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Address Delivered by Ambassador Whitelaw Reid at the Opening Ses sion of the University of Wales. Abcrystwith, Wales, Oet. .''.1.?The | ?pentng eession of the I'niveralty of Wales was celebrated here to-day. rhia even ing the prlncipal sp'-cker waa vThitelaw Reld. the American Ambas- : ?ador. Hc was frcfjucntly applauded ln the couree of his address. Mr. Reid, who took for hla gttbject "One Welsh tnan," sald: I must begin by expresslng my warm apprcclatlon of this wel< otnc, as well. ee of the high honor you have con ferred in aummonlng me to thle oldest of Weish unlveroltiea, to follow thej Jong Mne of entinent scholars and pub-, licuu wbb have dignif.ed theae aca ?emte ocCaalone by their eervice. How? ever unworthy your present ?peaker mav feel hlmaolf for a place ln that line. he has Imaglned that at any rate he mlght be thought to ehow reepe ggf this large and telect audlence an i 1 for the dlgnity of the occaalon by an effort to estimaw a great tranaatlnnti C representatlve of your own blood. and to recall to your minds some details tn ( his career. Compansoni are rerely agreeabie and . often deloelve. The general outllnea of the career referred to have been fa- j mlllar to you and to all the world for a century. Blnce you are not known to have aaalgnad to this man the ranKj be?ide the famoue WeUhmen who have | lllumlnated your long and brllllant do- . mestlc hlatory which we should have thought aaaerved. it may b you know your hlatory far better than we do. or because you have not rated , his achievements so high is we do You obeerva I do nol altow for exag garatlon in our oarn aatlaaate.-wa rara-; ,v do! But I no not think 1 have been undar any tcmptation to eaaggerate his merlte, and I certalnly atn not biind to his fauits. Founder of a Political Party. He waa the founder nnd nfeiong leader nf political party I profoundly distrusted. and ln my small way ha%e erent mv lh> ln af*oalng. In apite of that I am about to renture on a rash and I faar nngracloua taek. I am go-| ing tobeapeab your frlendly attentlon to a few reaeono for thlnhlng that aome wnrk of this tranaatlantlc offahoot of the Waleh atock does u'most as much honor to the Welah land and race as that of any of your great oona through your hlatory. i am even I nut *nough to thlnk he has made the world h!p debtor as much as did "?welyn. ablert and mogt aucceaaf ul of all l prtncee; or aa much as that famoua I ruier and rebel, Owen Olendower. who 1 flve hundred years ago hold his court near this town. The peaceful laurels of your Ameri? can Walahman mav laat even longer than thoae beetowed by your gratefuii cot.r.trv on Ortfflth ap Rhys. for v|C- - tori,-s ?ver Norman and Plamlah troop- v' cannol pretend to clalm, for him the eulogy earned later by the Bev Grifflth Jonee, rector of Lland dowror-that nearly one-thlrd of tho whole pepulatlon Of his state had been taught to read in his schools. And yet, even in flelds akin to that. he did two things that I well know insure Welsh ratpect. As a young leglalator he suc cet-ded (agalnat the rullng and fashlon aMe classes) ln making tbe alave-trade unlawful in his state; and aa a weary oid man, after having climbed to tho very top of tbe ladder of his natlons ejeatness. having spent forty years ln continuoua publlc eervice, under ha rassing reaponaibilltlea. having shaken the worid. changed its geography and largely remouidt-d its government, he gave his dfclinlng years to the organl zation of n state unlverslty; and as his dylng wlsh asked that that should be one of the three acts of his life sln gled out for record on his tombatone! Mv observattons have not led me to think Wales paitlCUlarly backward, any more than my own country. In an* . proprlating and ralslng to at least their true level the high records >f her sons -when they are dead and gone. Y.-t in the recitals of great thlngU done by the Welsh blood I have not often seen this man's work credited to the off sprlng of the gallant little prlncipality. Stil!. it was exactly in tbe fleld that be long'a peculiarly to this land of moun tains and of llberty. ??or old aat Fraedom on the helghta, The thunders breakiiiK at her feet, \l).v. her snook the starry llgbta, She heard the torrents meet Possibly Wclsh writers may have fceen restrained by the doubt hlnted by the man himself as to his actual Mne- j age. He began hi.* autobiography by aaylng that lt was a "tradltton" ln hl? j father's famlly that his ancestor rame from Wales and from the mountaln ol Snowdon. But the stress of polltlcs. . as we ahall see, had thrown him intc an ultra-democratlc pose as t > any an- j cestors at all. The P'-se beeame more j necessary to his politics because of the j hatred engendercd in that arlstocratlc, i cavalier colony by hla early auccess in ; certain radlcal and levelling meaaurea; j and lt was made more real ??