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Chicago Mas School for Industrial Lead?
ership to Fit Worhing Girls to Rat?
tle for Themselves- Taught to
Meet Police Interference.
I T IS m harmony with the spi
_? the times that an organi/ati
women should have foi
America's first School for Indi
Leadership?for women. Heret
when an industry has become o
i/ed strongly enough to form a i
the head has almost always b<
man. unless a strike has happen
throw into prominence a w
eadr*. But that there are
women in the ranks who have v
themselves potential leadcrshi
strongly behevcd by Mrs. Rayi
Robing, president o? the Nat
Women's Trade Union League, i
the auspices of which the Schoe
Industrial Leadership was ioun
Mrs. Kuhins knows well wh
she speaks. She herself is a s
economist and a member of the (
mission on Industrial Education u
American Federation of Labo
membrr o: the Executive Comnr
ol the Illinois section oi the Ame
Association for Labor Legislation
ot the American Academy of Pol
and Socia' Science. She is the s
of Miss Mary E, Dreier, until reu
president of the New York Won
Trade Union League, and siste
law of Mrs. H. Edward Dreier, cl
man oi the Brooklyn Woman Sufi
party, not to mention the fact
*he is the wife of Raymond Ro
known nation-wide as a social sei
:xpert and an advocate oi organ
labor and land value taxation.
Mrs. Robms unfolded to mem
ot the Jnter-City Conference of S<
Workers last week the working
of the school and its probable h
ener as a factor in the growth ol
Freedom Comes from Within.
Mrs. Robms thinks that real f
dorn and dignity can come to
working woman only when she
comes bold enough to stand for 1
self and her comrades.
To illustrate her point, Mrs. Rol
"I have only to look at the cha
that has taken place in the girls v
whom I started when the Natic
League was organized ten years a
in 190.\ to know that the few. ^i
a chame van, in turn, liberate
many. Those girls, young, tin
backward then, are now big, self-c
tatned. Base! women And there C
not be eell-government in any ind
try until all the women workers ov
come their timidity and become w
ing to accept the responsibility of
cisions on their own behalf."
There are plenty of women of I
so-called "educated classes" who he
been lighting for the working worn,
but it is intended that this school sh
enable her to do the work for hers
and so give her initiative and cor
Oi gamzation. Then Se'f Govei nme
The first purpose of the Natiot
Women's Trade Union League is
organize women into trade unions,
does not believe that there can be a
measure of self-government until the
is organization. It also does not thi
that their can be organization un
there is education.
Be ause of this latter belief. I
?eventy-hve women, reprcscntii
twenty.three trades, who were prese
at the fourth biennial convention
the National Women's Trade Uni<
League, held in St. Louis in June
last year, voted to start a school f
training in industrial leadership. /
that time there vas no money in tl
treasury with which to equip a DC
manent school, and the only thing 1
do therefore seemed to be to star,
temporary school at the national h';:
ed Gi'-'s Feel '.
M'5 Rubin'., sent out a pr?parai ?i
statement to organizations all ov?
?he country, In answer she got o:
Hundt ed repites, not irotn girls wh
were alteady more or less leadr
from little factory (irla m Alabam
and shop ^i la in Texa
Ir cav!; case, however, in whit h
kjir' ia sent to the Chicago school th
?iariona! organization would
^iave her responsible tc .o:re ut;
Trade Union League or to sorr:<
allied local group, suen as a loca
union or a local federation of labor
who will help to share the expense o
her training and to whom she will re
turn at the end of it. and under whose
supervision she may work in any ttjih
that may need her at the moment.
Three C'rla Fleet Pupils.
Therefore, only three gu!. tx
enrolled al the school last year?
Louise Mittelstadt, a member oi thf
finfoilerV Union of Kansas City, ei
hy the Industrial Council oi K
City. Myrtle Whitchead, a member ol
lie Cork. Crown and Seal Operators'
Union or Baltimore, sent by the Trade
Union League of Bait more, and
Kanny Cohen of the Ki.nono and
Wrapper Union of New York, sent
through the co-operation of friend
The industrial Council of Kansas
which ii tha i If vie ,
'.1 Laboi .. i rganization ol men
i he rr* ty tO
opcratoi ia bet .i.i"
the:/ opinion, she
'? t,:c oi;c HfOrkiag woman to Kgj
City capable ol organizing tia
They therefore Rave her a leave
abs.nce of four month-, with full
ary of $15 a week. As a good
centage of the amount given by
Industrial Council to Miss Mittels
had to go to the maintenance O?
family, the national organization ?
plemented the amount left by a sc
arship in order that she might h
$12 a week to live on while in (
Miss Whitehead ind Miss Co
were also given scholarships.
