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OF HOME RULE, DIES h fcnglish Statesman Passes Away After Illness Last? ing Many Years. PARALYTIC STROKE CLOSED HIS CAREER Apostle of Tariff Reform Had Able and Devoted Son to I \pound His Policy. Ion, July 3. Joseph Chamberlain ?,fl) -rht. The news came a? an rntire surprise, as the condition ct ? ralth w?as not publicly known aorsc than at any time in the 1.,?' two or three : *,(.. i hamberlain, who never left v tide since he was si ? ' years ? ?I son. Austen Clv.m ?, ... ,\-( hane? llor of ;h?' Ex . were with Mr. i hamberlain .???th occurred, at 10:30 o'clock 1??' night, al hi London residence. M?. ? hb-- i an pfjran,-" was St B garden party on the eroun'ls of his Birmingham home on May t? la?', when, with his wife and ?on, he received several hundred of hi? lite constituents. Mr, ?'hamberlain WBs wheeled on* on the lawn, and np pc?-i>,l very emaciated and feeble ? d his hat to friends and acknowledgment of their .-. H later years were dedicated to an Btterni ? rl th? Hrit,sh clccto -?.?c from free trade to a policy of free trsde within the British Umpire, pro ;-,-? ? by a tariff on non-Hrit:sh im? ports. Austen Chamberlain has been lis father'.? spokesman on this as well a? a!! other subjects since 1 f>07. The cause of death is officially an Boonccd to have been heart failure. Althouirh he had been gradually sink infr line? Tuesday, the members of the BBBily had preferred that his desper? ate condition should not become pub* licly known. Mr. Chamberlain's funeral, which. according to his own wish, will be a ?Il ?M'.l'll Cil \MUERLAIX. moit simple one, will be held in Mes? siah Unitarian Church, Birmingham. next Monday. Interment will be in Hockley Cemetery, In his you*h Mr. Chamberlain vas a Sunday school teacher iti the Messiah church. Mrs. ?'hamberlain throughout the daj received numerous messages of condolence, including telegrams from Ki*V (ieorge. Queen Mary, the Queen ? r and "'her members of the royal family, as well us 'rom prominent per ? >ns at home r.nd abroad. CHAMBERLAIN PA ROC Hl'ALIST FIRST. IMPERIALIST LATER Evolution of Great English Statesman from Red Republican to Ally of Conservatives Marked Always by Steady Conviction and Earnestness of Purpose. Joseph Chamberlain, for many years the strongest and most influential pub lie man in the British empire, and one ?' ' greatest constructive and ad? ministrative ?tatesmen in all Hr ? history, was born in Camberwell. one great middle class suburbs of London, on July 6, 1980. He came of a good old family of Wiltshire yeo? manry, which was originally settled in ,ham. Kor more than B dred years before his birth his nr ce?*c,-s carried on a large bu?ir?' leather merchants and shoe manufur* |e, London. His father was Joseph Chamberlain, a member of ?rdwainers* Company, and his - was a daughter if Henry Har ?erchatit of the ? The elder Joseph trained his s? ? rr ""Ttereial career, sending him to the London ITnivei I ,'.l?-ge School sad taking him. at the age of sixteen. late th? office ?' Nettlefold & ' ? screw manufacturers, of Bir in which the father h? : ???some partner. In due time the son wan also admitted to partnership, ?rd hi? first undertaking, after reach? ing manhood, was to make a fortune in business. The secrets of his succ?s? rr.av be expressed in two word- adan ? and enterprise. He found, for txa~ip!e, that Knglish made ,-rrf.v were practically debarred from the market because they were all ssad? ;n inch and fractional and mul s.zes, while the French wante?! only those made according to the me eale. Mr. Chamberlain promptly met this want, and soon had alt: Sssor'jpoly of the French market. Again, i; to rid himself of detrimental competition and to lessen the cost of production, he purchased and absorbed ir'.o h is own establ'shment various ? - tor r - - H integrity a a bus ine?s man was ni ver impeached, and wer? ? ibjc'.-t of adverse crit? icism. Early Political Interests. Ar,?r twenty yearj - wa able to with an independent fortune, keaestly mad" through hi? own in ? I prise Thi? enabled ? tic the remainder of r f? public service without ?ia-.ger of bt'.fi charged with seeking power '.or the ?ake of prot* It ii credible that soch ?as?, his ambition from th?"- be r % of his rare? r; for h< Ixy-.- o take s pub il an active member of the ifham an?l Edgbaston 1'ebnting strangely em BSOki ; ,-:, ? ? i ra'lical tel len? I "' ?om? - ? aders of the da) ? ai ? i. at i utter ?? re merely h ;. rate, a ss h< ? ga practical pal I n political arl ?I ' Rs I Republicanism. Mai am in 1870, ? sympathy with the " ? eh R? p ?! that * republic ' come in Eng? land " atu nded ?o electoral reform conference In Lai is th? accredited representative at the Hir- | publican i'lub. Mumripai Reforaser. I, al politic?. began *< - . rs be ess, he * ? , ameeai iag ; irmingham had maanitary . - . of ? ? worst go* d Kingdom. jy- ' ' ipon ??m. H?- deter tei lf<- mad? ? i ?.7:', -.' ? ? , ? .. and **" ' at he ' implet? the *'"?' ' ? I ad ?o wa ,?f ui '?ai.?-! | reform? . im famou M? ?.?'.r?-! Parliamentar) legislation ? . ? /??'?,? r * a a res? ? | ,' IZM 000 ? '**' I!? ., ? - ? jl?-?J a g , I, I**, ?t ? I <<?<> in,?I BUMI< : dwelling? bra rie?, art g I i tut?, which ? . ?,< th? model ??*-?? I id, ?re ?II due ?0 hi? initiative and persistent, energy. Having first serveil himself and t| his adopted city so well. Mr. Chsmb lain whs presently afforded the opp tunity of serving the country at la in the broader field afforded by of Commons. Still conoide by many as a leader of the ;nob. the were those who undovibtedlv < pi him take his seat in his *h with a pipe in his mouth, ra pant arid vociferous on every poBsil occasion. Instead, they saw a gent man of fastidious attire and quiet i meanor. He made his firs; speech ot a few weeks after his election, rece in g the congratula' 01 W. E. Foster and that old-fashion ? Walter Barttelot, who ; BUred him that if he always address the Ilou.