> his own consclousness that after .Ul he had been by origin a plain farmer on the frontier. and had rlsen out ->f his class to a rank among thi landcd gentry. Thla mlght explaln the rather superior air with whkh the future Democratlc party leader dismissed the whole sub Ject ln tbe remark: T.et every one as cribe to these pedigrees the l'alth and inerit hc ehootes." But he was not able, with all hla democratlc pose, to leave it at that A llttle later we nnd him carefully recording the fact that he had found his family name in old Welah law papera?juat ah. later on, when he heard that his wlfes family once had a coat of arms, he hasicn>d to have it hunted up and bought for j *-hlin. and thenceforward dlsplayed it liberally a' hia home and on his grounda. A Preciae Recorder. In estimatitig this shadow of a shade of doubt which he ehose to laava on tha BtatemenU <>f his own fathar and grandfather aa to his origin, we must rameraber that thla ruan was also. from boyhood to extrame old age, one of the moal laborloua and preciae, moat minute and even meticuloua of record ers. He was not able In merc pcrsonal aecounts of pocket nioney, covering yeara and avi.y Inalgnlflcant outiav. lo ?al down one item. or evcn to carry it forward to next year'a balance, al either 8d. or 2d.. if ln fact it had been 2^jd. Naturally sucli a man was not able to accept any family testlmony or anythlng axcept a legal record, daly aealed and wKnaaaed, for any anceatoi farther back than hla grandfather?es paclally alnca ha was tha known aoti of an lll-aducatad and hard laboring ploneer, who roae al i^ st to ba a land aurveyor; and alnca ha was, htmeelf, often found Jeerlng at the vanlty of havlng grandfather^. Now i vanture to think that on equally aubatantlal grounds wa might commit the folly of questioning the Walah blood of Howel Dda the Jood, grandson of RoderUk the Great or ot that Prince of Uyneed, who reigned ovcr thla happy land forty-four years as an "independent vaaaal" Of the Klnc of Bngland. i ahall Indnlge in no auch oatraga. I shall raquaat you to assumc that this man'a fathar and grandfather knew where their family cnme from when It entered the new colony, only two or three generations carller. And so I am here tn ask you to Include among Welah contrlbutlona to, the larger movemanta of tha world tha name nn 1 world-wide fame of Tbomaa Jefferson, nuthor of the Declaratlon of Inde pendence. Do I naed raaaon for this bayond his unchallenged Walah origin.' Who wl'l name the achievement by any other man of Walah blood or of Brltlah blo ?1 which has more largely mfluenced the world for good than that cmplre-shak Ing, contlnent-ahaking document, tiiat ?aved Great Brltaln from herself: tha! aaved Amerlca for herself, and de veloped ln place of the two and a hnlf mlllions of that day a nntlon of nlnety three rallUona on tha conttnent, whlle lt protects and guldes islands of ten or tweive mllHons more ln every zone and on every sea; tha! shook down the most dbatlnate of monarchtoa, turncd it into a republic, with ? reganeratad people, now the most prospcrous gov ernment Ftanco ever had, nnd the most Btable and endurlng it ever had since Loula XIV?not excepting thnt of eltber Napoleon, The Declaration of Independence. Yet the*o are merely some of the external rcsults' more or less distim tly tracenble to the momentous statement he addressed to the clvlllzed world on the Fourth of July, 177t>. I do not dweh upon any Of them or nrgue them. Still less do I insist upon the Engllsh atyle, lucld, convinclng and ol a stately dig nity (unsurpasped, I venture to think, by any offlcial paper In your tliojsand years of Parllamentary history). ln which he clothed one of the most ph;lo aophlc and unaaaallable and yet most rcvolutlonary accounts of the ^rlgln of governnient slnce Plato. "We hold thaaa trutbl to be self-cvident, that all men are andowad by thelr Creutor with cartaln Inallenahle rights, that among these mtc life, liberty and the pursuit of happir.ess, that to aecurc these rlght.s governments are lnstltuted nmong men, derlvtng thelr JuBt powers from the conscnt of the govamad." There was the lnward and apirttua! meanlng ol this whole goopal of your Amerkan Welshman?the Declaration to which he brought the people of his country nnd to Whlcfa he drew tho considerate Judgment of ail others. His real work was the dlfl'uslon of an unaccuatomad ldea of the origin of governnient and of the acOBO of hu man rights?rights held not as Kng llshmen or Amerlcans or Krenchnu'i, but slmply as men. That is the origin of the spirltual unrest whlcli hroke out in Rurope at the close of the eighteenth century. and now pervades all ciasses everywherc?an unrest not to be cjuieted until It tritimphs. But lt never meant and Jeffemon never meant, the madness which the agitator^ of the present day flnd in it. lt never meant wlthdrawing thr mainsprlng of the world's progress. free indlvidual inltlr. tlve. On the eontrary, lt meant the wldest extcnslon of free Indtvtdual Inltlatlve to every human being capable of it, limlted only by respect for the equal rights ot others. Mr. Jefferson wrote to II. L'Hommande fPBTlB, 17871: "The pollcy of the Anierlcan govrrn mer.t is to leave thelr citizens free. nelther restralnlng nor alding them in their pursuitt- " And to M. de Meunier, la 1T1?.": "1 