Although the league had hoped t
each girl would be able to stay fc
year, in all three cases the length
, time the girls could afford to rcn
has bren lour months.
The only standard by whit h I
dents at the school are chosen is 1
of general efficiency. The rest
knowledge of the general truths
derlymg iabor?the school tries
give to them. It does not wish ?
training to be so localized or so
stricted as to limit them to one lo<
itv or to one trade. Although il
are to be responsible to some city
ganization then work will take th
to all parts of the United States ;
into all 'lasses of labor.
For that reason the course off?
consists of academic and field worl
the academic work, including both <
and night courses, being given
Northwestern and Chicago univei
ties, and the field work under I
auspices of the national office.
The first class?given because m
ol the girls for whom the school
meant have been forced to go into
dustry when very young?is for !
correct speaking and. with more e
phasis, the correct writing of Kngli
There are also day classes in pohti
economy and industrial history. Ai
?it the request of the girls themselv
they are taught bookkeeping
There are three night classes. ;
tended also by twenty-six members
the Chicago Trade Union League. T
first, on "Public Speaking.*' is giv
by Professor Nelson of the Univcrsi
of Chicago. The other two are
course by William H. Holly, attorn
for the league, on "Judicial Decisioi
Affecting Labor." and anothei cour
of lectures on "The Machinery
Boards of Arbitration and Tra
Boards and Theit Value."
The girls also studied the ten vt
limes of "Documentary History of 1
dustrial Society in America," by I'r
fessor John R. Commons, of the Ut
versity of Wisconsin.
How to Fight Police.
To complement the work at the ur
versities field work was given in tl
conducting ot a street meeting, tl
distributing of dodgers, the writing
dodgers, the best way of meeting p
lice interference?should there be at
?the best way of avoiding it by con
plying wit,h different city ordinaria
relating to free speech, how to pr<
side at meetings, how to secure legi
lation. how to meet the employer an
how, d possible, to convert him.
Mrs. Kobms impersonated the en
ployer so the girls might have son
one on whom to try out then argl
monts. She said she grew tired ol a
ways haying to expound the same ol
arguments and once asked an en
plover if he couldn't give her a ne'
one or two.
Joy Makes Efficiency.
The question of organization \va
also taken up. Some one has to b
trained to organize young girls. O
the three girls in attendance at th
school last winter Mrs, Robins think
?.hat Miss Whitehead, who ia c er
teen now and who has worked in
.e years, - peihaps th
itted, through her sheet
life, to organize young girls. Mis
Mittelstadt would be the best organ
izer of older women, looking forwau
to ?he future, as she does, with all tin
intellectual force of bet Russian Jew
?ah i ace. And Miss Cohen would h<
thr bes* all-round public speaker,
ll education ?rust i ?
conditions in the underpaid in
?;es m v.inch womei work can bt
anything but bad, ' said Mrs. Kobins
"This fact was lealizcd in Greal
Britain when it passed a law making
it possible for a community to have
a tutor if there are thirty people in
that locality who want to learn. That
is what we tram also to do in America.
"The part o? the work in which the
' people scrm to be interested is
industria] history. A course in the
history of the trade unions ought to
br given?like the courses in England
? to people who cannot tome to thr
Mind H inger of Students
It is hard lo teahze the hunger ol
the mind of these girls, the vast
amount o? idealism, too, there ?I
among them. They faiily long for
knowledge. 1 lent Miss Whitehead a
book of poetry one night and it was
as if she had heard music for the first
tune. She told me that all night long
the rhythm of fhe lines had been Ron;;',
through her mind.
' 1 hat ?i thr pity of not beinf able
to educate every one of thr hundred
gjrla who wrote in about the school.!
i m y aie cage. now. Bui rnthu&iasin,
passes, and ut".c ?^oiie by wc will have
tu wait fur .mother g?n?ration.
"Of course it may be possible to
send tor twenty-five Ml the jiiris. Wc
hope to do so. The work of the uni?
versities was so splendid last year
that we have asked for an extension
and have it, and now if are <?aii posai
bly >;ct tORrtlifi the munry we ate
going to M"nei fur evety f*itl who wants
to come to the school.
