively
decorated in gold.
Every now and then a book turns up,
the existence of which is gratifying to
the studious reader If for no other rea
son than that it serves his convenience.
It would not occur to him to burn the
midnight oil over it, but for purposes of
reference he gives it shelf room, know
ing that Koine day it will "com* in
handy." Such a book Is promised in
'The Literary Criticism of Lord Jeffrey,"
which is now passing through the Ox
ford University Press. It will present a
lection from the paper, contributed by
Francis Jeffrey to "The Edinburgh Re
view" through a period of nearly half a
century. The world wags along very
happily to-day without his exceedingly
"mixed" criticism, but it is just as v.ell
that its merits and shortcomings should
lie illustrated in some accessible volume,
Win Klcber, that doughty geaaasj of
the Napoleonic era, was stubbed to
death, by a fanatic. at Cairo, in l.N<x>, he
hud In his pocket a notebook which ulti
[ mately found Its way into the archives
( of the French War Office. All these
I years s^ice it has lain neglected, but re
! cently it has been overhauled, with the
' result that an interesting addition is
| promised to the mass of printed matter
relating to Napoleon. What Klcber
thought of his chief may be gathered
from the following extracts:
One day Bonaparte, with impudent pre
sumption, spoke to me of reverses whicii
he should have expected, and of successes
which he booed for after tho battle or
Aboukir. and he said: "I play with history;
I can calculate more coolly than another in
this kind of event." But to piny with his
tory seem* to me to play with events them
selves, and to play with events is to play
with the lives of men, with public and pri
vate fortunes, with the happiness and pros
perity of the country. Is that what the
hero would have had me understand. 1
don't know but what I should have under
stood him if he had said: "I live only that
my name shall fill pages in history; celeb
rity is my only object, and all the rest has
no meaning to me." Be that as it may, I
was so struck with the impertinence of the
words that an involuntary expression of in
dignation showed itself, ami caused him to
clianpe his tone and his language.
France could not "have been subjugated by
a more miserable charlatan on the Lign
teentli Brumaire. He will not save the
country The Constitution if only 21 sorry
mask which the tyrant has thought better
to wear for the time being, and which he
will throw out of the window before it be
comes useless to him.
Turenne acmiiretl his glory in tins
Montrcuculi. the greatest general of the
century; Napoleon obtained his celebrity t>y
fighting against all the most imbecile gen
erals thai the House of Austria could pro
vide. Is he liked? How could lie be. tip
likes nobody, but he- thinks be can do with
out affection by making men bend to him
by promotion and presents.
No fixed plan, everything goes by leaps
and bounds. Bach day settles its own at
fairs. And he pretends to believe in fatallt> .
A portrait of Napoleon drawn by a
British hand is to be found, in the 'In
timate Society Letters of the Eighteenth
Century," which the Duke of Argyll has
just published. It occurs in a. letter
written by Lord John Campbell to his
elder brother In 1803, and thus com- :
memorates the central figure of the levee
which he attended at the Tuileries:
A circle is immediately formed a r oun<3
the room; the three Consuls stand at the
fireplace, Bonaparte in the middle. As soon
as the people arc all assembled he be
gins talking to the persons next him,
and goes round just like tho King. Hz
talked a good while to Lord Whitworth,
who presented' me ami about thirteen
others. I stood close to him, and had a.
good opportunity of examining his counte
nance. Fie has hair straight and rather
darker than yours; the shape of his head
very like mine; his eyes licht gray; not
much eyebrow; the brow projecting a goo.!
deal— but not so much as is represented In
the casts at London. His nose is large and
prominent, but has not that sudden rise in
the middle which mine ha?, and as his
busts have, hut resembles William Camp
bell's more. His complexion is uncommon
ly sallow, his beard very dark, but not
thick set, and apparently not newly shaved.
His teeth are very fine, and when he laughs
:or smiles the expression of his face, is
i quite charming. His height. I should think,
is as nearly mine as possible. He is cer
tainly no taller. His limbs are small, but
straight kneed, and neatly made. He was
dressed in the Consular coat, which is
crimson velvet. ' richly embroidered, white
breeches and silk stockings. After having
! gone the round of the circle he placed him
self between Cambaceres and I>j Brun, and
; made three- bows of dismissal, on which
we all retired.
"Vathek.") By Lewis Melville. Illus
trated. 4to, pp.. xv, 091. (Duffleld & Co.)
Including a considerable number of let
ter?, hitherto unpublished, written by
Beckford between 1777 and 1844.