-e with "the same quietm and the same intelligence" the Hou would always be ready tn him. "The Times" gave a hading e< toria, to the man and to the ipe? Mr. Chamberlain wirtit to Westmi B Radieal. But whereas wh confined to parochial or murricir, limits his R eemed Bl to suggest socialism, when a ?>i the full scope of ?he nath It ?pprorimated so closely to Liben ism as to make him a fitting follower Mr. Gladstone. He sat on the Liber side, below the gangway, not far fro Mr. Parnc-11 and Mr. Biggar, and w something of a free lance for a tim hu' he early made himself u force debate, ; i .| was regarded on all <u] i i ?sins man. When he v- a man and Mayor of Birmingham he hi devoted himself to the in*' r? I city, with little thought of the rest i the kingdom. So in the House of Cor rr 111. s he began to work for the welfa of the United Kingdom, with litt thought or the remainder of the en <>i.t de of Parliament h< it. nto not r'' ax the leader of the Ri mingham caucus, which he develop? ! huge political machine, to tl ay of the Tories and to the grei advantage of the Liberals nnd Radical So rapid was hii progress, indeed, thi eemed ent rely appropriate for M Cladstone to make him a member < the Cabinet in 1880, only four yrat ai'er hifl entry into Parliamentary lif Mr. Chamberlain entered the Cabin? as pr- ? ? of the Hoard of Trad' li's Birmingham training, eommereu hK wall '? political, stood him in goo ???;ul in dealing with the routine dutie r ' the office, and the reforms I it I made wer? ' and effect;-. \ 'he same time he took a lively inter?s : ?;.. otl ei departments of th government, introducing many billi pulling paitv >. ites and delivering i om . nglv hold Sir < lharle Dilke waa lnj closest colleague an John Morley ! : ehampioi n *; e pre The Friend of Ireland. In respect to Ireland, he -oon becam out no-i n m favor of conciliation. II than any one else ;*' responsi Lie for the famous "treat;, of Kilmi.in ham." in which Mr. Pamell, tired of ? resilience in ?ail. made terms with th? government for his release on parole Mr. Chamberlali . n a letter written b that tme, ?aid that England "ought t< ?releoi :.? tion and rriticism ?'rorr iii quart? r i nd from all sections ani of trial men, proi ided they an ited i \ b desire for good govern? 1 it bj a I.: no! hatred of all tie added, how ? ' i . ' -A? eted Eng ? , with greater eoni d< 'ation tl ey n u ' corresponding]* snow greater eonsid oration for publ < op i on in Kngiand arel Scotland. His policy was, ?- he .. ,i , phi, to aecure "to lr ??1 men right ned privilege which legisla ? d or may secure foi Knglishmen and : cot mi ? " This pol ,.?-. h? practical j n po ed upon the - . go . rv.ii nl. foi eing 'lr. r oi U r -, ,. ihi l iel I ? cr? *Bi , hip for lr? land 'I he ae? . lation, I reelv made il ? e ttme, that he had "betrayed" the i ?' eeretary w?,k oh ou ' ground , ce Mi Forster ws at all 1 . ? i ? i i,' ?? . ' | . .'eng On H'if I probably de Ired nnd , pee te? i to beeom? ' hief Secretary in Mr I >?? '? ?' b ace, ai d i ? i doubtless hen Lord Frederick . 'I for the place. , . . ? ? tragad si Pria n ? ? the utter repudiation . m bei Ii in's pol le* te. t he g*'" i . the first The Home Itule Issu?-. 'f in neat' Ien ii Mi I lhambi ? ,.1 evolut Ion i urne in 1886, In the iti m of th?- Liberal party avei Irl h e pa ration, oi "Home Rule." Down to that time he lad In < n Working ifl hsr rtony '? it h MI I -lad tone Hut his faith In Glad ?'?ne va? prcientlv 'I I I lurbed by intimations that, th?- "Home Rule" plan in COUI e of preparatii would be likely t-> contain some pro\ ?ion? ecntrarv to Mr. ?'hamberlair stipulation, ?accordingly, when at tl end of January Mr. Gladstone inviti Mr. Chamberlain to accept a place his Cabinet, the latter wrote him f ran ly that he could not do so unless 1 ?night have "unlimited liberty of tad n.ent and rejection" concerning fort coming Irish legislation, since it hi he-'i intimated to i m thai Mr. Gla I was framing propo ai? ?? ??'?? ? ? could not agree. Mr, Gladstone a Fured bin that he might nave such Ml lllesl degr, r, and une thai under landing Mi Chamberlai ent? re,l ? ??! i ahmet. \s il well known. M r. Cladston when preparing hii great Home Ru bill, tool; no one into his confident but John Morley, the Chief decretar for Ireland, end presented it to tl Cabinet in rr completed form only *? day? before its introduction in tl House of Commons. Mr. Chamherlri (hereupi t? j>>,? i ?eH out to Mr. Cladstor tliat th- hill. "i his opinion, tended 1 impair the integrity of th?* empire an 'he supremacy of the crown, and tha in accordance ? ith his declaration < 1 88 1. already quoted, he would be unab to support the measure. There Wl nothing for him to do, 'herefore. In to exercise that liberty of action whic ''nb. Gladstone had promised him. Tr, ' ? did, reaigi ?ng his place in the Cab net. The whole proceeding ua, coi tent i>:,d straightforward, and th epithet of "Judas that was hurled .' Mr. Chamberlain for it from the Iris bei eh? on 'wo memorable occasion MM) end IB93 as without ? The I'nionist Leader. i ? ige v -, :,rI ' ?n Mr ? 'hambei lain by h is spli.h G ad ten? ?? ltd. ??ne part of it was th? niai ?"g him the leadei >>' an independes party, instead of 'he follower ?,f iom one el e. The ether, m") subjectivel ore important par', was the turn ing of his attention fron insular to irr i ?rial affair-. Just a* he F a ? I expande f i cm a parochial m'o a national I I man, he now expanded fr?m an ?nsula rito an imperial statesman. For som time after hi? r? g ial on from th Cabinet Mr. Chamberlain stood ver much alone. Between him and th Gladstoniana then was opei war. Be tween him and the Conservatives ther was little lypmathy or confidence, Evei the other Liberal-Unionists preferr?* 'o regard Lord Rartington ih thei leader, until the death of the Duke o Devonshire prom?,;?