"The dreadful thing about modern
life is that the question of earning
their living should be of so paramount
an importance to most girls that they
nave no time or strength to devote to
constructive work, unless, of course,
they may be educated so that they will
be of enough value to a city organisa
?ion to prevent their having to go
hack to work in tlie ranks, just lor
the necessities of life.
"But given the chance, theie is no
denying what they can do. Take, for
instance, Agnes Nestor, appointed by
President Wilson to a place on the
Industrial Education Commission, and
by trade a glove worker. She is one
o? hundreds who might he great if
only taken out of tlie ranks. The
purpose of 'he School tor Industrial
Education is. it pussiblc*. to free them
ARE WOMEN PEOPLE?
By ALICE DUER MILLER
IT DEPENDS UN WHO DID IT.
We .ire placed in an awkward position by a news item
wc have tust received iroin M. G.
A certain -tatc, it appears, has wasted $180,000 on
voting machines which publk sentiment won't allow to
It the state in nucstion is a woman suffrage state, this
proves that women are unfit for the vote?
I;, howe ct. it is j manhood sufhagc state, this shows
v thai the beai and wisest ot us make mistake. at
EXCUSE IT. PLEASE, MR BLAKE.
(No, 1 am unable to'giasp the logic of anti-suflragibin.
Ami, Ami, but ning bright
In ?un ?r.te-'ire ma! night,
What ingenious-minded guy
Could frame thy dreadful sophistry?
WHY WE OPPOSE WOMEN TRAVELLING IN
1. Because travelling in trains is not a natura! right.
2. Because our gieat-grandmothers never asked to
travel in trains.
3. Becuise woman's place is in (he home, not in the
4. Because it is unnecessary; thcie is no point reached
by ,i train thai ' annot be reached on foot.
,S. Because ?I Will double ihe work of conductors, en?
gineer?, m>nc\ brakemen, who are already overburdened.
d. Because men smoke and play carel.-, in trains. I*?
ihrtr .my ir.r.un to believe women will behave better?
I HE GREAT ILLUSION.
During the irirni suffrage debate in the House ot
Lords. Lord Ani| thill said: "All authority depends ulti?
mately on force, and men alone air in a position to use
About the same time 1 ,?r?0? policemen, with 1,000 more
m reserve were engaged in opposing the march of 200
AND THEN THERE'S THIS.
i he le 111 ?r neeiiie- lords talk of the evils of militancy
the be'tri . . . in view of the tait that Lords Sel
borne and Curzon to say nothing ol Lord Mibter, air
all members ol thai tieasonanlr and sedition*, conspiracy
known a*, the 'British Covenant' in support ot armed
revolution m Ul-.tri."?Daily Heiald (England.)
DO Y?U KNUW?
That a woman has been elected ?'resident of a national
bank in Illinois?
That a woman has been county judge in Colorado
That a woman ?? ont of the best revolver shots on the
Chicago police force?
That two-thirds of the taxes in Delaware County, Pa.,
are paid by women?
That the increase in organized 'abor in New York
State during the last year has bren JO per cent, in men's
organizations and 1 li per cent, among women?
A Wcstchester judge is reported to have decided that
it is reprehensible for a mother to teach her child to
ptay that its father be made better.
Three possibilities remain: to pray that its lather be
made wor^e, to pray that he be preserved exactly as he
is, or to omit his name from all supplications.
Will the judge please indicate winch of these courses a
conscientious wife and mother should pursue.
INCREASE OF CRIMINALITY AMONG WOMEN.
Last Sunday a woman spent eight hours in jail because
lier tour-year-old daughter walked on the grass in a
Both criminals, you observe, belong to the sex that is
demanding thr vote!
i iir fscl thai Vlce-Prei dnnl Marshall h <i<l "Mj \Mtr
?... ugsinsl auCraae, and that .-'Mir: m?. has naturell] in?
. ?>i"-.i i ~n?vj <\<si el poet
Feargus O'Brien writes:
Mv *ifr dislikes the income tax,
An?l m I cannot pay it;
Ska ?ay? th <i k.oii all interest lacks,
So now 1 never play it;
She i? opposed tu toll? repeal
( Though why. I cannot say),
But Human's duty i? to fed.
And man'? it to obry.
And Peter Parkins says:
I'm in a hard position for a perfect gentleman,
I want to plrai.r thr ladir?, hut I don't irr now I ?an,
Mv present erile*i a suffragist <?nd counts on my ?uppurt,
Rut my mullir? i? >n SOtl of a ratlin biting ?ort;
Unr grandmothrr n? on thr frtu S, thr ntlirr mu< h up|iui( tl.