am a wurm zealot for thr attalnment and enjoyment by all man kind of as much liberty ns each may exerclse. wlthout injury to the equal liberty of his feilow citizens " Old Controveraies Idle. Nelther doaa It apatt to n.e ln the leaat worth while to revive the old con trovertles as to the orlglnality of the Dei 1 iration. or as to what thi:ikers flrst OOncatved its proposltlons. Whether mere platitude, as some said. or wlld apcculation by an irresponslble :heo rist, aa olhera aald, or profound and phtloaopnlcal conaidaratlon of the sub jc< ta of araataat human oonoarn, as in th. and it eaflM t" be gencrally consid arad, the famous Declaration eonslsted af prlnciples nrst so stated. arranged, COllatad and phrased by practlcally the iola PCI of Thomas Jefferson. Still, forty.aeven years later? his pep. pery old colleague. John Adams. WTOl to Pickerlng: "There is not an Idea ln it but what ba.l been backneyed W Congraaa for two years before The ?ubetance of it H cntained ln the declaration of right*. and the vlolatlon of thoae rlghta, ln the Journahi of Con? gress in 1774. Indeed, the eaaancaoTII la contained m a pamphlet votad ana r.rlnted by the town of Boaton before the Mrst Congress met. COTOI>oeed I jamaa Otle, as i auppoae, ln one of bu ludd lntervals. and pruned and pO - Bmed bv Bamnal Adams." Bvon '-"? 0f virglnla wrote that it waa copled from LcckVi Treatlae on Oovernment Othera tracad Ita Inspiration to Roua laau'a Contrat Boclal, or to Mon teequleu'a Baprlt dea Lola; and othera, wltb bettar reaaon, to Coke upon Ui tieton. A leaa reepectable wiggeatlon was that It was imitated from the Bfecklenburg Declaration. Now, Mr. Jeffereon waa choaen bx I the Congress a member. tho member : wltb thi largest vote. 0,1 tho committee j for Its preparatlon. Th* other mem bera of the committee were John | adanva, Benjamln Pranklln. Roger I Sherman an.l Robert Ltvlngaton. He | was choaen by thli committee to pre pare and preaent tbe work He did present it. the P'opie of his conntry did uulte and act upon lt: the world did glve it a stnrtled and unlve.sa! conaideraUon. That la the eeeentlal thlng. There were four other men of the hlgheat note on this oommlttet of Congreea. No one of them did lt. No one claimi to have done It Every ehange ever made in it from Mr Jef : feraon'a erlglnal draft 1* of record No : oni of them is vital; though. aa John Adama hlmeelf aald, it mlght have been battar if nome paaaagea had been left an they were Stlll. the dOCUment Is in i bettar taste wlthout aome of them. The yovng, lelf-tralned wrlter of thlrty three had not then wholly ontgrown ! bla aophomore atyle, and he never out I grew hl? hablt of over-etatement. But ! as it atanda it la eeeenitally hla an I ; aa aucb lt baa taken Ita pla< ? among ' tho epoch-making state papera of the I v.-orl 1. Tilt with John Adams. He mlght no doubt have rei lallent under the remark of his old friend end co-worker of Maeeacbuei tl But ollence was rarary hla glft?eepe dally when hla vanity waa wounded. B . he wrote: "The obaervatlona thal the Declaration conUlned no new Ideas, that it la a commonplace compllatlon, 1U aentlmenta backneyed ln C01 gi for twi years bafore, and its ? . 1 ntalned ln Otlss pamphlet. ? i?. tuic. Of that i am i...t to ? judge Otla'a pamphlet I never aaw, and v hether I had gathered mj 1 ? from readlng or reflectlon 1 do not know. I know only that 1 turned to nelther book nor pamphlet whlle wrlt ing it. I did not coneider lt as an'. i.art of my < harg- t.. invent new Idena altogether and to offer no aentlmei t bad cv.r been aapreaeed before I will say for Mr. Adams. however, tb lt he aupported ihe Declaration wltl and abllity, hghtlng fearleaaly for even ,,, , . of it." It muBl be admttted that Mr. j.-fferaon doea not appear badly ln thla little paaaage ot arms, To day cerUinly no hlgh-ndnded American WOUld have had the author of the I' IhWatlon answrr otherwlse. or WOUld 'have had bla concludlng paragraph', [wblch walded indlaaolublj togetlwr I the thlrteen colonles, changed from the worda in a/htch he framed and : algned it: \y. therefore. the Repreeentattvea j (lf (j. r- iti 1 Btatea of Ameri< a, ln GeneraJ Congress asaemhjed, aPpea< ' ing t" the Bupreme Judge of tbe world ' f,,r the r.-. Htude of our Intentiona do ln th. name, and by authorlty of the good people of theae colonles. eolenvnly publlali and declara, that theae unlted colonlea are. and of right ought to be, free and Independent atatea; that they ai.- abaolved from all alleglame to the British Crown. and that all Political connectlon between them and ihe Stati of c.rcat Hrltain ia, and oughl to be, tntatly dlaaolved; and that as fre.