-,! Hartington to th Cpper House. Then, indeed, Mr. Chamberlain a? ?1 the leadership without chai lenge. The Conservative?: also heg:ii to make overtures to him. realizini that he was both a force to be reel oned with and a man to b?' trusted. H< va= sent to this country in 18^7 on i diplomatic mission to adjust the Ash enes dispute between Canada an?l th? Cu teil States. On the v.tcr of II hit work was not successful. Congress r? fused to ra'ify the terms proposed b? him But his mission ha?! two ? of great imp<,rt.-inre; it 'ncrensed hi? interest in and knowledge of colonia affairs, end il brought him into dose and mor?- Intimate relations with th? errat i opening the wsy for at ?.rtual coalition of the Liberal-Union ta with that party ? 1898, In tha year, largely through Mi. Chamber Iain's masterly political management the Conservative? an?! Liberal-Union carne?! the general election? ? lieln ing majority; an?! when, un dei the Premiership of lord Salisbury Mr. Chamberlain again returned t< ?iflice he appropriately took the Sec retaryship of State for the Colonie? ?he pre-eminently imnerial portfolio, I,rente?! of ( nlonial Seeretarie?. In that place he forthwith nggrc? began to undertake for th? . empire th? beneficent works b? hsd performed for Birmingham an? had .striven to perform for the United Kingdom. His plan of "culti\ating thf negli ted i tatea of the empire n> dicate?! thi . an?! he set himself about it^ execution with characteristic ear ness. In doing so he clashed with n.'.r?- than our. and incurred some of those enmities from which h?' never hr-ink In the month of June, 1897, tl ? prei enee m I.oii'lon ol the premier? of 'he ?overning eolenie? duringthe jubl lee celebrations suggeated a confer enee for the d?BCUSS?On of the political and commercial relations between the mother country end the colonies. Sev? eral meet ng were h?-l?l at th? Colo? r? ;ii Office, under the presidency of Mr. Chamberlain, end 'heir success is largely attributable 'o the active in tereat that he fa* ' '" 'hem. Me iai?l down th? principle that within the differenl par's of the em? pire protection must disappear, and thai duties mu" I"- imposed for reve? nue only, and not for 'he protection ci ti,,- product - of on? part of the empire againal those of another part. It.it the greatest of the difficulty thai Mr. Chamberlain encountered In his administration of the Colonial Office ?.???i? t.,,, , .in r, rr from cond il ion - in Africa. At an early date he real -,/fi\ tin alieal feature ol 'h<- trouble . peaking in January, 1890. |asl after tin wretched Jameson rani, for which he had been blami ?I bul for v.l.i?h he was not in th<- slightest d? gr?-'- i '"' pon? ibli , h? f.! ni : "in the Transvaal Republic the ma jniit\ of 'he population pay nln? of the taxation and have no ,, rhatevei in go? eimug th? eoan ,,, ihis i? ?o anomaly 'hat ,loc?. net ? in .m, oth< i i lellis?d ? ommunil., I believe M eau be removed without ? to th? ladepeadene? ef 'he re? public." Hi -pill ?- With Kruge? 'i hat v u* ""' ffi ?l "r "" ? ',"''' ''' pute, but .Mi Krsgei could not rcalue it. or would not act upon it. and '0 ?he "dupute" developed into t?-d.eus and ruinous war. For this war Mr. I hamberlain was blamed by his ene? mies ar.ii hy some of his critics; but, i- hatever the degree of his responsi? bility, his conduct in respect to South ? Africa WOB at least exactly in line with ' the policy which he had enunciated in 1886 iti re peel to Ireland to main? tain the integrity of the empire and i the supremacy of the crown. The creation of the Commonwealth of Australia and the preparations for laying an all-British transpacific cable are to be credited to him. So in large ire ii ?he success of the sugar conference of 1902. in providing for the abolition of the bounty system. In brief, he applied to the world-wide tasks of the ?olonial Office the same ;?< m-ra! principles of adaptability, en? ergy and enterprise which he m* re? tained in the screw factor?, a-?! n the office of Mayor of Birmingham. His colutionary processes were a. consist? ent as the growth of a sapling into a tree. In 190J Mr. < namberian gave an added display of hi? originality snd di?regard for precedent by making a personal visit to South Africa for the purpose of obtaining at first hand the facts o? the situation in that imper? fectly reconstructed colony, snd of ef? fecting, if oo-sible, ? real reconcilia ; tion or races a fier the war with the Boer? whieh was not fought to a finish, but va? ende.I prematurely. Tariff Beform. When Mr. I hamberlain began ac? tively to prepare for the fight over the intia-empire rollverein he carne ou* i boldly as an ad'.oeate of the restora I tion of a tariff on import'', with either free trade between the componer t parts of the empire or at least such preferen? tial duties a? would shut out foreign competition. In ncfkinK to crry ou* this ambitious nrogranime he not only had to encounter 'he varying en idi tioi-, and conflicting interests in the Mattered portions of the empire, but to face ?. ??olit in his ov i. party at home. Ile found the Unionist part\, as a \ hole, unwilling or unable to adopt his remedy for the evirfs from i\h:ch the country was suffering, or to accept it as the price that must be paid for pro? spective benefits to he procured. P soon became evident that he could not carry the Cabinet with him. Several of ' his colleagues were strong Free Traders; other'5, like Mr. Halfour, were . willing to adopt the attitude of an open mind; but against the Cabinet, which was divided again:-! itself, were tin- antis. Accordingly. Mr. Chamber? lain, feeling that if he '.?ere out o' the I . net he would no longer hu\e to light with his hand? tied and would full liberty te conduct the cam? pai;,'" according to hi? awn tactics, re? sign?'