And my siatef livrd in Oirgnn, und think? thr i|Ur?tion*
Each unr it counting un ruv vutr lu irprrtnnt hrr new.
. Now what ?houM you think pmpcr for a ? nl'muu to do?
Mrs. Havelock Ellis Maintains the Vote.
Economic Independence and Socialism
Are Only Middle Notes in Woman's
Final Mastery of Life.
TO be told, in this day, tha
freedom of women lies \
themselves may be devast
to existing ideas of what consti
personal liberty but it throws a
on the real psychology of wo
The vote is waived aside very li
by the woman who is the wife <
far-thinking a man as Dr. Hav<
Ellis, as a mere step forward, nc
the sum of woman's attainment.
Mrs. Havelock Ellis, playwr
novelist, lecturer, philosopher.
come from her flat in the south
of London to try to tell Amer
women what really lies at the hot
, of their unrest. She should be
to diagnose them, for she is '
equipped for the part she plays.
Married for twenty-three years
Dr. Ellis, working side by side w
but independent of. him, living in
calm of a Cornish farm and the
elusion of a Brixton flat, thinki
wondering. investigating. feeli
vital with the magnetism of sincer
this little gray-haired woman f?
that out of her fifty-three years
accumulated wisdom she has perhi
something of value to tell the your
er generation of women.
How restless they are she did n
know when, four weeks ago. s
came to America to lecture (
"Havelock Ellis. A Criticism by H
Wife," "Olive Schreiner and tl
Woman Movement," "The Milita
Movement: Its Cause and Cure
"The Maternal in Government
"Happiness as an Art," "James Hit
ton." and "Edward Carpenter."
Wotn.-in'f Discontent Far-Reaching.
Not until she had spoken at th
packed Little Theatre in Chicago, sh
says, did she realize that discontcn
in America is a far more reachinj
thing than just not being allowed t<
But what all her years of life havt
taught her, Mrs. Ellis says, are thest
"Women can never in any true
sense be independent until as grown
daughters they no lo-ger *ean upon
their fathers for support or until as
wives they are financially indepen?
dent of their husbands."
Mrs. Ellis has always been finan?
cially independent of Dr. Ellis. She
has also always been individually in?
dependent of him. Of course, she
will tell you that if Dr. Ellis had
' been any man but the. broadest of
thinkers, she couldn't possibly have
'married him. For Mrs. Ellis believes
with ptofound conviction that for any
I person to think that any other per:
belongs to him ia fatal.
"No one ever belongs to anyc
else. That is the first rule. 1
woman belongs to herself comple
ly; the man, to himself completely,
person is only of value by being
dividual and idealistic.
Where Lies Mastery of Life,
"Mastery of life, like mastery
music, lies in practising the midrj
notes so that in the end we in,
reach the high one. Socialism, tl
vote, the economic independence i
women, are the middle notes. Tl
high note is beyond. We shall rear,
it some day. In the meantime, ju?
?1 the slaves bad to be emanieipate
before they could begin to develo
ihemselves, so women have to b
freed before they can find theinsclve?
"The vote, the real socialism?wiiL!
demands of the man at the top that hi
help the man at the bottom?th<
economic independence of women ar<
all bridges that must be passed bt
fore women will be emancipated
These things, however, are not th
end. They are the means to the enr
the middle notes. Only when the;
have been passed?and the quieket
of course, the better?will womci
have begun to be independent.
Real Indepsndence Is Within.
"Their real independence lies withil
themselves, in their ability to ru
themselves of all the petty selhsh
nesses and cruelties of life. They cai
be made to do it. That is. maniy i.:i
"It is because of these that I it
coming back to America next : ill
The others, who do not understand,
to them it will be but poison thai
they pass on as poison to other peo.
pie, but to the women who want ta
see what life is really worth I think
I at last have found something to
Mrs. Ellis sails for England u ? 3
Minnesota on June 27. When she re?
turns to America in October she will
lecture before the League for lJoliti
cal Education in New York ami will
then go on to Chicago, where ar?
rangements have been maele to: ?lie
production of three of her plays "The
Rixie," "The Motheis" and possibly
"The Subjection of Ka/dia," ,e' ihr
Little Theatre there. Then, too, .he
promises to conic armed with her
"New Commandments" for wome ,
which she believes will help Ameri?
can women to solve the problem oi
their lives as individuals.
