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RATHHOUSES OF ONCE GAY OSTEND NOW SHELTER REFUGEES
Wheeled Bungalows in Which Fair Feminin? ity Used to Don One-Piece Suits for the Eyes Edification Have a More Sober Role. - iPPO-K Pennsylvania and New York hid Sic ? yev's supported huge standing armies Ml ,iad declared war again-t the other, a*: Pi***risylvania. the bette, to ?wept throvgh Now Jersey ?????'rVrmc.: horde*-. And suppose any qaa.i f Jerseyites from the comtriunitios in the L'f the troops, from Tn-nton .ad Berdcntown ^Tp-iac-.o-i hi from the farms in between, had to the const, away from the line of march, to L>t sheltei ' ?'? could, say. In Atlaatle City. f~Jt , *- a parallel situation. Bcl csui'nt between two powerful and hostile jaup-a, has bee trampled underfoot, and tl* -u ??ST?d tr..-- ''' Peasants and burghers "? fle_ -;- belongings they co-i'd ?rape tegethi -114*'-' ?? ,h *?-*co .... tin- Germbn invasion *,?._'???? \ " Europe, is full of .?.'.end, . tira. a better refuge. Oatoad, like Atlantic City lihe, in fret, ?ilmosl any popular watering place ho.? a comparatively small permanent population, abaiut !0,?MK) Ils acconimodntions, however, ' are most elastic. m> that in summer an?! early autumn it can cotefortabl) ears for -.wi?-e tha* number if they hove the price. Of a ourse, in the present in? stance, '.hey haven't the price, but it is taking cai" of them just the varie, showing a heHi'i. a com moi- humanity, b;n?**Bth Its bedi-encd exterin. And one no\,>l mothotrit has hit upon of sheiii r .n-- these tragic invaders i< to turn over ils bath? houses t them, to be used not as bathhouses but a< home.-. Of cours? If one picture.- to himself the little cubbyholes in the hotel basements with >"hich At? lantic City halben are familiar, or even the slight? ly airier and lighter accommodations parcelled out m the great bathing pavilions,1 he is noi immedi? ately impie.-sed \?ith the comforts which these Belgian refugee? src enjoying. He would '.?it d the intern-1 wreck to buy accommodai ? lie hug? seaside hotels which crowd euch o?',? ? ? O-ter-i. I i in Atlantic City. -mter part nre destitute. Imagine then fiikcvc!; regarding dumb put gh. e Dl| ' '-* pome- -ii-. ? ? ? |>oi.'ir;: to .A l*ard*.."_!*.. '.!?? mte ul. a chine the urt and Too*! the dai g, .1 iea. blind t.. t beckon.T>_ of the horror- th?-> experiem 1.- empty .-tomach?. V ?jhart!. refugee camp, for bi eickeo. su| But in -in. ..? pccts they couldn't have pit ?a f? ? ?1 the night alone ? ? ? ?i ?ay ?io?h t ? *" ? ? ? re?t of his fam O-.a- middle of .!?? ?ei y differ? nt a ?in. has v.-?? : ? ? | -'in o-- the a ? iney amo Hit ? ? - sast to lur :h BJbjb ? a-.fi - '.hem, drawn I c ? -tepj, at the . hi - bathiag toars ?h?- roof. It is i?4* *t ? ? ? ?a-*? . ?a hip thut the '?orse i- being attached which la to draw the vehicle down into the water until its hubs are immersed. The point of all *' is is simply that the Oste-id bathhouse is a little hut, with u gabic roof and windows, set well '>'p off the damp Mad on wheels. It stands in sun drenched isolation overlooking the Xoith Sea. The Oatond authorities have driven live hun? dred o*? these ii sea beach bungalows baci: from the beech t.> :. litt!? park ?.cross from the Chalet du Roi, King Albert*! -luir.mer home, and to make the thin floors of ihent I unies u lit? te warmer and more comfortable for sleeping purpose:; they have equipped a1' of them abun? dantly with straw. Each one of them now houses CAPTURE IS A DEATH WARRANT FOR SPIES IN THIS WARFARE London, September 1. THF n eceive i bort shrift in this -rar. . has there been >uch nn .?il... among the great powers .??mee on the -^py. Never ?s ;.he ich an overshadow a* imprn nduct of ?var u? now. Th. Piai , aking of '.he spiiit and MTanira' British troops, says there are **o thing particular which stand out -the t*mplff .liat arrangements and the '-nick way" of the Knglish with spies. Of the btter the French \\r;tci say-: If there oi ? thing which ". : hould like to ?w chiefs imit?t" along British lines, it is the ?etere wsy r which they treat spies. An inter? nster pu: si (he disposal of our allies by th* hniKter of War told m that every person taken '? the set or convicted from papers found upon ?ia of having dealings with the enemy is instantly ?bot." Sparing the life of a spy, according to military -Wkoriti?