.!. His action did not sene in he less*, to loosen his hold on the popular imag? ination. If there vas an-, thing el?r needed to commend him to the people. | irrespective of party, it was the I mingled apnrchen?ion and av?r?:.on I with which he was everywhere re ? ge.rded abroad, ?ave m America, ami the profound and undisguised mtisfac I tion expressed in every capital of Con ! tinenta! Kurope on the receipt of the | announcement of his withdrawal from the Balfour Cabinet The Minorit.?. Leader. After resigning from the Cabinet Mr Chamberlain found himself leadingOM faction of his par'y. while hia eldtimc ?associate, Mr. Balfour. was at the hear of the other. It was again eminent!) Characteristic Of Mr. Chamberlain that he should effer to unite his brunch 'under Mr. Halfen'- leadership if Mr Balfour's branch would accept lus tarif! propo-al?. Between them, accordingly they patched up a trim which pro\e> to be effective enough for offering under Mr. Balfour. a united appositior to the Campbcll-Bannerman govern ment which meant that if Mr. Cham berlain had not obtained nil he nanted he a' least gained seme advantage. His seventieth birthday vas cele brated the following July with grea' fervor throughout the United Kingdom Hi? ?ervices m a municipal reforme ?.?.ere remembered at Birmingham whete he and Mrs. Chamberlain wer entertained at th. Council House, ?m where holiday crowds cheered Ian and lustily for him. The rribune' London correspondent. comment in| upon the man and the honors paid him nnd writing as a close per?onal oh enrer, declared, however, tha? "im partial critics must be convinced tha Mr. ?hamberlain lacks at seventy no perhsps the driving power of an tnvin cible will, but certainly the time re quired for carrying his principles to i successful !?-<L . As the sequel showed, he lacke? more the physical strength to bad the invincible will. The exertions o the day *he banquet in the rao the seventeen-mile drive to As the afternoon, with frequent steps tl receive ?ddres-e? and to make speechei followed by the great fariff reforn demonstration on Monday, proved to? sever' a tax upon his body, and thil reacted uoon his brain. For a time Mr ? hamberlain suffered from a part.a los? of memory, and was compelled t? refre to Highbury and to seek resi and recuperaron abroad. He returnei to I.on'ion from Saint Raphael, Prance ? en June 1, 1907. and while the report? of his condi'ion had been reassuring his appearance v as not at that tim* such as to give encouragement I hope that he would ever b- ''ble active ly to resume polit ral life. Almost to the moment of his rieatl his prr-o'ial influence continued to bi felt. In August. 1911. Archdeacon Cun ningham's hook. "The Case Against Free Trade." appeared, with a prfao. by Mr < hamerUin. In t the veterar itatesman declared that Kngland wa' slamming the door in the face of hei coloni"=. "The future of the empire,' he wrote, "lies henceforward not in th? power to annex new territories but it the eapacitj to unite the existing do minion- and to develop their re? sources." At the celebration of hit Kth birthday, in July. 191 ' the Tariff Reform League began thl raising of a shilling fund to be pre senteil tO Mr. Chamberlain and devotei by him to the cause of tariff reform and imperial preference. At that t.mr it was declared Mr. Chamberlain wai in bet'er health ?han he had cnjoyei before in years. Mr. Chamberlain wa-? thrice married. His t rst ?vife. Miss Harriet Kendriok. daughter of Archibald Kendrick. Ksq., of Berrow Court, Kdgbaston. died tin years after the marriage, which took place in 1S6I, leaving one child, now ?he Right Hon. .1. Austen Chamb? who lias successively held the no?ts of Civil Lord of the Admiralty, Financial Secretary of the Trees ??<? . Po 'master General and Chpneellor of the Ex? chequer. In 1868 Mr. ?hamberlain was married to Miss Florence Kendrick, s of his f. rs' wife. She became the mother of live children, a son. ? le, and four daughters. ai<! died in Is*".".. I-'or thirteen ?ears thereafter Mr. i hamberlain remained a widower, devoting himself, despite the busy lif? lie led. to his six children, between [whom and their father there was a peculiarly close and teii'ler relation. When Mr. Chamberlain visited this country in 1*887, BI a member of the I eries I omm on, he met .-.' tl houSe of the British Minister Miss Mary K.idieott. the only ?laughter of William c. Fndieott. of Salem, foi ? ears a ju it iee of the Su? preme Court e-f that -t?te. ;,nd at i hat ? -re Secretary of War in l'-i den) ? leveland'i Cabinet. A year later their engagement was made public on the eve of Mr. Chamberlain' i i for the United States to be married. A quiet v. edding foll?n ed .ii-'hn'-i Church. Washington, and the honeymoon wa. spent at < hevj Chase, m Mar;, land. Highbury, Moor ??rein, near Birmingham, Cue home to which Mr i hamberlain t..ok h;s Am? bride, '? a large, handsome, modern mansion, containing a Ine col ? of books and many admirable examples 0 " modern art. Highbur-, is more widely noted, however, for it? rose gardens and the thirty greenhouses where n Mr. ?hamberlain grew hi- fs mous orchids, one of which wa? as seldom absent from his buttonhole as 1 is monocle wafl from his eye. CHAMBERLAIN, THE MAN, AS "TOBY, M. P.." SAW HIM (Sir Hcnr? W. Lucy, the famou "Toby, M. P.." of "Purer. " one of th foremost Kngiish journalists of th age. and for many veers a regular cor tributor to Tie Tribune, ?rites for ou column? the following personal reco leitiuns and appreciation of Josep Chamberlain, | ? met Mr. ( hamberla Mayor'i parlor in the Town Hull o Birmingham. He was chi?f magistrat for th? second time, and though ye personally unknown at vVestminste had succeeded in centring national at t"iit ion upon himself. At that time h vas a radical of hue so red ?s t() |u,r der upon republicanism. The Prine '. and Princess of Wale were to pay V?B?1 'o the Midland metropolis, an every one uj- asl-ing himself how th Radical Mayor would ?'