- and Independent Btatea, they have full power t<. levy .ur. condude peace, eontracl alliancea, establlsh commerce, and to do all other acta and thlngl whlch independent Btatea may of rlghl do. And for the BUPPOli of thla Decla? ration, with a tlrm rellance on the pn> tectlon of Divine Providence, we mut ually pledge aach other our llvea our fortunes, and our sacred honour lt requlres a profound eonvictlon to present to this audience such remarka concernlng this Declaration and Iti author. Bven then it requlroa nonu raahneas to assuu.e that they can bc weicome, or even tolerated, if i were ln mv firat year In ofticlal rrsldence at this court insteau of thi eighth, I feel surc that I should not venture upon ;t But ; have bad loo many and too varie<i experiencee as t.? the breadth of Britlah political thlnking and the gen? erous boapltallty with whlch BrHoni regard all political OPtnton dlfferent from their own, and partlcularly all boneat political opinion from any branch of their qwh race, to healtate even at what must at lirst ajght ?? R] llke the canonizatlon, in >>.ur oWn land and at your own shrliu-. of one who atruck aa powerful a blow against the BritHh Bknplre Of that day as any man wlthln its va^t extt-nt 01 throughoui its long and glorlous hlstory. Blow for British Righti. But the biow was not against the British people. lt waa fgf Bntlsh rights and Brltiah freedom al home M well aus across the seas. That vlew has baan gO often presented by your own Wtitera that it may now be treated as Wldely accepted. No one has of late put it forward more gracefully or m. re ptrsuaslvely thati the present I.ord President of the Councll. Lord Moriey. This young man who wrote the Declaration at the age of thlrty-three. wlthout ever having been out of his native colonles, and not much even out of the one ln which he was born, after a aubaequent career crowded with con spicuoua duties and honors, and half a j . entury later, looked back over hla whole life and aelectcd, aa we have aeen, the three thinga he had done by whlch he wished to be remembered, and whlch he wished recorded on hts tomb stone. Two were the work of hts yotith. the statute for Religlous Freedom ln Virginla. and the Declaration; the third has already baan mentioned, the pas slon of his old age. the founding of tha rniverfcity of Virginia. What a Hst of undlaptrtad and ex traordlnary achlavemanta he thua ignorad, Pealdaa these three, he was the author of "A Bummary View of the Rlghta of Brltlah Amarica," aubae quently adopted by I-Mmnnd Burfca and publlahad bpoadcaat ln Bngland, with ? ?,. raault that the name of Thomaa jtfferaon decorated tha llal of pro icribed ln the Bral hiu of attalndar. This "Siimmary View" was aftcrwanl conaldered even more cogent and com prehenalve than the Declaration. AggJnal a multitude of difficulties. -omewlint of his own maklng. he 08 curad the annexation of a tarrltorlal emplre to tha aatlon his Declaration had created?the state . f Lonlalana, .u tha mouth of tha MlagJeeippt, with a iraat extent of terrltory on tha weai bank of that rtver, atretchlng almoat to tha Canadlan fxonUer, and, a.- ha believed al tha time, on the east almoat to Florlda, Aa a mara tyro ln legtala tlon hc aacured, agalnat ovarwheiming aoclal preaaure, tb< aboliUon both of entall and of primoganltura ln his natlve colony. Ha aarvad for i year on various dlplomatlc commlaaiona In Bu rope, and for four years aa Mlnlater to EPrance, during the turbulenca of the Revolution; oonaulted not only prlvate ly but offlclally with the revoluttonlata, ami wenl fai beyond diplomaUt uaaga or proprlety In manlfeatlng hts actlve ?ympathy with them; aerved twlce as Gov rn i t" hla natlva atata once as ? u-y 0f state to Qti rge Waahlng ,?,?. .,.?,. M vice-Praaldeni of the Unitad Bti taa and twlce ai Pr< ii,. made greal contrlbutlona to the plant llfa and ti tha agrtcultart of tha ountry, and Import sd f< r tba i ? ? Hc benefit hlgh bred cattle and other j ..,:,.?. n< iaauad tha patent | for u,. cotton gln, and waa almoat the | Bral t ? graap the enormoua poa which flnally led to Ita maklng cotton Klng.i-to the temporary mlafortune of hire and th.- honor forevei aplendid and i ylng worklngmen. ti ng In rlnance, h< | shape ln ? ir a: at< m I i one really valuable flnaw lal contrlbutlon, I declmal ayatem He created and led I Democrattc party. which ruled the ? ntry, almoat wlthoul a break. for ovei i alf a i entury. ii flral taughl I . mtrymen their vaal ? and even Ita i from tt t Northwt atern atrati h revi in the Loulaiana purcl aaa I the yet ? important and Imperlal reglon ra i by the Lewla and Clarki ? i pedltion. which ?? i ' ,,ls- ,n Ita i onceptli n, ln Ita org inlaal n. ln eof tha men to o nd i< I lt, an i ln its aupport yet || v\:i.s a sure Inatlnct that led the old man I i the brlefer record on I . . three thlni l hletortc acta, mm of th ... nal Ij of 'ii- Bi all al ? ' tad. enormo valuable. upllftlng humanlt exeeut ? , crttldam; thal expi ng avlctl m w. lll.conaldered and extravagant. and often amaalni ?? ln onalatanl and hla ?cta aa a polltlclan frequentl) fi tandard of the P on govemment Kavari the a.ht.-v.m.nts i, M a marvel oua careei for the raw-honed, rod-headed aon of the Altx farmer and lai r for any man, ln any aga *et they were. they were not needed for hla tom ? ? ? ? >'??? ? ' thal wi ' ? ??' aura Htle to the iratltude of poeterity; ona of them certatnly a aura tltl< to Immorullty. Head of Gold; Feet of Clay. But lf tha figure I have been pi Ing aa an honor to Wblea haa a head of gold, lual s~ learlj II ? 