--. ?. crime, and jeopardizes the lives ef hundred^ ? thousands of soldiers. A British austral i? .| :, -,ed as saying in this connection: "Vou may talk about humanity, but in such ????? human ? i- a deceit. To spare the life of * *Py or to postpone judgment is a crime against **" cwr, troop . The spy may lind means of get ''-? rid ol r -.. information or he may recommence -?work the ..? day early enough to advise th< *-?rmy. ?Ah?. urprise us when ?ve think h? ??"?repareo h ueh a case an ill advised leniency ???y cost the li\es of many hundreds of men. ?fcathinR 1 . not permit. 1 am inexorable." -?ay by day m pints from the Continent show *??t these iew.? are held by generals on each side. ?"IREE?KIRK ( VKRIKR PIGEONS SEIZED BV ENGLISH MILITARY AUTHORITIES. *h?n th? ?_? sh militarx authorities seized ??rtescer? ran pigeons a few days ago it va*s ?- occaiion of moment. It illustrated another ***???? througl ?hieb spies are now known M *4rk. -T ,,. .Vl. . l>th century spy ?a anything but 4*?-eUcujai. foi ?,-ilv a part of a well or ftsi'e* ;V..?,, K[ ,( , this ),0i(is p00(i of the ???twer.ul nal freriou-- to On outbreak o'- ?he war Germany *? rraniT wen ? ized witl spy scares not dunl - *?** it) ten!' years. Many innocent persons **?? helj under u-picion. only to be eventually J**4 loose. Hut it -howed the existence in tl>? J*Cs or ?ne Rurop?an military officials of the founded belief that spies were never more "???Um. ^'?4 Ion?- wa> from Nathan Hale and Major yTt *? t"e rnod"tn spy. There arc few who or ?ver will know except relatives of the ?is* a,n,dredi f pies who have been shot ^?n? rar'? -i.reak. I(_. f,lt'etii century spy ?loes not venture on ^ *ith hi ?lurfble paoi'is m h's pockets, in ???y**" ?*" n:' of bis shoes or yet with anv? il v t?tU<? **ay '" th'' corn'r of n|,< 'n?u,;'' j -f-^" oi De?ta-. letter-, telegraph wins and bm^ (w* mediums through which h? work-. **,i **' **! il '- different. He nceils the car ?4,^.. n: n* even uses wireless; the aer? plane: H^ * he can take a chance on a courier; I 5m?7 ** etn himaaelf deliver the knowledge ! bidden to get; and oftenei he dies. ? '?*!'bu*i??r . :. he death toll of the first ?*** ?f the wai already art ? ???? ? ? . ?i .i.r -u-pected that nu ? ' ? ?; other clubs. " fash-. .ml .-?fa.?, wer? on thi ??eirr i . '."' |i no eatir*. p'ki it>fif h German who i not w.iiiiiei- I. t few. if any, Oer mai - fi- r aha and restaurants, for th' press lo.ir -im- loined m the cry to have thesi aliens pl-.ced in concentration camps. It had corr.r- to light 'before the war thai moneyed Germans thought to he oflicers witr government money were trying to got informa? tion from young officers in financial distress. 1! is one of the accepted method- -it is known that the Germans and other nations have been work? ing in this way of late years, and it is fully borne out in the scandals at the different capitals. Du good authority it is stated that there is a separate arm of the military service in Germany which will always pay for information from Ger? mans or any one else who may ;eiid in plans or photographs or written descriptions of localities which the military ere anxious to possess. AVith lb?* tirst remuneration goes the assurance that even mo'*e will be paid for additional informa? tion. If *hat il attractive to the would-be spy, he sends something else, whereupon he is informeJ that he can become a listed securer of the dciircd intelligence and placed on a salary. THE MACHINATIONS OF THE GERMAN SPY St STEM. It he accepta the ?ystem mor, provides him with otebook,-in which then are certain printed iji ? in.