SPONDENCE. Being the Letters of Dean
Swift, Pitt, the Lytteltons and the Grtn
villcs. Lord Dacre, Robert Nugent, Charles
Jonkinson. the Earls of Guilford, Coven
try and Hardwlcke. Sir Edward Turner,
Mr. Talbot. of Lacock. and others to San
derson Miller. Esq.. of Radway. Edited
by Lilian Diekins and Mary Stanton. With
portraits and Illustrations. Svo. pp. xlv,
466. (Dußield & Co.)
The letters contained in this book form
part of the correspondence of a Warwick
shire 'squire, whose character and talents
brought him into contact with many of
the leading men of his day. Tho original
spelling, punctuation and use of capital
letters have been retained throughout.
Hon. George W. E. Russell. Frontispiece.
Svo, pp. xi, 50S. (Dufßeld & Co.) \
A collection of miscellaneous essays and
impressions. With papers on Matthew-
Arnold. Cardinal Manning, W. K. Glad
stone. Garibaldi, "Freddy Levenson" and
THE PASSOVER. (An Interpretation. By
Clifford Howard. 12mo, pp. 260. (R. F.
Fen no & Co.}
The story hinges on the notion that
Judas was led to betray Christ because of
jealousy on discovering that Mary Mag
dalen loved the Master.
DEVIOUS WAYS. By Gilbert Carman. 12mo,
pp. 070. (Duffleld & Co.) . .
A novel by the author of "Peter Homun
culus." David Brockman Is the hero of
the story, which tolls of his restless wan
derings in search of real life-.
Stacpoole. lL'mo, pp. vi, 321. (DuffieJd &
Co. )
A romance of the tropics, describing
the v.ork of white men la the Congo and
the subjugation of the natives.
Hopkins. 12mo, pp. 21>7. (The Houehton
Mifllin Company.)
Reviewed in another column.
ENCHANTED GROUND. An Episode in the
Life of a Young Man. By Henry James
.Smith. 12mo, pp. 345. (The lioughton
Mifflin company
A young architect, new to Now York.
succumbs to the fascination of a beautiful
woman. Despite his remorse tho girl he
really loves is unable to forgive him, but
after struggles and temptations the hero
finally gains happiness.
THE DOCTOR'S ASS. By Edward C. Booth.
Frontispiece. 12mo, pp. 070. (The Century
Jane, "the doctor's lass," is reluctantly
adopt* by him at the request Of her
mother, who had wrecked his early life.
Dr. Humphrey Bentham at first barely
tolerates his ward, but the girl's charm
finally wins his heart. Yorkshire is the
scene of the narrative.
FORBIDDEN GROUND. By Gilbert Watson.
12mo, pp. 021. (Tho John Lanu Com
pany. )
Reviewed in another column.
By William Smith Murray, Ph. D. svo. pp.
■JIW. (Columbia University: ..Longmans,
Green & Co., agents..)
This study aims to give a brief account
of the peoples in the four constitutional
monarchies that are known as the Balkan
States and to trace somewhat in detail
tho movements that have led to their in
By Everett T. Tomlin*on. Fully illustrated,
lima, pp. xl, -'KJ. {The Houghton Mirnin
Am account of the travels of a party of
young people in England, Ireland. Scotland
and Wale*, with information about tbe 1.l
tory and geography of these countries.
Early KngliHli Mystical Trt-ailHud l'rint"d ly
Henri l'emvell in 1321. I^clii (•>'>.. with an
Introduction and DOteS, by Edmund O. Gard
ner, M. A. FroniUplece. lOnio, pp. xxvil,
13J.. {Tuffleld ft Co.)
Issued In tlia "Mocleval Library." With a
frontispiece In colored collotype.
M. Kennedy. Frontispiece. l^mc>, pp. "xlv,
aCJ. tDuflleld & Co.)
An '^explanatory*' book about tlia philos
opher and his works. One of th*> features
of this volume is tbe quotation if some of
Xi.'txsclie'd views on soeinllstn ns expressed
in hi« posthumous wurkis.
i.f Advertising as a liumnfw influence. lv
Place In th« National Development, ami tho
Public Result «( it» I'ntcttcal Operation. By
Ktlwin UalrriiT. With th«» cuum.«l of Thomas
Balnier. I«mo. j>p. U». (DuffU-ld I Co.)
MODERN KNGIN)>. By Thomas \V. Corbln.