111 '??? ' have had feel of clay. There la no tyranny like thal of i greal Idea When once honeatly entertalned rapable and alncere man. lt poi ? him, it obaaaaea him, and may iea-1 or drive him anwvherc Mr. Jefferaon honeatly believed Ui 'he Inallenable righl of all men t . llfa Hbert] and happlneaa, that governmenta were ln etltuted among men to secure theae, and that they derlved their Juat powera only from the preeenl conaent of the governed. Ha did not .-fe that govern? menta were Juat aa dletlnctly lnsti tuted to praaerve order and proteel n i, n. thelr eamlnga, as well aa their liberty, and that prtmaiily every gov ernment must rest upon force. Carry Ing hla own faacinating pronoaltlqna to thelr limit. he thought the f.rm of gov? emment shouid provlda that th- people couid alwaya and al once have thelr way. aubjecl to no hlndrancea or delay for conalderatlon. Whoever thought thal neadad, was n<>t to be truated; ha was no frlend to tha llberth a of the i - o j.,, Conaequently, alr.Jefferaonloofced coldly on tha Conatltutlon of the I'nited Statea as B .-v-telli of IIOHi >rt.-ii . !,. | g| in tha Inatant exaeuUon of the popular will. and believed tha greateel dong?r tha oountrj waa in came tt<>m tlie per - ibi aho made thla Conatltutlon Ma I ol them had foughl for Indcp ndi di ?? Ha never had; but ba did nol 1m ItaU tp conatder them now eager to analave \h~ country they had rlaked thelr llvee to frov in thla auaplcloua m >> 1 it was eaay to attuch Importance to trlflea, That the Bral Praaldant shouid go to meel I Congreaa, on its aeatmbltng, and glv< i in peraon th.- eonununlcatlona concern i ing tha atata ..f th" Unlon which the Conatltutlon requlred of him, aeemed to Mr. jefferson a dangeroua Imltatlon of the King of Bngland at tha opentng of Parllamanl even though the al leged Imltator was Oeorga Washington That the f.rat efftcer of the natiog shouid not be always as BCCaaatble BJ n machanle to anybody who had or faic led ho had buslness with him wus another aping of monarchlcal bablta and an evenlng reception at the Whlte House waa a dlatlnct effort to set up a court. Be knew uotiilng about national tinance?any more than about hl~ OW/a; and his dlatrust of Alexander Hamilton. Waablngton'a Becrotary ot tbe Treaa ury. led him Into ahaurd rev latlons of his archalc ami parochlal notions on tha subject. Ha thought we wara not bound to pay any debta imurred for the publlc service by lha generatlon befdra na, and had no right to lncur any d.'bts for the beneflt of the next generatlon. Here la his own state tnent- "We may Cdnelder each gf-nera tlon as a distlnct nation, with a right by the will of Ita majorlty to bind j th msolves, but none to blnd the auc ce< dlng generation. more than the in babltanta of another conntry. Tba I??riod of a generati.m ls determlned by the laws of mortallty, varylng a little ' in different climates. out olTerlng a general averaga of nlneteen years. At nlneteen years. then, from the date of a contract the majorlty of the con tractorf are dead and their contract with them." (Pord, X. p. 380.) Later j on he advanced hla eatlmate of ? gen? eration from nlneteen to thirty-four years. but extended his ideas Of the impoaalbllity <>f any longer blndlng obllgation so as to include not jnerely debte, but laws. and even the Constl tution Itaelf! "The Conatltutlon and the laws of their predeceaaora are ex tlnguuhed In their natural courae with thoae thal gave them being. Every , conatltutlon, then, and every laW nat urally explrea at the emi of thirty-four; yeara if it be enforced longer, lt Is an ad of forco and not of right." Such I was the dellberate and carefully writ- j ten opinion of the Pather <t the Dcm OCratlc party. T! e greatest city of ' th>- Atlantlc Coaat has been governed now almost COUtlnuoualy by his fol lowera for a century, ln spite <>r these Jefferaonlan prlnclplea, they bave cre? . ited m that time ;i debt conatltutlng a fir.-i mortgage on all the property in Nea Y.-rk City for $815,000,000. Poa m -< d with such wild notions, he could m.t mind bla own bualneaa ln the Cabl net, but waa perpetually haraaalng Washlngton with atta. ks on the tlnan- , i lal pollcy of the Secretary of the <me pollcy and the rame Becretary of whom Daniei Web iter aald, thlrty-flve yeara later: "He ?mote the rock 'f national resourees, and abundant itreama of revenue guahed forth. He touched the dead rorpee of Publlc ? redlt, and it sprang upon it-- f< et " i if the pollcy thua Justly euloglaed on i'u reaulti by the -. ? ^ ?: ..f the neal genera? tlon. Mr. Jefferaon flnally broughl him aelf t.. write (In the Anaa, Pord, I, r lOn "Hamilton'a flnanclal pollcy was ? .i in corruptlon and dishon estv It had two objecta -flrat, as a to exclude popular underatand ? I Inqulry, aecondly, as a ma rhlne for the corruptlon <.f the legis lature." Th-- lack of pure r' r.n>'l an almpllcity, as he con elved lt. and the lack of sytnpathy with these amazlng dogmaa of Jefferaonlan I i inc< I rought him by the cnd of the thlrd admlnls ..' any cost. theae monarchleta In dlagulae, the sup of Oeorge Washlngton and john Adama, muat be turned out of ? g -. ? rnmi nt, to pre* aerve "our threatened llberties." Split in Wa?hinqton's Cabinet h - the i eal of moth ? i, the p laalon foi llberty, led to ihe flrat greit dl ln th. Unll ?d Btatea; to ihe llral iplll ln Washlngton'a Cab? inet from whlcb Jefferson resign*d after tl ? r and to an tered war upon his old cojleague ? i john Adama, whi ae Praal dentlal career he cul ah r* al 'he end r.rin. <>n the one hand were th.