-, !? be answered, and when that is dont ih- b<nk Is d,t back. These question book; ara fi mod 10 as to cover everj *? 11 _-*> 1 matter. The minuit.non, thr average wealth,' the roads leading to an?! from, 'he fortified approa.lns. the ..umboi* of soldiers maintained in certain forts, ?,nd so on down the line, until when the system pores over it -t will lind ?lia,! ?t has a very complete record of a certain [ection. The man who sends it in muy (.ven got a bonus for good work, and forever after he i.-> bidden to keep Vn touch with the sys? tem. Last aeek v liei. Premier Aaquith was asked how many sines had been shot in Great Britain .?'inc?* the outbreak ?>! the ?var he answered .hat none he' met such an end, but this does not change ihr frame of mind of many perdons hue, who insist that * he government authorities have shot as many ;is three hundred. It is known that scores have boon arrested in Southampton and other ports; that still others have been found too r.ear l'ortifi eations. There is u mystery about the murderous assault >ii a towerman at a principal railroad junction near Liverpool last week. The towerrr.an v.a stubbed, and but for the timely arrival of another towerman an oncoming express would have be-vi wrecked. It is not known yet who st.ibbfd the man. A sentry mar one of the mob li'.at'on ramps wai -hot when he ordered a man \\. ha't. and the ass ai lar t is -,ei to ne round. No one doubts ?h? proaencf af spies, and, morccei. these are taken to be the deeds ol -pie- or peid ?gf nts of Germany. Hardly a day patres without the DCWgpaper* recording the presence of spiei in Erante or Ger mi-ny. In Belg-um a German spy was found w*ith ?i Red Cross badge on. He was given a hearing S short distance from where he was found, whim hin nened to be neat Brussels lli> explanation wa considered too flimsy. As told in the dis' patches of the day. the spy shuddered a bit whe told he must be shot, and then he was led out, th shot wa lirec and thnt ended Ihe matter. The aeroplane, so it has ?.."-n argued, will large!; obviate the practice ol spying. Ai least, it is con ceded it may obviate it in cases of : rmy move ments. .>'o longer would it be possible, as ?ti th< old Indian -tory o!' tir American Revolution, foi mu of the Iribe ir*ho had been properl) tchoeleri by p resourceful American to tell the enemy thai the American* ?en ai thick as the louves on th? tr?es a short distance off, thereby searing away the enemy. An aeroplano would soon ascertain the truthfulness o' such statements. If has been arcued by numerous military authorities that th? aviator in times of war should b? hot, because he was really a spy. Stonewall Jackson could have outflanked the devil ? that worthy had been leading an army. The same is now sHid about the general v.ho has an efficient fcrcc of aviator-. The dread of the spy has niudi to do with the poi.r ref-eption of war correspondents, especially by the Gorman-. It has almost resulted in the execution of several correspondent?: who rre known i- toi nationall-.. Gl AIUMNG THE RESERVOIRS IN GREAT HUMAIN. It i.> -"i undisguised <eciei thai <ili re*?t-rvoir .a Great ?ir.tain are closel) guarded because ?'ear.-; have ben felt thai German epics would throw typhoid fevor -erms into the water -applies 01 the lui- cities. Here we have the *pj who not only is pf'er any inform?t ion he can .?"cure bot is a me? dium of destruction. N'o railroad bridge in the country is now unguarded; track waiker.s closely inspect the -.racks day and night. At princinul functions Ihe khaki-dad soldipr-i with glistening bayonets end loadfd rifles -.how the merciless way in which spv iKc.i's would be treated if appre? hended a* work. Soeciai constabh - patrol 'in- street- of outlying districts that are traversed i>\ important railroad !'n-?t. The iron band ?hat innvund* Germany one forged by itself to prevent the entr, or 'he -Migra? tion ol' -'lies is harder to c-cape than it has ever been, and this is the ease with France. Thousand', of cameras and moving picture ma? chines were confiscated m Germany when war wa.