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V l:'? iili CAVELL <N .1^ ?L*?i?. M, Chivalrous Men Would Stay .^w's Hand While Women Deny Their Own Right to Privileges. l?y Rutfi Danbar. ? ? ?? agr?a wer of femi: a,. ? M m. of mar , equality. If Wi - ? ? and, la ! ? nihili :emin ?emin: ?nal m; a wc er? are nme of wc S a i e direct st its tx. An ur.of . " while an ? :ace thro?. . . mourninj I <uds the fi| ? ? ' ? ?nient of justice, a fui that th? ? ' " ' ... . fferti -?? ar.d women, psych' not admit ? ' ? ? : distinction "men. psycholog ugh to take a d?fi' U ? -? t at i '? ;- an interesting pc ?',ieor - ' ? rnmental stage. ei re ii i than i met ? - - the case of a won ol Imee men v, ? . ? ?id special privileges ? d'f ol this kind. There are .,1 data to ie!l us definitely whetl I matter ot traini ? knowing that there are fl ?unosity ? '- e have no way of knowing tl fundamental. In fact, we have mc t it is a matter of trainii ? ed in him a certj ? deference toward women, frc . very hard for him to grow away V. ? may not all get up in a subw, I oui se.it-. to women, but we feel u WC do not. We have a sir ? of a woman in distress, r ? the ethics of the case. James E. Lough, acting dean of tl Pedagogy rk Universit there may be some elemei ? e attitude of men, the mi re by reason. ? - Ited under the sa:r ( avell, theri ?he same outer ; . ... ... that ? ? ulnei locti ini an b t not among edu Fence or the Ger ? - ;;iuin at all. Th second was in laying down this doctrine o tn. The t. ?: ? .; Belgian -, inition factories and ti . be fourth was th Cavell. Thus she was sho ? , ians escape oppression : h ? under The Hagui ?? ? ? was a climax ot out nges ? jitoiie than men if ? i T eutOns, I believe r t .is an it-olated fact ' *:? :e death of Andre, deplorable last ,. conditions of war, anc I SS nal on in a senes c f outrages ?at many years and 1 have Saver been <i ny >,reat difference by convention, in the M and women. What f't . by the ciitieren:e ?in. e of cer dards. not by inherent tendencies." "'s. Leu Hollingaworth, psychologist in "? c r ? use at Bellevue Hospital, up any of the men who kgainat the execution ? . be found amorij; those strong for women but weak on KJual ? . There are of course, many bases for the ?Pinion ol men on the execution ol Edit! id "I have not tried to analyse did expect | ist men to "Pher ? except toi the ?a. i t- in making the laws re J*nl f And I should expect to denounce her SXOCU rrely, on trie ground that she ?as a woman There is no question that the ' si privileges for ' *tr? ng for keeping her from bet r give her privileges J*"?s pend on his will. He can de never they do not interfere *lth ' '?? He holds them out to her ' ? reward foi rot interfering with his de *"**? He would rather keep their relations 10 Tl ' * I? largely unconscious on the ? x *i men. They have not gone through ?V'"' ' ?he matter They get red jjr* ,a,f '? s,,y one suggests a change, nn<\ ..* " ? nk it out. %.?f ' ' ( th? attitude ol men toward "''? ?? entirely a matter or custom and ini"t not of inheritance. An Indian worn CaERTRUDE VTHERTON. Her death is the ?omantic. incident of the war. an carries a park. That is purely convention. There is no inherent tendency in man that makes this sight horrifying to man, yet It would horrify him to see a white woman I burdened." Somewhat the same opinion is held by Charles G. Stevenson, who in 1898 did servi! c as a Red Cross nurse at the front in the Spai ish-American War, ana who is now vice-pre.i cient of the New York State Nurses' A"-o ?a tion. Mr". Stevenson, however, vie vs this ten dency of men from a professional angle, with v. hich she has had ample opportunity to a?. - quaint herself. "It is true," she said," that men who ej deny women simple rights would have es cused Edith Cavell on the ground that she was a woman. This is natural at all times, and especially in the ca~e of a nurse. If men ate more aroused in this Instance than women they have cause to be. for they owe a great EDITH CAVELL Thr tragic figurr of the w.ir DR JA MKS F.. LOUGH. I Irr death w,i<? .t climax in thr arrir-s of outrages Mrs Gabriel, who is a native of Oregon, where the death sentence has been abolished, "and I don't believe In executing anybody. It is ab? surd