Illustrated. 12mu, iu>. 13 J. (it r. F*nno A
( o.)
Am explanation of tho pnneij'lfs and cbJef
leaturea of «t»>arii. ku.-. p«-tr«l and marln* •"
icine;». >team umtra an ,j stcajn boilers, With
rixty-stiven diagrams arid I'.luitiatlons.
TER. unni. Oomptle.l by and irtuier the
»up*rv|»k»n of and published m..l distributed
by Charles Forrest Curry. Perrttnrv of Mate
In accordance with the K-i, Is la !!»•*■ art up
t.rov.,l February 12. lldi.-t illustrated. svo.
j>l>. IH'.U. (Sacramento: State i-iintm* Office.)
lilt. KAKTH. A Modern I'lsy tn Four Act».
IV fame* Bernard Kaftan. Frontispiece.
l-'ino, pp. 164. (Ouflleli] At Co.)
DON. a Comedy in Three Acts. U> i;ujvit
B^ler. Frontispiece. Wm©.' pp.. " 5 - (r>U '
field & Co.) -j^
12W PP- *• S B9 - <»U«1«1<1» U « 1 « 1 <1 * Co) „, By
THE l^f E lsu^°^^ °TS!o pp p p oe^v .3
(The "vessels & Blagell Company).
Probi-™« 1" th f Unlt ? Bt S£" notSrt tSW
3535! ri^ppS^^-^ 1 '
vVrslty: Lonrman,. Gre.n & C*._ A Vr ATF
varsity: Longman., Green * Co.. *«« B " '
- Massachusetts during the period of tn*
-ass? wffiS^K pp. ZC. "■*»
Greencastle. lad. 12mo. PP. **
-Summary and Conclusion.
Doling "HI, th 3 .plrltual truth* and
realities of Mf*. / „„„,„<•«
Man's Duties to Man A. B. I*. «'.aloutta.
♦ Thunder Mukherjl. M. A. B. L. <Calcutw.
S-iah<»swar Mukh«rjt.>
Wa?hin£l«f Manuscript cf ]T>nrt«r«»omy^nJ
Joshua. By Henry A. !-ai^« r», V> nH er* uy
of Michigan. Illustrated. «ft •» '• 10*.
(The Maomillan. Company.)
An account of th« history. P^ 15 *? 1^^
text and content* of this ardent Greek
manuscript. It ia eventually to be tra. 1
SS3T to the Smithsonian Institution, an-1
for this reason It lias been »t«v«-u tho nam«
of th". Washington Manuscript.
-„,.- ■Mima dEpttnt. Msßm '~ "
Marie^ '■ <\V!na-.i. Sharp! Fr^tispiec".
In Spiritual History. By 'Fiona Mi ■■■■
(William Sharp). Frontispiece. 3_n:o, pp.
424. (DuffleM & Co.)
■irr foregoing are Vol*. IV and V in the
new "Uniform Edition" oT «•*««- •« th»
author, which art bolnx edlte* by Mr?.
» Sharp.
t^Sn, Chaytor. With diagrams and Ul«*
tritloM. S?o. CD. xvi. 2SS. lTh6 H<w«hton
jilfnin Company.)
These letters, Which ar» a.idrwsed to tho
author's sons, contain his experiences as a -
angler and many of th* "wrinkle*" -which
he has acquired concerning the Rentier art.
Th*r« are Instructions how to tie the salmon
iur how to save the file* on trtnJT <■>■*»
dressing them on a. loo P of soft nddlestrlng.
and hints on fly tying. There arc eight il
lustrations. .
New York To Be Used for Cruises to
Canal Zone and West Indies.
Announcement was made yesterday by th*
International Mercantile Marine Company
that the. American liner. New York HI be
taken out of the New York and Southamp
ton service in January and used for cruises
to the Canal Zone and the West Indies. This
will leave only three American steamships
in the transatlantic service— namely, the
St. Paul, the St. Louis and the Philadel
phia. , .
' Shortly after the Hamburg- American Line
took over the Atlas service to the West
Indies it started winter cruises, and the
success of these caused other companies
to enter the field- The International Mer
cantile Marino Company, which controls
four transatlantic lines running to this
port, is the latest competitor in the West
Indian cruise business. The two cruises
planned for the New York will be of thirty
one days each. The passenger line? now
running to the isthmus and the West In
dies are tho Panama Railroad Steamship
Company, the Hamburg- can Line, the
United i"ruit Company and the Royal Mail
Steam Packet Company.