-: declared. This resulted ifi hundreds of Amer? icans being deprived of innumerable snapshots of an entirely innocent character. But the Germans knew BO exceptions. They were taking no chances. Sketches by. artists, especially landscapes, were sei.ed. No campstool with legs that would un. screw v.-is Dermitted to go through the lines. These stools, by 'he way, -(-tripped with hollo-** leg-' so bruiho* can be handily carrieu about in them, ha.e always been re**utded with suspicion. Shortly before war broke out a -veil known Eng? lish artist Was held bcca.-i a plan of a fortress wai found in a leg of hi.- stool when onen-d. Ho wa* thrown into j.nl. Eventually i'- was moved by a German woman tnat a -ccret agent tiixiou to "make good" had taken the artist's brushes out of the stool'.* leg'and placed the plan there. Th<- a'rt;*t WSJ th'ei rtlea*ed. but what punish? ment was meted out to the ag.nl ?u* nal dis closed. He probably wa* commended toi his vigi? lance. when Shakespeare was in his or me. It sust-i red whst has been called one of the moat rer ? ble sieges on record. It is extremely interesting to recall that during this siege the Sutes Gen? eral, the Dutch federation, were assisted by the English and the French and the other fees of Spain. Most of the town was in ruins before it surrendered with tUe honora of war to Ambrog.-a Spinola, of Genoa, the Spanish general. To-4ay its foe is Germany, but as was the ca??* three hundred years ago, England and Franj? are ranged alongside its parent governmcr.*.. There have been rumors that the Germans would turn far enough out of their beaten path in-? France to besiege it. If so, it would probably sur? render without resistance, since it possesses r.o permanent fortitications. Of its ancient fort?, which saw service long before Herr Krupp be?*r..i manufacturing siege guns, one has been turned into a racecourse. The town still possesses, however, a certain strategical importance, forming one of the ehtaf gateways between London and the Continent. Tens of thousands of Americans, English people and Belgians, have fled through it to London sin:e this war began, ai d thousands of British troops have ' landed there for service against the Ger? mans. For this reason it has been suggested that the British battleships and cruisers to be seen lying off Ostend's gleaming .^ands might take *?v: place of forts and disputa- say attempt at Germ in occupation. a family. Near lh-> centre of the colony a num? ber of stoves with long stovepipes stretching up above the roofs of the surrounding bathhou-" ? have been set up. This is the community kitcli -i\ an?l here daily the rations are served and cooked. which help a little toward appeasing the ravenous appetites engendered by the salt sir, If these refugees could forget the world trag? edy ?vhich drove them to Ostend, if they could forget the terrible experiences through which they have been and the less of loved ones and prop? erty, they might even get a good deal of pleasure out of this outing at Belgium's most fashionable ?aside resort. Ordinarily Ostend's season is a( it? height through August and the first half ?if September. Russian grand dukes, the famou* mistresses of Paris, the whole aristocracy anal plutocracy of Kurope are represented in the .!. b orate hotels and on the sands. Then the Digue becomes the gayest promenade in the world, ml these very bathhouses which are now doing such yeoman service in sheltering the tattered rem? nants of a scourged people hide the toilets of the noblest and daintiest of the hemisphere. They should provide, therefore, besides a clean shelter in a healthful spot, a disti.ict atmosphere of pict? ure, a tonic to the spirits. A glance at the faces of the children in the .c companying photographs will show how this no'vl picnic pleases them. Possibly, as the days go by and the Germans also, their mothers and fath'-rs will follow their example and make as much of a lark out of necessity as circuir stances permit. Every summer about New York people pay Money to live for months in much the same way that these Belgian refugees _re now living, and ? not always that their tents offer as good prot ? tio-i tt* the Ostend bathhouses. Ostend as s watering place is not much o!d.