that women are not given a voice in mak ing the laws which govern them, but, neverthe less, women would be lawabiding. If Miss Cavell liad been an ignorant woman, a tool, it would have been different. But she knew what she was doing. Belgium was under military law, and she knew what chances sbe took. If we didn't hold women to strict accountability aion? with men, what kind of conditions should we have? We have laws against burglary, but suppose they did not apply to women? If we had separate laws for men and women we should soon have anarchy. Miss Cavell con? fessed what she had done and asked for no leniency. This is shocking, but the death of a man is shocking. The young man who was executed not so long ago, and who asked his executors to shake bands with him. had his DI AN GEORGE W. KIRCHWE? "It is not a matter of logic bul c?f feel JUDGE ELBER1 II. GARY. I he t ntire world would have had ?i better opinion of the German cause had six- been aparees. DR STEPHEN S. WISE. It will be decades bel ore the BOame 4>t having si.un this noble woman will h.i\ e been F ft,u f-iI MISS LILLIAN WALD. rhifl is just a part of the general horror." deal to nur->cs. Tiiey are more upon them than women are, and -, would doubtless f ruch some chord m ' vibrate in a woman. At .--.?? I .l'inot see i fail to be incensed over the dean Cavell. And I know that no i an with a drop of red blood in his veins will let her death go unavenged." Gertrude Atherton, with the novelist's in? stinct, does not fail to see the dramatic com | ensation through the mist of emotion. "This attitude of men," she said, "is the whole point at issue in the suffrage question Men like to pity and protect women. I doubt if this tendency will ever be extracted from them, there are so many women to foster it. 'As for Edith Cavell. she knew what she was about. She knew war ; she knew the IS. She kept her wits till the last, we are told. She probably did not look so far ?now that her death would bave wonderful recruiting value which, ?t has but 1 bave no doubt she did know it would rebound to her country's benefit and to Germany's detriment. And what a detri cnt it has been already to Germany. Entr, 1 ..nd has reached the highest point of civiliza tion?that is why they gave Mrs. Herbert only l months in prison, instead of executing her. Germany, so forward of her scientific prowess, ?B fully 200 years behind in humanitarianism. Of course, there are some exceptions, but Ger mans as a nation are literal "I can't set why we should pity Edith Cavell. She was In tremendous luck, for her self and her country. She might just have been struck by shrapnel and never heard of a<;ain. But it is a great honor to be shot. "The execution of Edith Cavell has. ol ? e done Germany more harm than all her other blunders. It is true that we have exc . el women in this country. But they are criminals, and people make an outcry only he cause it is so unusual, just as they turn and stare it a man walks down the street without his hat. "If I had been in Belgium. I have no doubt ! should have done everything in my power to ^ave Edith Cavell. But now that it is over, I ihink she has the most enviable fate. He: death is the tragic and romantic incident of the war." Mrs. Olive Stott Gabriel, president of the Women Lawyers' Association, in spite of her indignation at the circumstances which made possible Miss Cavell's death, naturally reflects the legal sentiment: "I voted against capital punishment,'' said life beiore bim. That was quite as sad and impressive a death to me as Edith Cavell's He had done the noblest thing he had been trained to do. I don't believe in war, but if we are going to have war and spies, then, logically, spies should be honored, not executed. But I believe in enforcing laws in any community That's why ( am strong for suffrage, because .ill the people's sentiment is back of laws and they are then enforced, not allowed to become dead letters, as they are in the State of New York. "Men sentiment ilize about women being put to death, but that is ail theoretical. Practi? cally they don't stay their hands because of a woman. Roosevelt .often refers to the woman whom he refused to pardon merely because she was a woman. There is only one way in which women escape punishment, and that is through the unwritten law, but men get off on Pda .i. <t; Are Women By ALKCE DUER MILLER 9 Sont; Before Election. Men oi our state, how long Must women strudle and coax and plead I'or the thing for which you would fi^ht and bli BO, lor liberty, loved of the strong? Men of our state, how long? Men of otir state, how long. I low long will you sit .it r.'