- men of th<> Conatltutlon, who wiahed th- people to rule, but also a ihed them to paj thnr debte, and Ight to gu.ird against such audden nd r lah actloi 1 .?' oal the llfe of prevloua republlca. On the other hand v. ? i ? ? he i - ilonate d< ? itaei of llberty abova everythlng, who belleved th.it reatralnl or delay ln th.. immedi ? . - if.. n of any haity and ill-con ?Idered poi ?? ind was unrepub llcan .mi dangeroua, and meant an ef fori to reetore the monarchy. Both were alncere; both wanted the people to rule Bul th.- one wanted th- people to have their way througb the ordlnary proceasee of a government they had tnemeelt ? i I and ibaolutely con trolied. the other wanted them to have i it at any baxard and at once. <?f thla la.-t party Mr Jefferson bo- j came Inevltably th> head- drlven to lt: by tho great Idca of llberty, of the orl-1 gtn of government and of Ita aole pur poae, whlch poaaeaaed him. Hamllton, whlle be llved, was as inevltably the; leader of the other party. He was t young man with far lesa than Mr. Jef feraon'a advantagee, and (only oxeept Ing the Declaration) with fully equall achlevement Of theae rlval leadera the Wolshman w;is born to a landed 08 late, and a place among th<> ruiing; . laeeea ln the graateat and moat influ entlal of the colonlea His Huguenot- \ s otttab opnonent was born to nothlng, and made bla own way In the world : from boyhood The one early took hla i natural place among the legtalatora <?( bla colony; the other, much earller won | for himsclf his natural place as .i leader la the Btormy political aglta tiona of the y.-ars before the Declara? tion, ln the great city of the CoMt. When the war whlch the DecUnatloii Invlted broke out, Mr. Hamllton flung' himseif hnpetuottaly into lt, was a sol dler at elghtaen, a captaln of artuiery in actlve eervice ln the New Jerai v eampalgn at nlneteen, prlvnte Becre? tary to the Commander-ln-Chlef at twenty. leader of iita cetnmand In the aaaault on Cornwallla'g tirst redOubt at Yorktown at twenty-four. Mr. Jeffer? son never entered the army at all. At the sarne age at whlch one was follow ing Waahlngton in the New Jaffaay eampalgn, the other was placldly pur eulng IiIh coiiegiate itudlea al Wlllkun aml Maty. At the age at whlch the one was awe] mg tumultuoua popular meetlnga ln New York, in all the ex cltementi pracedlng the outbreak of war, the other wus a favorite student in the offlce of one of the best lawyers of his state and waa Just dlscoverlng that be could not speak at all, that hla only weanon was the pen. This, it must be confesaed, ha used relentlesa ly, and with great temporary effect. For hla permanent reputatlon It would bo better If threo-fourtha of what he wrote had never been preserved. At thirty-eight tho one hud com pleted a wonderful career ln oamps, ln Conatltutlon maklng and ln the t'ahlnet, and was retlring to enter upon private llfe in the most exueting of the profeat-lons and to conquer hla place aa a great lawyer, lnferlor to no other tu that mgtion of lawyers. At 1-m\ the age of thirty-eight the othsr had behlnd him a wonderful record, too. | 1 as Burgese of Vlrginia. member of the Colonlal Convention and of the Ccntl nental Congress, author of the Dec? laration of Independence and twlpa Governor of Virginia. After bareV nine years in private life fall he ever j had slnee boyhood) Hamllton fell ln* an unprovoked duel with a polltical opponent at the age of forty-seven. At forty-seven Jefferson had left the Goveroorship of hla natlve state ln some dlscredit from his lack of execu tlve abillty, had been twlce ? member Of tlre Congress at Annapolis. had ? spent flve years in diplomati' service ; abroad, four of them as Mlnlster to France. and had been Secretary of | Stat<?. Before him there still lay ser vice for one term aa Vice-President of the United States, for two terms as President. and then after nearly forty years' ofhVeholding, there yet lay seventeen years spent in retirement, and In lnees?=ant political exhortatlon. Still the record made by the one before. he was forty contrasts not unfavorably with the record left by the other at elghty. A Philosophic Thinker. Mr. Jefferson was not a man of genlus. We have ?een that h? was not an orator, not a soldier. not ,i good Ex acutlve, least of all a well-balanced | statesman. But he was a pliiloaopblc thinker, or dreamer, and yet with aj wonderfully practb-al gift for readlng the tendanclaa of the populace. and for puttlng them tatn narauaalve and state ly language. Constantly he did this so as to command polltical success; once he did it ao that its consequences have encircled the globe and the world will remember him forever. He araa at onca a phlloaophar and a partlsan. But his philosophy was sornetimea ill-hal ineed and lll-conaldered; his partisan Bhtp was alwaya adroit and carefully eonalderad, generally auccessful and aometlmaa naefuL Hla other accnmpUehnienta were va rli '.. It was John Adarns who de scrlbed how he was welcomM to the ContlnenUl CongTean, "as he brought with him a r.