?import himsel a> the host of royalty. He acquitte himself in a manner that made th visit an unqualified success, his in'ro ?luction to his present majesty layini the foundation of a personal friend hip that thiout'h many vicissitude lasted to ! he end. This yeat, 1*71. vas the turning poii in Mr. Chamberlain's life. Still in thi prime of manhood, he had so great!; prospered in business as to feel him ???If justified in retiring from it direetioa. Satiated with such ?ucees BS 'he limits of Birmingham madi POS ible, he enteied the arena of poli Ces. Sheffield v. as the scene of hi) Brat attempt Hnd Roebuck was his op I onent lie was defeated, and. return Ing to Birmingham, devoted himselt with characteristic energy to Ihi pro.ement of the borough. In 1874 Mr. I'ixon retired from Parliamentarj life, and Birmingham by acclaim elect ? ?I Mr. Chamberlain to take his sen*. Id arrived at Westminster in th* middl? of the session of is7?;. ami found the House under the leadership I of Disraeli, an apparent!.* impregnable I Stronghold of Toryism. He vas in n? Lurry to catch th? Speaker's eye, b ing Content tC watch the House, learn it way? ?nil make it familiar with hii ui obtrusive presence before he claimed it- attention h? a participator in de It was on February 17, M77, that he made bis first -peerh in the chamber where, through a long career, he WS to aehi tv? so many triumphs. Hi spoke on the Home Secretary'? prison bill, a subject with which hii training in municipal affair*, ha?! ma?le him especially familiar. There are few men in th? present HoUM who Were there on that historic occasion. Those ??? ho were will recall the interest created. So much had been heard of the new member's trucculent radicalism that, as waa said at the time, the country member expected he would enter the Hou??' "making a cartwheel." as ragged Kttle boys do ?down the pavement ? hen a drag or an oninibu- p,ii?m. They were surprised to behold arising from a benrh below the gangway ?p. te a ?I ghtly made, well dressed, al ? be) '" looking person, ? ho, m a low, clear, perfectly pitched voice, with a manner self ?possessed withoul being ? elf assertive, proceeded '" discuss the bill. Mr Chamberlain di?l not make much tir In th?' uncongenial atmosph?re^of the Disraelian Parliament. He : at ' e low the gangWB] i" close rompanion ? with Sir ? bar?es Dilke. keeping , -harp ev? o" th? front Opposition bench, helping to keep his divided lead . , ip le fighting pitch against i on servativ? ?ggression. lord Hurting ton, nominal leader of the Oppesitien.j falling short of Radical ?speetatien, v., one night startled hi heariag him? | sel4 describid by Mr. Chamberlain as I "once ?he leafier of the Libera! party.' At hit best, and he remained a" hi ! bes? un to the last day he was seen ir I the House of Commons, Mr. Chamber lam was the most powerful of parlia debaters, not excepting Mr Gladstone. Knowing the limits of bl? own capacity, he did no* aim at ora? tory, He was pre-eminently a man of bus . . but was endowed "-ith th? gifts of lightning-liki acutenesa of perception and consummately lucid ex pression. In charg.- of an intricate bill, , he iteered it through th.- ihoals ol [ committee with masterful hand. II? v.-,s perhaps seen at hi- bes. -Uien hi stood with his hack to the wall, face,; by a host of Bssailants. Most mi ; an likely to be perturbed by interruption I of their ordered speech. In th.- fill - - ing of hi- oratory Mr. Gladstone was occasionally disconcerted by hostile in? terruption, and wa? too easily led astray into devious pa'h-.. Lord Ran? dolph Churchill and his colleagues ;.f tile fourth nartv early discovered this weakness, and nightly made practi.e of ".Ira.-ing Gladstone." rhe more noisy the interruption the cooler Mr. 1 lamberlain gre.v. warding off blow?? with deft parrying of his rapier, swiftly followed up by telling thru-ts nt his aggres ior. When in 1888, Mr. Gladstone ha', mg nailed the Home Rule (lag to tiie Lib? eral masthead, Mr 'hamberlain drif' ed into the haven of Conservatism, he paid the penalty of his supreme eapac ?tj n i a phrssemaker. "He that maketh others bewnre of his tongue," ?ays Bacon, "let him bewale of other men's memory." During the last twenty years ?.:' his aetire life Mr. Chamberlain, ris? ing to address the House of Commons, , ? fared b\ the ghost of his dead self. Whatever question might lu? te the front education. Ireland, free .trade, the place in the pol?tica! -ireia ment held by the House of Lord-" it turned out thai Mr. Chamberlain the Radical und mid tbe thing most ?1am aging to the position at the moment taken up by Mr. Chamberlain the col? league of Lord Salisbury, the butt of Ihe Conservative party. When he had anything to say on any subject, whether the averment were that ? par? ticular thing was white or black, he ? in clean-eat phrase that straight bom.- to th.- understanding and lingered long in the memory. I* seemed a trilling thing at the time tha* m the autumn of 1888, while Mr. Cham? berlain waa still carrying through the country the flaming torch of Radtest i?m known ta history as the (Jnauthor ired Programme, I should have edited a volume of hia ?poeehea. It proved to be momentous, lile work wa- accom? plished with his concurrence and as? sistance. He revisad tha proofs, and the volume appeared ai an "author? ised edition." What remained of the Issue disappeared from the market a ji-ar later. But one ropy remained in the Library of the House of Commons, its tattered condition testifying to the frequency v ith which it was consulted. Nothing could exceed the. nnd courage with which Mr. Chamber? lain far. d this dili cima. W hil ? on his leg- dominating an audience onc-hiilf bitterlj hostile he showed ne ign of apprehension of the inevitable quoi tion. A practised debater, he might, had he chOBOn, base shirked i (..ruing leading to the