Only Persons Having Actual Business
at Tires Will Get Them. ,
A new issut- of nre line badges will b*
distributed from Tire Headquarters on
September 10. There will be only one thou
sand in the lot. as the Fire Commissioner
has decided to out down the number of
persons who enter the fire linen at every
blaze of any account simply to stand and
watch the flarr.es.
The new badges will be radically different
from those in use. They will be of bronze,
and will represent, the front of a lire alarm
box. and will only be given the newspapers,
city officials having business !r. the fire
lines and to representatives of service cor
porations whose trackage, cars or wiring
may need attention during a fire.
The privilege in the past has been abused.
The badges were given to many persons,
mostly politicians, who had no business
whatever Inside the lines. During the fire
which destroyed piers It and 15, North
River, there were over one thousand men
wearing shields in the fire lines, and they
bothered th« firemen. Those wishing to
enter the lire lines after September 10 for
personal amusement will have to pay $50
for the right. The money will go to t!ie
Firemen's Pension Fund.
Prominent Actress Said To Be Involved
in Divorce Action.
Application win made to Justice Mor
schuaser. in the Supreme Court, at White
Plains, yesterday by Mrs. Emma B.
Stewart, through her counsel, Thomas F.
Currart. of Yonkers. to compel her hus
band. Dr. William J. Stewart, to pay coun
sel fees of 5500 and alimony of $125 a
month, pending trial of Ms wife's action
for divorce. Dr. Stewart is a dentist, with
offices at IMb street and Lexington ave
nue. New York City, and is said to be the
inventor of porcelain teeth.
Dr. and Mrs. Stewart were married in
New York City seven years ago, and have
two children. Th's is the third time they
have been in court. Mrs. Stewart began
an action for separation two ye«^» ago, al
4eglng abandonment and non-support. Dr.
Stewart got his wife to com© back and
live with him. but after a short time they
again parted. She th»-n brought suit for
divorce, but on trial was unable to produce
the necessary witnesses. Sha then began
a second action for divorce in Westchestor
County, having moved from Manhattan to
It is said by her counsel that the name
of v prominent actress figure* in the case
Dr. Stewart ha 8 asked for a bill of particl
ulars. Justice Morschuaser reserved de
cision on the application for alimony and
counsel fcos. *
By Rene Ba 2 i n $1.00
The novel of ,„, day „
>ow ready. Tt\t> i
Spirit of America
3 au booksrller*
A write m k c PI < IN T- BOOKS"
published on any iubUof* 1 £? tt « book •*•»
book BJMtar -xlant. \vC, V} " moat •*!>•«
M ray 000,000 .*r a book. '" KngUn.i r»il\a<i
Book SHOI>. Juhu °>" ut 55 1"*-?1 "*-? GREAT
Denies Writ and Clerk Fails to
Get His Job Back. r " j
Justice Lehman rendered a declaton'y^l
terday denying to. Vincent W. W O jt!£»££i
writ of mandamus directtn? r>sfsi>- <^|
enhagen to restore th« petitioner to &j|
Job of satisfaction clerk at the Resfstsfcj
office. WoyU*ek iiad b«*m <Hsrnlsj»«d ft* [?4
infraction of an office rule. ' : *fl
Justice Lehman paid in his decision f
the : question In the proce«dJnr ' -*L '
"whether a charge that th* re!ator*s f^y!
tisek'a) failure to reoort an error or B^j
uro was sufficient to justify a removal, \*
view of th« fact that th<re was no c-jjt^
or rule requiring him to report men 0
partment matter*. The error in tSis eaij:
probably harmed no person. N«>v«rtheta(B
It Is a matter of great public important,
that those In charge of the Register** of.
flee should be informed of similar error*
order that they may remove in-:omp«n»
employes, and the relator might well 33,
considered himself bound to report aae
"In view of th© lons and apparently ttu
isfactory services ai the r«UU>r." th» c*j^ ''
said, "the Register could reasonably j^ ]
&«?e<!pt«d his explanation that Jv- fatld t»*
report the. error becauac he felt that *vl
such report was necessary, but the b<»fcj»
was not a Judicial proceeding and casn'ot]
be reviewed here."
"Wortisek saM in bis petition to the <:«*♦'
that hi had teen removed because fes *a»
a Democrat, but no evidence was prcsd9c*,j
to substantiate this assertion.
SUES HOTEL FOR 00.001 ['
Laundress Was Injured in th« D%ta*.
by Bursting Machine.