-putation for Uteraturtr, acience and a happy talent for compo Bltkm." It waa whlaparad about that "in addltlon to Latln and Greek. he underatood Prencn, Italian and Span lab, was learntng Oerman, and Intended to karn Oaellc lf he could get the booka from Bcotland, In ordet to reau Oaalan (whom he conaMarad the great est of poets), ln the origmal. Tho drollery of his deelra to atudy these orlgtaauf of Oaalan is heightened by his advice ln a letter to a nephaw, to pay DO attentlot, to college laCturee OO moral phUoaophy. and to atudy the wrltlnga of Laurence sterne, as form ing the beet course of morallty that ever was wrltten. Bealdea ha w>uld ealculate an acllpae, aurvay an eetate. tle an artery, plan an editlce, try a caae, break a horse, dance a minuet and P?*y th0 vioiin." The lrtSt wafl ln" dead a favorlta purault He hlmaelf has left it on record that for twalva years of his life he played the violin for three hours every day?a devotloo to mualc you wlll parhapa think not unworthy of hla Walah blood. Not Altogether Admirabla, I began by asking you to consider a tew reaaona why some work of his ga\e aa much credlt to the Welah atock aa anythlng done by any other man of the i lood. 'But I did not commi i as a uniformly aound polltical thinker, or as an altogether admirabla man. in fact, aa a poUttoal opponent he was at 'imes ungeneroua and underhanded. Even hla doae friend. James Ifndlaon, was conatralned to apologlze for his frequent eatravagance and li tency. He wroU: "AUowanea otight to ;?. made for a habit in Mr. Jefferson. as ln all Othere of great genlus. of ex preasing ln atrong and round terms imi reaalona of the moment." (Randall. l. paga 188 ? A f,'u' axamplaa may. show the urgent need of this alkVWance, Knd at tha aame time bring hla real charaeter and its UmltaUons Into clearer rellef. They will also show the absurd extravagance to which, in his polltical daya, he babitually reeorted, as the surest means of lmpresslng the less tntelligont voters. He regarded Blackstone's .Commen tarlea and Hume's History of Kngland aa pernlcious. "They have made To ries," he said. "of ali Kngland. and tre' maklng Tortee ol thoae young Amerlcans whose natlve feelings of in iependence do not place them above the wily sophlstrles of a Hume or a Blacketone. Theae two books havr done more towards the suppression of the llbertlea of man than all the mlll lon of man ln arms of Bonaparte, and the mlllions of human llves with the Bacrlflca of which he wlll atand loaded before the Judgment seat of his Maker " A modern Sens.uional newspaper wrlter COUld hardly have put it atronger. Under the sting of newspaper attack I this extreme advocate of popular rights proposed the uppointment of govern ; ment Cenaora for the press, and WTOte ftO Washington: "No government OOght j to be Wlthout censors. Where the press I Is free no one ever wlll be." To Mr. j Maury he descrlbed the press as "that I flrst of all human oontiivances for gen erating war." Yet to John Adams he i wrote: "The llght ifrom prlntlng) has dawned on the middllng CkuaBM only or . the men ln Europe. Tho kiugs and the rabble, of equal lgnorance, have not yet 'received Its ray's; but while printlng Is preserved. lt can no more recede than I the sun return on Ita course." Yet ? agaln, on February 4th, lMb\ he wrote ! to James Monroe, thanklng him for 1 private letters, and saying: "From forty years experlence of the wretched I guesswork of the newapapera of what | ia not done In open dayllght, and of thelr falsehood even as to that, I raplv think them worth reading, and almost never worth notlce." Some Centradictiona. No man made more phrases about the absolute rlght of every man to gov ern hlmself; but in the constitutlon which he wrote for Virginia he re qulred a landed property qualifleatton for voters, a quarter of an acre ln towna, or twenty-nve acrea ln the country. He pralsed a conatltutlon of Spaln, "which after a centain epoch disfranchlsea every citizen who cannot read and wrlte." To a Frenchman. tha Abbe Arnond, he wrote: "The people are not qualifled to leglslate. With ua therefore they only choose the legl*? lators." To Lafayette he wrote: "A full measure of llberty la not now per hapa to be cxpected by your natlon, nor an I confldent they are prepared to preaerve it. More than a generatlon vlll be requisite, under the applleation of. reasonable laws, favoring the prog raM of know ledge in the great tnasa of the. people. and their habltuatlon to an mdenendent securlty of perso.t and proptrty, before they will bo cupable of eatimatlng the value of freedom and the necessity of a sacred adherence to the pryidpiee an which it rests for preeorvktlon. inst^ad of that llbeny which Ukes root and growth ln the