well thumbed volume preserving the speeches of his formel -. If But h? took averj dodged tio ditch, and on resuming his ' si Ht bore with unflinching calmness th- apt quotation. There is abundant precedent for the | circumstance that Mr. Chamberlain, having begun nis political career in <>ne camp, concluded it in another. In this respect he i? in the good company of Disraeli and Gladstone. Where hi? powerful individuality manifested it? self is in the fact that while in turn he dominated the counsel? of the two great political parties of the state, he also in turn rent them to their ccntr?. The breaking up of the Liberal oartv on the question of Home Rule ?sa fol? lowed seventeen years later by the ?! s ruption of the Unionists on the ques? tion of free trade. The hand that wrought the ruin was in both cases Mr. Chamberlain'?. It i? ?mall wonder that a man with such a history should nav.i created many enemies. After 188t? they were divided in the Hou?e of Commons into two grouns th? Iri?h Nat. st?. whose early trust he hail di?.?p pomted; the Radical?, whom he had de? serted. The bitter feeling found out; burst in the historical free fight on the floor of the House on the final ?tag* of the Home Rule bill of 1891 Bu' if lie had a cohort of enemies he ha 1 a circle of warm friend?, whose fidelity he was careful to reward. The ?ummit of his marvellous ?arrr ? was reached in the autumn of PJ?2. when, a passenger in the finest rru'?or of the Hritish navy, the ex-Mayor of Birmingham, Secretary of State for the Colonie?, sailed for the Cape, ?nient on binding up the wounds created b) the ravages of war. the shout of Eu? rope bidding him godspeed on his mis? sion drowned by the acclaim of South Africa welcoming him to it? shore. Hi was at 'hat time not only the mos' powerful but the most popular man in England. DEATH OF CHAMBERLAIN END OF TARIFF REFORM7 ? The Daily News" Thinks So. but Its Hope Is in the Son of Its Expounder. London. July t. A profound impres? sion has been caused throughout the country by 'he passing of Joseph ? hambcrlain. easily the most remark? able ligure in the British political '??orld sir.ee (?lad-tone. Almost eight years ago he was severely stricken, and though he did not resign his seat for West Birmingham and continued to and occasional messages to hi? sup? porters he only once appeared in the House of Commons since then, and took no active p:.r' in politics. His d?ath therefore is an event of per onal rather than political signiti cance, I* may Indeed have ?ome reac? tion upon th? tariff r? form cause, with which in later years his activity was i ss, eiateij. That cru?c. which owed all the vitality it possessed to his ad1, oeacy and Influence, ni" ? r throve after his withdrawal from the tie!d of action. Ten years ago Joseph < hambcrlain was purging the Unionist party of every remaining suspicion of free trade, and imperial preference with its corollary of ? tax on food was the first plank in the Unionist platform. To daj taxes on food are officially repu ij.ate.i an?! the tariff reform policy is hardly even mentioned. "The Daily News" thinks that with the death of i*s author tariff reform will be quietly ?Iropped. but in 'his , , ? the wish is doubtless father to the thought, but Austen ? "namberlain unlikely to allow the cause for whieh his :.r\i' acrificed io much to sink into obi,'ion. an,l if the Unionist? return to power as a result of the next general election it may confidently be anticipated that he as the last Unionist Chancellor of the Exchequer will ob? tain the opportunity to frame a tariff reform budget, Eulogistii editorial?, long obituary notices, tributes from polit.cal ?riends and loes, appr?ciative comment? from all part of the world and page photo? graphs and cartoons illustrating strik? ing incidents in the career of the dead Statesman crowd the papers this rn'-rn ing. Indeed, a ?. olume might be filled ? ith details of the extraordinary polit? ical career of "Joe" (hambcrlain. h. w. den'ison dead Was Japan's Legal Adviser of Foreign Affairs. T,,r io. full ':. Henry Willard Deni son. legal aihiscr of the Japanese De? partment of Foreign Affairs, died to? da} In St. Luke's \merican Hospital. Mr, Den i ?on .vas stricken with paraly ago. The announcement of Mr. Dell ?leath was withheld for several hours, in accorilanri' with ,Iat,ane?e rus*, onler to permit the Emperor to confer the decoration ci the ??rand Cordon of Order of Paulownia on the dead man. In i ? ? iasued by the Jap? anese Foreign Office Mr. Denison was called one of the greatest benefactors of .lapan. "The whole Japanese na? tion." i* said, "joins in the sentiment of thankfulness and indebtedness for the distinguished services of Mr, Deni , h and it. th?- expression of sorrow at hi departur? " Washington, Julj 3. The state De? partment to-day instructed Ambassa? dor Guthrie at Tokio to convey to the ese government 'he condolence of In - U iNon on the death of Mr, De Henr* iVillard Den ??on was horn at Guildhall, V; . on May 11, let?!, the son of Colonel John P. and Mary S. I Cooper i Hein-en, and was educated at an academy at Lancaster. X. H.. an?l the !;.w department of the Columbian InOV ??eorge Washington; Ci,: He became the legitl ndvi?er of the Japanese i orcign Office in lt?80, and re tained the place with great acceptabil o the Mikado's government to the ? ',: - life. lie revi lited the United States in 1905 as one of th? representa? tive of Japan in making the treaty ol ne;ic,- a ith Russia a' Portsmouth. V. II.. nnd he was b technical delegate of Japan to the second peace confer .i nee at The Hague. Mr. Dei on ra? i member of th? Permanent ?ourt of Arbitration at The Hague si d also of the Association of Comparative Legislation at Pari--. H? v..?re the grand eordon, flrat class, of ?In Impe: ?ai Japanese Order of the Rising Sun and of the Japanese Order of the Sacred Treasure. He was a number of the Union Club of this city and th ? Metropolitan of Washington. He married in 1-7" Miss Helen Wilder ? r?, i, of \? w York. Time Curtain Rises To-day AFTERNOON. 