-r than Atlantic City, but Ostend as a town and :ea* port dates back to the eleventh century, to the time of the Norman conquest of England. \> early as 1 *J84 tile industrious inhabitants of the surrounding country had connected it with canals lo neighboring towns. Toward the close of *he sixteenth century it became prominent as the last stronghold of the Dutch in the South Netherlands. In l.'iH'l and 1586 it repulsed two hostile attacks by the Spaniards, and between K>01 and H04, SOME of ?he J?EAJGEES INDEMNITIES PAID BY DEFEATED NATIONS IN RECENT WARS WHEN Erasmus described war as "the malady of princes" he was not SO aecura.e as would at lirst appear. It may he the princes who are ill, but it is the people who suffer the consequences and foot the bill.-. The cost of the present war hjs been estimated many times, bjt when it is over the losers will fac? a further stupendous outl-ty in .the indemnities of money and land which ? ill be exacted from them. At the end of the Franco-Prussian War, in lo7t, Bismarck demanded an indemnity which Stag? gered tin- world. Nothing of the sort had been dreamed of before. Not only did France lose ?\lsacc and Lorraine. t\?o of.her best provinces. ? but she hail lo pay in cash the tupendou.s s,i;n of 5,000.000.(100 francs, or $1,000,000,000. This vaM sum of money was obtained only by the loyalty of tne French people, who in thousands of cases gave up their jewelry and silverware to help make up the mount. The lost territory and hardships caused by the huge levy have never been forgotten, and the defeat if the Kaiser will mean that France will ask for a return of bo:h. Should she ask for interest on the *?!.000.000.?>0i) for forty-four year:; it would make an almost im? possible sum. The exacting of a tribute n money or land or both from a defeated enemy is as old as war itself, an?1 there are u number of interesting ? s amples in recent times. When the American colonies achieved their independence they won the ownership of^their own territory as the re? sult of military success. The biggest indemnity ever obtained by the United States, however, ?as, that following the war ?vith Mexico, in 1847. The decisive victory won by the I'nited States re? sulted in Mexico's giving up all claims to terri? tory north of the Rio Grande. No cash indemnity was obtained from Spain after the Sp ni>h-Amencin War, but besid.'s the freedom o' Cuba t is country obtained Porto Ri?o and Guam outright and the right to buy the Philippine Islands for ?JO.OOO.nOO. The American Civil War brought about l -trangc condition in the matter of war indenni . es. A- result of the naval activities of che Soutn. England, a nation which had had no pnrt in the war, was compelled to pay an indemnity of over tl'.l.OOO.OOO to the I'nited States. ?fhil was because of an ?indirect participation i. te dctructi?n ot the American'merchant marine. When the Confederate States found themsel.es actually at war with the North they were unuer the enormous handicap of having to light vithjut a VOStigC of a navy. The powerful navy ol the federal government promptly blockaded the wh?'O seaooast of the South ami made the importation of supplies difficult ami hasardous. Jefferson Davis saw that if the South was to las', any time it .must have a navy of some sort. Hi pushing work on the few men-of-war which w.re m course of construction in Southern ihipyards, led letter- f marque to a!1 ?>?- elt wh th wia' 'd to become privateers under the Confeder? ate fl.ijr. Davis'? plan was to retaliate for the blockade of the South by preymg on the American mer? chant marine. At th? outbreak of the war a large number of the finest .-.hips in the world -.'