Ellen Clary, who was employed at tie
Dakota apartment hotel an a laundrȣ
has brought suit against Edward SeTeSal
Clark, owner of the hotel, for iifftfimti^
Injuries she sustained by the o'irwtSfk
of a part of a machine known as «** «
tractor. The plaintiff spent several tsowla
in Flower Hospital as a result of tae »> ;
Counsel for the defendant ':btaiaeiLas;
order directing the plaintiff to f:ra»n 4
bill of particulars. Miss Clery. throa©
her attorney, yesterday aakci Justice Get
for permission to photograph and inaast
the laundry machinery at the Dakota, is
order to be able to furnl3h the neceajr/
particulars. Tfco court granted perafcsfci
offers complete train, service to ta» j
Catskill Mountains
noted for picturesqua and romance
scenery. The glorious air, the magaiJ.
cent views and comfortable aeconua*
datlons are a great attraction in tit '-
mountain region, which is a para*i
for children and a sanitarium forerejj.
body. !.
Send 8 cents postage for niustratai
Summer Book with map of the Cat
kills and list of hotels and boardiaj
houses. '-'VrS :
N. A. SIMS. H .
General Passenger Ages* • ■
Kingston, St. T.
DAT LINE Suinmer~Exc Bock. Cat»k;:i». «tt V
fore selecting vacation i"-3 send 6c po«mt»*
Hiijtan Rl T e_r._pay_lJce. DgsSrosses St-.jM^
[Garden City Hotel
Garden City, Lone IsiaatL
18 Mile* from New Tor* Open aily«e
New & la Cart* Restaurant.
Fronting- the Sound aad a beautiful patw .
Forty* Mlnutaa from City. *-Js*
Ro7al -Victoria Hotel. Larchraont. >». T.;
Hotel and cottages la tie bears o: ti« Ad***
dacis* overlooking two of the racM ••■g*
iaices la the region. Trout fishln* t»« «*«*
beating, tathir.g. bcwlic?, pool, tennis. "SB*
houae physician. Sanitary plu=Sl=z.po« «*«
water. No pulmonary lava-lii ArUsuo star
logues. _ „ -
MORLETS. Utke Fill— nt HaaaßWß <». >■ ■
" 2CJEW JtKv.
Free parking space for . "- 'mosU«* ..
Grand Stand Seats I" '"' r
Aviation Meet Extended to lag. 23
FOR 72 PAGE BOOK illystratins an^, ?~2i
ing Asbury Park send 3 cents to JIasJCI* 1
Information Burean. Asbqry Pa^k. N- /^__->
Automobillng. riding, drtr :3 «. terra!*- *»"
canoeing, sea bathing, saills;. flawing;
• 273 ROOMS. 200 BATHS.
FRANK TV «iHlTE._Haaaf!t_
A new and delllbtfully located note'- wtt^|J
modern improvements. remaintaS •* .
throughout the entire year, under ta» - 3#
ag»m«nt of FRANK F. SHXTTE. _
New York Qflt'-t 1122 Ero^d*«y-__^*^
ATLANTIC HU.HI\M». N. J-_.Jj*J -_.Jj*
One hour, via Sandy Hook Beats: en *".. .
front; MM* best; *;■.•:;.. rates for *&Jf '
Oct. Tol^phong. No. 71. t>. I._gg^£^- >
Taa Mountain Faraiis*-
I>EI AWAKE WATER G.%T. Ff-«-t»F f-«-t» \ I
Remains open to rvc*.. -> ~~*-~^
leading and ncest hotel •■■. this res'.ep ™^3a> .
who a«ek the b«st In atspotntnseat. "■'• : * :3 * % W^Sl
comfort and location : highest altitude, c*" B ?^
uatlon. Every indoor entertainment *2d f^,
pastime. Special lax^> Summer and Aatssjax*;
Rooklet of camera views an.l V:' ■>
Fourth season. JOHN TVItOT CVjJ^
Tho idea! Hotel at »'■ ■ -■ ■■' oa -*** j
the Autumn Season. - - ■
Leading Hotel at D«ia«*r» W»t»r JJ^jKfcTn
BUI:. Spec. Sept. A Oct. rate* ■■ vg * NX c^ j3 I
will Cad toe
European Columns
at th«
New-York Tribune
a reliable guide to the WjJ,
shops, hotels and resort*;'
Consult These Column*
Before Sailing
and much valuable time »™
be saved for sightseeing-

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