2:00 Passing Show ci? .winter Garden 2;15 Potash ,v Perlmutter.? K",|,|? i 'oilier-. . New Anihtenl.ini Too Ma? i 'ooka. ,. 39th str. ,-t Kitty Min'Kay.Comedy 2:30 Th? I "iinnn . Hmlso.i a pair of Sixes.Longacre STOCK AND ONE WEEK THEATRE. ?:13 Damaged Good?.Academy EVENING. 8:00?Pa-siuR Show III I, .Winter ?'arden 8:10?Potash a Perlmutter.Cohan'? Zlegfi l< l s l'oiliea.New Amsterdam Too Man) Cooka .rfth Meet Kilt) MacKa*.Comedy 8:jo The tnimin? .Hudson a pair o? Bises .Longacre STOCK AND ONE WEEK THEATRE. 8:15? Lsamaged Uoods .?.e.idemy VAUDEVILLE HOUSES. Mai?. Dally, ??veiling. 1:4.'. ? ??.Hammerateln'a : I.,.I:1B.Palme .I'M.New Unglilon FOURTH TO BE GAY FOR SOCIETY FOLK Many Entertainments Are Arranged at Fashion? able Resorts. MISS RANDOLPH TO MARRY TO-DAY Will Re Bride of Philip E. Stevenson at Narragansett Home of Her Father. Many entertainments have been ar? ranged for this evening ?it Newport, Lenox, Southampton. Har Harbor, the New Jersey coast resorts nnd at coun tiv pieces'on Long Island and along the Hudson. Newport will lead in the i,:i>eties. with two or three large dances and I number of dinner?. Mrs. Arthur Curtiss James gives a th- dansant this afternoon at her villa, Reacon Hill liou?e, at which Basil Du? rant and Miss HawWesworth will be toen in two new dances, the "Fardo" end the "Moonlight Tango." Mr French Vanderbilt gives a dinner dance at Harbourview, and Mrs. O. H. P. Hel nvont will have a dance at Marble House, Dinners will be given at the ( Rhode Island resort by the Russian Ambassador and Mme. Rakhmetet?. Mrs. James P. Kernoehan and Mrs. Marsden .1. Perry. dr. and Mrs. Joseph l-'ahys will have a familv reunion to-dny at their pino a* Sag Harbor. Long Island. The guests will include tiyp children snd thirteen grandchildren. Their son-in-law and daughter. Mr. and Mrs. Robert \V. Peterson? of Lenox, who arrived in town a couple of days ago and were at the Piara, left the city yesterday to join the part; Miss Emili Randolph, daughter of Philip 8. P, Randolph, of Philadelphia, will be married to Philip K. Stevenson, of this city, to-day at the Randolph ?summer home a; Narragansctt Pier. Miss Randolph is well known in New Vork and is present at most of the laces and hunt meet- en Long Island. She is one of the best known women pilo players ?n the country. Her flane? is a brother of Malcolm Stevenson. Mrs. Stephen Peabody, who returned recently from Europe, lias gone with 1er daughter*. Miss Priscilla and Miss Kmma Peabod**, to Southampton, I-ong Island, where they will spend the re I niainder of the summer. Mrs. William Piarson Hamilton will ??nil for Kurope to-day, and will remain abroad until September. Mr- William Metcalf Bliss will go to the Oriental Hotel, Manhattan Beach, on July 15. Rlisha Dyer, who has been in the for -? ? eaal daj :. will return to N'ewport to-day. Mra, T I, Oakley Rhinelander is the ef Mra. Jame-? II. Kidder over the Fourth at her country place at Southampton. Long Island. Mrs, Reginald C. Vanderhilt, who ar? rived from Kurope yesterday, will spend the summer at Newport. Mr. and Mrs. Lewis <"asi Ledyard. who returned to New York yesterday from abroad, will also spend the eason a' Newport. LORD SALISBURY'S GRANDSON MARRIES Dorothy Jannaway American Bride of Ex-Member of Grossmith's Company. IB - >te le LonJon. July '?'?? The announcement was made to-day of the marriage of Handle William Gascoyne Cecil, ion of ?he lie. Lord *.". illian Gasoyne Cecil. rector of Hatfleld sine is*h. a nephew of I S Marquis o" Salisbury and grand son of the former Conservative Prime Minister! to Dorothy May Jannaway, who is said to he an American. Al? though just made publi-, the marriage tool pl-ice at the Paddington registry ? fflee on June 2?;. The bridegroom has been in the pub lie eye several times before, once as ???< undergraduate of University <'ol trge, Oxford, when he was involved in i routhful "scanade on Guy Pa Day which ended In his being His father at thai time ?rote a let? ter to "The Times" .?ich caused much amusement, especin?y the part ;peak Ing ' f the interference of "i lower class policemen with high -pirit id gentlemen," "it! the re^u't that "poor boys who had no crimina tent, but plenty of the higl ip innocent nnd pure youth. And them ? ' . s in the police court, v ith al! its concomitant degradation and publi? cs y." Stage ambitions seized young Cecil and on leuving Oxford he appear-d in small parts at the ?hiiet\ Theatre and accompanied George Grossmith's ?.?aiety company on a tour of the Unit<>d St;.tes with the nlnv "After the Girl." -? WHAT IS GOING ON TO-DAY. I ft* ?? sdn m ?< m Un ?km?. ' - . lu? Hato Metropolitan M ..f Art, N*< Vork / ?lorie?I i?.. -k, Van ? 'ortlandt l'art? Museum snd tha (qua ? i r." ni Ii -j of |. >laration ??' t id. p- ndi ? ?'-? ?' :. .M .r.i????,- it f.,mri-e ini I. - .. li- is . Centra Park, 5:30 a. m ? Uelghta n- i-r-? i ?rphan \v ?:.:? ?? gnd Croa ... 0 ? heroua - - -th of July. ? ?? 10 . ?| m. I t'ii- g ? ? of July. 1 ? re. '? * m - . ' ? . ? .? :.. ii.ir-- an ? . tir-, ici' ? Men'a nub of W . Hi Igt) ta, Kort \\'oaliliie?..ii V | , ! a, n-, > - ..- inn. - '-i r| -- Part i" ?> h ?<r tie- llarli -n Pal ? ??? Be Mount Morrl Park, io ... m Addn ? ? i of tha Knlghia -r .-,. lu ml . - Park Id t'r.il.e Park, io :i m , Saluti of forty-eight guns ? ; ioi ? j?|. ..n t. 12 ei i' r ? ? ? ?? *i ork i ????? ? . 'anierV i -? stli i.. s, huetten Park, Union Hill, N. J.. I p m li., ?! . .,?.,->-. par i Pa ' snd i ih ira Park, I p ra. oi. iir.ittnii nf the sniiiii Harlem ? ?ton rhomaa Jefferson Park, ? p sa 1 n- addn --.. ?.,.-. quarte? ingina snd band concert, Qraat'i r-min. S p III. Band ? ?ni -n? In Huda-M i*. ru. tblngdon Hquar*. ililldren'a Play .... , , ? ? .;,,.,,|,,|. I-..