??,rf* sailing under 'he American flag. The chance for P' izes was so rich that many English sea cap? tains hurried to join the ranks of the private.:*. Not only were vessels designed to prey on Ameri? can commerce, built, equipped, outfitted and manned in English ports. 1>ut they used these .*i* headquarters from -.'Inch to carry on their op?r? ations. Before tlii- war was over the fleet of privateers had become to large hat the Ameri? can merchant marine was practically swept from the sea. The three worst offenders were the Al . b-.ma. the Florida and the Sheii-ndoali. In all 168 American vessels were destroyed or captured by privateers hailing from England. The United States made strong prot?ts?o Eng? land against this violation of neutrality, but the/ were ignored. The Civil War seemed to be all the t .-oubli- that could be taken care of at once, so that England for the time went unpunished. A? snon as the war was ended the I'nited States put ii a claim for a payment of something over $19. 000,000 damages to the owner.-, of ships and CSV goes destroyed bj the English privateers. A' Arst England refused to consider the matter, and ii even appeared that hostilities might break out. Fortunately, this was averted. The affair then ? -.ragged along lor a period of twenty year' Finally, in l**-*--'?. England paid over the whole sum demanded. As f.ir as possible it was distribute I to the persons who had owned the lost ves?.el ln this way a number of families which had bee.i made bankrupt by the war were suddenly re* .-tored to a position of wealth. Supposedly neu ira I nations are now much more careful about ob Hrving their neutrality. Such an indemnity as Mat pun! by England will probably never be nee* essa!> again. Prussia, since her rise to power, ha;, always, la? s ted on ? course of un relenting punishment for tic victims of her arms. This was shown in th? Franco-Prussian War by the tembl? tax men? tioned above, as well as m oliier conflicts. In tue Seven Week.-. War of 18? I'm* 'r look -h< : i Id against her pi.n( ally, Austria. Prus.M ??as th'-;; the greai at of tue Gerasan itat?s out ds of Austria, end bad ambitions '.f. become *he ruling power among ihe Teutonic people. Ta? ?maller German itates, realizing that the defeat of Ails'.na would mean the lo-s of their inde? pendence, took -ides with the Hapebnrgs. After a brief campaign Austria was entirelv rubdaod. By way of indemnity Prussia annexe! Hanover, the Elbe duchies and the electorates o: Hesse. Nassau and Prankfurt. The old North German confederation was also broken up and t new one organized, with Prussia actually in con? trol This great addition of territory made po. lible the present German Empirai as proclaimed at Versailles niter th? fall if Pans. Closely following the establishment of the Ger? man Empira came ths Russo-Turkish War of 1877 i ussia won a rather doubtful victory over the Sultan, but the indemnity did not go to the Csa;* himself. However, it meant a decided blow to Turkey. The I'ryutv of Bar lia, which followed the Russian-Turkish trouble, recognized the inde? pendence of Rumania, Servia and Montenegro, en? larged Bulgaria and created the autonomous state of Eastern Rumelia. Three small provincea were ceded directly to Russia by the Porte. Though . Russia's territorial gain was small, she had ac? complished her purpose of weakening the Saltan. Eight years later Bulgaria annexed Eastern Ru rieliu. Servia became jealous and tatted a war of i egression. Bulgaria was victorious. No cash in? demnity wa_ exacted, but Servia wao compelled to give up all her claims to any interest in th? ai.nexed state. The Far East was the >e_t of tin next tara im l-ortunt wars. Japa.i defeated China in 189a ami compelled the latter to hand over the rich island of Formosa, as well as part of the Liao-tung Pe? ninsula. Japan was again victorious in 11'05, when ne fought Russia. The Treaty of Portsmouth , ovided for the ceding of Port Arthur to Japan. Su? caMcd far no cash indemnit\.