progreas of rea?on, if recovered by nure force or accldent, it becomes with an unprenareu p*'?ple a tyranny atlll, of the many, the few, or the one." And In ourtoua contrast with hia political de ?cendanta, who now wlsh to have ihe decislona of the highest courts re viewed or even reversed at popular ekCtione, he sald bluntly: "The people are not qualitied to judgc questlona of law." To. If. COray he wrote: "Mod ern tlmes have dlacovered the only de vice by whlch the people's rights can be tie<ured, to-wit: Government by the people, acting not in person. but by repreeantatlvea choaen by themseives? that la to aay, bf every man of ripe years and sane mind, who elther con tribtttes by his purse or his peraon to the support of his country." He rajOOnellad his personal feeling with holding offlce almost contlnuously for forty years; but when he became Preaident he was vehen.ently in favor of rotation in offlce. and waa the author of the doctrtne that "to the vlctora be long the spolls." He cxhorted Albert Gallatln to "put down the banka; and if this country cannot be carried through the longeat war against the most powerful enemy wlthout ever knowlng the want of a dollar, wlthout dependence on the trait oroue claases of her cltizena, wlthout bearlng hard on the resourcee of the peopl*. or loading the publlc with an InfamoeJI burden of debt. I know noth Ing of my countrymen." "In perfect and universal free trade" he dlacovered another of "the natural rights of men. I am for free commerce with all nations, political connectlona with none. and little or no dlplomatlo establishment." He was opposed to bulldlng up man ufacturing establishments. "Let our workshops remaln ln Europe.' ln a letter to John Jay he wrote: "I consli er the class of artiflcers a* par.dexers of vlce and the inatruments by whlch the llberties cf a country are gencr ally overthrown." He even conal vellow fever a provldential bleaalni becauM "lt wtli discourage the - of great clties in our natlon, and these great etttea aa peatllentlal morala, to the health and to ertlea of manklnd." He wrote that he waa "not a I to a very energetk government. 1 atwaya oppraaalve.." Blaawhere he - clared, "A free government ls of others the n.ost energetic." An Enemy of Titlee. He was so Bteepcd ln the FYei Ideaa of untvereeJ aquallty and the Int portance of addreaalnf avarybcdy mere |y u -CltlxenM that ho wrote. "I hope that the terms Exoellency. Hor.or. Wor ship Eequlre, will forever dla from among ua. I wlsh that of Mleter to follow them " Hla boatmty to the Conatltutlon was not concealed, To John Adama he sald- I eonfess there are thinga in lt whlch stagger all my dlspositKns to lubacrlbe to what such an assembly naa propoaed Th* President aecoa a bad edltlon of a PoUah ktng." To James Madlson he sald: "The second featuro I dlsllke. and what I strongly dlsllke la the abandon ment. ln every lnstance. ot the prlncl ple of rotation ln offlce." With char actertBtle inconslstency he afterward wrote to James Madiaon ln 1801. ?No Constltution was ever before ?? w*U calculated aa oura for extenaive ampfra and aatf-government." M t? the same man hc- had wrttten. from tbe midst of the French Revolutlon. depre ratttlg the tdea that Shays'e Rebelllon conatltuted a reason for haattnlng tbe adoptlon of the Constltution. or mak lng lt a strong one. -Ood forbld." be exdaimed, "that we should be twenty, years wlthout a rebelllon. We have had thirteen stateg Independent for tieveti yeara. There has been but one. rebelllon. That comes to ono rebelllon ln a century and a half for each atate What country ever exlated a century and a half wlthout a rebcllion? What aigninea a few llves lost ln a Oenturj or two? The tree of llberty muat be re freshed from time to tlgM *>th lbd blood of patriots and tyranta" And flnally he referred to the Constltution ?>s a kite sent up to keep the aenyafg in order.'' The Louisiana PurohaM. Afterward he became a atlckler for the exact terms of the Constltution. When the questlon of the purchaae o Louisiana arose. apparetitly he did noi thmk Of the conatltutlon at flrat Then ho frankly admltted that the Constlta tion gave him no authority to purchaw Louisiana. and wrote to his polltlca frlends aaklng them to keep qulet aboul the constltutlonal questlon ln th* same gtttftt he waa most rlgid about expendlturea of publlc money, but ai waya found waya to use it f^r othet ends like the purchase of Louisiana, whlch be had at heart. He was the author of the KentucKJ reaotUtlona, whlch aupported the ? tremest doctrlne of State Rights an* justifled Nulllflcatlon; and yet he wroti elsewhere that "when any one state ? the American Cnion refuses obedlenc* to the Confederation to which thej have bound themseives. the rest hav< the naturnl right to compel lt to obeOl ence." (Curtls. p. 302.) Surely here are enough ineonal8ten' cles. extravagances and exaggerationl to ahow the need for Mr. Madlson s piej that "allowance bo made for them." most of them he waa abaolutely m cere. But no aketch of hla career ol aatlmate of hla character would .be BO* eat tvlthout aome mentlon of othera ?