-I, I .irk Wa.ililnaion Nquare, Batter) Part, rt aviti i , r.ien Part Corloarr'a Hook i ?'. rnmpkln* Hquan and Hamilton I'urK. Bntertalnstssoi mot relebcatlon r--- the He l.r i- nrphani* ????? lu?. S p m i elrbraiksna M ? Part Brookl] n .Mill,-in- 1*1,11. i ..ion,- i- li. 1,-1.1 ISlll r? aiment Allilillc Klirld. Uroohl>U, S p ni OBITUARY. I'HWtIS HOPhlNSON. Morristown. H. J . July I. Francis Mopkmson, seventy-four year* old. de? scendant of a prominent family of Morn? County and a former member of the Boar?! of Education, is dead at his home, 14 Pe H?rt st.. from heart trou ble. Mr. Kairchild was a son of William w. Balls*/. From l*til) to IST*.' he ?ral a clerk in the postoffice here, and in the last named year resigned and formed a partnership with J?ni?-s S. Adams, under 'he name of Adams & Kairchild. COadaCtiag one of the largest grocery husine??es in Northern New Jersey. Th,- flrm dissolved in Itksa, and Mr, Pairchild organised the F. H. Fairchild Company. He retired ? ;. ear ?go. Mr, lairchild was a mi mber of Cin? cinnati Lodge |, F. and A. M ; a past high priest o( Madison ? hapler, R. A. \|., and a pest commander of OOVt at St. Amand ?' .nmander.. Knights Tern piar. He glee beloag?d to l.osntaks Council, Royal Arcanum, sad te Arcana Council, ?>f Brooklyn, Knights of Honor. For almost half a reatan he had served ?? an elder in the South street Presbyterian Ckareh. He leaves a \>ife, tWO daughters, Mm Minnii Fairchild ami Mrs. J, Claude Arm? strong, wife of the secetar) of th? Brooklyn branch \. M. ?'? A. ?nd a brother, Clifford A Fairchild. MISS GUGGENHEIM TO WED Engagement Announced 0:1 Houseboat in Canada. Brewer's Mills, Oat, My 1 Mr. nr.,l Mr?. Murr\ Cuggenheim, of New York, who are here on board their houseboat Nahm*, have announced the engagement ^f their daughter. Mi?? Lucille Guggenheim, te Frederic A. Cimbel, of New Yoik. Mr. Gimbel is lb? son of Me. ,u>d Mrs. Isaac Gimbel. He is a graduate of Philips A'idover Academy ami Tal? University, Miss Pauly To Be Married. Miss Alen? I'auly, \oungest liaughter of Mr?. Plora Pauly, "f College Point, and Henry Berlinghof?, of this city, will be married at College Point Wedne? ilii\. July IS. Miss Pnuty is a L-r?n.| daughter of the Ute C?ptala I J. Mer ritt. Jadets Sail from Naples. Nanleo, Italy, July 1 The Aaserieaa squadron, consisting of the battleship? Missouri. Illinois and Idaho, with the cadets from the \aval Academy ?t Am napolia on board, left hen- to-ds) for Gibraltar. DIKI). Bald? m. I'. A. R Mead, Matilda H * Bibby, Edward A. Phillip-, Cuy For?;, t h, Mary I. Sampson. Fdith A. Hunter, lieber? IL Shipley,Louise. BALDWIN Al Allentewa, Pean . July ;t. Prcderic A. I,'. Bald? in, in h I year. Notice of funeral later. Hloom field ' N. .1.1 and Es itoa Pi bb papers pleas? copy, BIBBY Wednesday, Julj I, sftei v hoit illnea 1, Ed*.1 il An'hora? of the late Kdward Aptkorae sad Klizabe h Stockton. Funeral private FORSYTH At Kingston, h *. . Jul) I, 1911, Mary laabelia, ?taught? 1 - I 1 late Jame? Christie and Mary Bruyn Forsyth. Funeral from residence, 41 Pearl it., Sunday, July ?>. at :t p. m. Relatives and friends are invited HUNTER At Poughkeepsie, X. Y.. on W ,!?!?: , . Jul) I, 1914, Robert H. Heater, I unei il at his in'?- residence, 13 South Clin ton st, Saturds). July I, b( i o'clock p. m. Relatives and friend? are invited. MEAD Suddenly, al Greenwich, Cone, Jul) ?. 191 I, Matilda II . wif? * ? d, Fun? a? her lat-- residence, 3(9 Lak? an Monday, July ?',. at ?'! p. m. PHILLIPS Suddenly, on Thai July :.'. 191 I, <:?:- Phillips, in tl ? ;."ar of hii sge. Notice of fanerai liereaff? r. SAMPSON July s, Edith A. Samaeea. a' her home, (?shorn Hall, 128 La?* 26th st... 1 graduate of Belle? ix Training School for Nurse-, elaSS of 1890, Interment at Ulutm.-.n. Mast SHIPLEY Louise Shipley, ?laugh*? r ol th? late Jacob M. ami llanna A. Ship I? Notice of futura! in Su' papers. MANHATTAN AND TUL BRONX CAMPBELL, Christopher T., 882 East TMh st.. July 1. ag??l 12. Funeral to-day, Hi s. m. CULLETON, Margare*. >,. st., July l. Funeral to-day, 10 a. m. ? CM MINGS, Evelyn D., Hotel St. An? dren. Jul] ' DRESSLER, William. 148 V. June 29, aged I FLISH, Arnold, Jal) 'J. aged Tl. HAHN. Mina. .". West l"M ? . j . Funeral to morrow. HAUT. Sarah H . I Vandaai it,Jal) I. KEANE, Irene, 42 Morton st., J? r unirai tO-day, 2 p. m.' MURAN'. John, Ifiri Ka-t 99th st, Jal) I. Funeral to-day. 9:30 n. m BROOKLYN. BARNES, Edward, 278 Marc- av., July ?J. Funeral to-morrow, 2 p. m BROWNLEE, Florence I.. IM IYII lough by St., July -'. Funeral to-day. S p. m. CONSTANCIN, Gasten Fdward, ?so.' Baiabridge ' . Jul\ -'. aged ?>0. Fu neral to-day, 8 p. m. ERLENWEIN, Fredei Manger ?. July '-'? Funeral te-morro p. m. FRIEL, John J . Ninth. oth st . Jul) 1 GARLAND, Everett, 923 East Mth .?t . aged 28, Fun? ral to-day, 'J p. m. RON'ZELMANN, John. 1841 Myrtle av.. July I, Funeral to ?ia\, 2:M p. m. rHEWS, Francis II. . '.', Madison July -. egad 18. Fuacral to? morrow, 3 p. m. NELSON, Ne:' Jeaasen, 2M 18th st . Broekljra l!"-pitat. aged 88, Funeral to-day. LONG I8LA> n ALNWl? K. Mortimer, Reekawa) '?'? July 2, aged 8. Funeral tomorrow, l" a. m. BLEOO, lohn, Caaarsle, June ?.".', ageil 70. BURNETT, Kdward. Woodha\m. June .".0. aged ?*. 1)1 NN. Raymond. Jamaica. July 1. Fu? neral toda>. i>:*ti> a. m. in \S.1 ha\en. GERARD, Charles H.. P.uhogue, July 1. aged IV NEW JERSEY. ALLEN, Florence H.. Jersey ? ity. July'.'. PRKNNAN. I'atncK. Fas' Orange. July 1. Funeral to-day. >> a. SB. EVENS, Harriet, Jersey City, July 1 Funeral to morrow, | p. m. GOLDHAM, Arabella Lord, Fast New? ark. July 1. JOYCE, Mary, Jersev City, July t, aged 21?. MARTII1S. Augustus J.. Newark. July ?.!. aged 84. MINNIE, lame S.. Newark. July 1. RUSSELL, William F.. Last Otange, July 1 aged 72. i rMKTt.nir .*. tiiin wooiii \w> ?iMtrrav 1 r.'M at l,y Hartem Train an?! 1, Trjl.??. UlT.ee. ?? h??l -??? it. N. T.