Hovels Become Homes
rwpO make five people live wher
j fifty-six lived before seems th
reverse of a problem, yet it is
problem in city planning, says Mis
Abastenia Eberle. the sculptor, am
?die also solved it. Few specialists 01
city housing have accomplished wha
Miss Eberle has done as a by-prod
uct, as it were, of her own profession
It was no easy matter to take tw<
old back tenements, swarming wit!
; lodgers of every description, with thi
rudest type of plumbing and sanit?r:
conveniences, and for a moderab
sum turn them into model apart
incuts?apartments of such abundan
charm ?ml convenience that thej
were at once Idled with clever people
who declare that they never want t<
Perhaps Miss Ebenes attentior
w?s first brought to the neglectec
tenement by her desire to enter mon
closely into the life of the people
from whom she draws her models. Il
would not be strange if the artisi
whose "Windy Doorstep" and "Rag'
picker" struck so clear a note of so?
cial sympathy should wish to liv?
nearer to the folk whose histories
Tenements Become "Dwellings,"
Besides, she needed a studio close
to her home, so she decided she
would see what could be made ot the
two dingy houses at No. 20b' i West
13th st. The "V signifies that only
the entrance is on the street. Three
steps down through a basement alley?
way and back under the Uth st.
houses brings the visitor directly into
a large, open court, fifty feet long
and twenty-five feet wide. Here are
| the two tenements which Miss Eberle
has converted, literally, according to
to *he building code, into dwellings.
Coming thtough the narrow, tun
nel-hkc entrance into the big, open
court, the first impression is of the
gay scarlet geraniums all about and i
general aii of space and seclusion. It
is easy to sec why the writer folk
have seized the place and made it
their home. Martha Benslcy Bruere,
expert writer on household efficiency.
and her husband, Robert Bruere, the
socialist author, have the apartment
under Miss Eberle. while Christina
Merriman. of "The Survey," and Anne
Moore, of the Woman's Trade Union
League, live in the other house.
That makes five occupants of the
buildings which three years ago were
actually housing over fifty men.
women and children. They would
never know the place now. Partitions
? have been cut out. air and sunlight
let in and everywhere cleanhne
and space, until even a blind per?..
would know the difference. Huv
Why, the smell of the tenement h<
gone. If you do away with the ove
crowding, and dark rooms and di
you will do away with the smtHs thi
go always with such things, s
House Disinfected and Scraped
The first thing, of course, was t
clean the Augean stables, a t-e -
gun by burning 100 pounds ot Sal
phur in the two houses Ii (
inch of wall space was
sprayed with disinfectant N
accumulated paint and -,'?-.' r "
years were taken off the Ho'.
the strongest lye.
Eight bricked-up fireplace m I
discovered and promptly e .avatei
from their early desuctuiie and paru
tions taken down so as to give i largl
living room in each apartment Thi
skylight *?vas cut in the rou' tor thi
sculptor's studio and then thi ???
was ready for the painters and ''lumb?
ers. It was work, hard work, but (PI
The big courtyard is a t ; ?
beauty in itself. Vines planteH along
its walls climb gayly up to the flowers
in the overhanging window IkMbbb.
Cool and remote, it \?,oiild be a pa??
dise for children, a real pla
shut in from the temptations of the
street. It is to be turned *o a? **
fresco studio during the hot cr
days. With an awning stretches'
across for shade, it will he tar bettet
than the sky-light work room 80
close to the roof. Besides, Mi?s Eberle
likes to have the flowers and vine*
about her. Even a "nuke-believe
garden she thinks can be an inspira?
tion to an artist, and, after all. it "> *
real bit of out-of-doors.
Seventeen Whert One L
Sometimes the old Iodget> ??m<
back to look at ?he changes whick
have come over then tonner habita?
tion. The tee-man ?.ontuleel to M'**
Merriinan that he and sixteen otkt?*
used to live in the looms v. Inch ?*
now keeps for her own. that ?J?
seventeen persons were housed ?'? ***
same space that now suffices on**
Mr. Ice-man allowed that "the le?v
must find it awful lonesome," but tn*
lady didn't think three small rooff?
and a big one too extravagant ?*?
least, she didn't feel that ii would ??
easy to lose herself in that space
After spending ?n attenioon m ?
Greenwich Village Laiadise it see?*
a pity there are not more hout.es kW
this in the city?