.se and say: Oh, yes, the women will win some day. Hut waiting will do no wrong"? Men ol our state, how long? Men of our state, how long Would you love the women who had no part In the thought? that have always stirred your heart? In liberty, loved by the strong? .N'en of oui state, how long? "Anti" Comments on the Parade. Commenting on the srflrage parade, one of the leaden of the opposition said: "There was much to make the on? looker wonder if the substitution of pageantry for sound logic held any guarantee that a doubled electorate would mean an improved electorate.' If we remember rightly, there were some who said of " the Sound Money Parade of 18%: "We doubt if the substitu tion of pageantry for BOttnd logic is any guarantee that the defeat of free silver would men an improvement in out financial situation. ' "I think." says the president of an "anti organization, "that the public is opposed to women marching." They showed their opposition by standing about four lours and cheering the marchers as 'hey passed. But the most eloquent comment of all is that the august president of the Men's League Opposed to Woman Suffrage refused to comment at all "Antis" We Havt' Miovvn. "My principal reason againit it," laid he, "I. that women don't want it, at far ai I ?ee." "O Father," his daughter exel dmed, "is that 'rut You know that I want it, and Mother doei, too." He smiled with omniscience peculiar to him: "My darling," he said, "that is only a wh.m "But it iin't a whim," ?he replied, "in Min Hayi, Who writet all your letter!. You frequently praite Her poiie and good tenie; well, the wants it, the sayi." "Do vou think that her judgment or mine ii the ripest.'" He asked. ",Muit I learn how to vote from my typitt?" "Well, then," the went on, "all the leacheri at M hool Are for it." He laughed "I have found ai a rule That all of the unmarried women I've known W ..nt nothing so much ai a home of their own: If all of your teacheri were married, you'd note A itriking decrease in their wiih for the vote." "Many teacheri are married," the itarted to say, Rut he begged the would not contradict in that way. "You're growing." he said, "both aggrenive ?nd vain I think we won't mention this ?uhject again." That night at the club they were speaking of It, And ha said that he wasn't oppoied?not a bit "It i? true I am voting BffflSafll It," ?aid her "But the women I know do not want it, you ?ee. Short Obituaries of "Anti" Arguments. In the early 80's, ?luring the opening of the colleges and ? ; ..icssional schools to women, after a long illness, quietly ;>assed away, the intellectual inferiority argument against woman suffrage. Suddenly, in all belligerent eountr.es. following the na? tional service rendered by women in munition factories, hos ! mis and the field of battle, the argument that women must ? vote because they are of no use in war Very suddenly, on October 23, 1915, in New York City during the ^reat parade, the argument that women do not want the vote. Where Women Don't Vote. "The arlairs of the greatest corporation in the United States, the Empire State." says Senator Root, "are conducted upon princirles that would ruin a corner grocer." Of course if this situation arose in a suffrage state, we could easily explain it as the result of women's nernicious influence: but as it occurs in New York, where only that sex votes every member ot which is a financial expert, we are at a loss. The Favored Sex. Women, we are often told, are not sufficiently grateful for the privileges they receive on account of their sex. We. therefore, beg the two women stenographers who i c jus? won ?ynewriting contests over men and women com ? etitors to remember that if to-morrow they take employ? ment under the government they will have the privilege of receiving a ?-nHler salary than the men whom they have surpassed. Psychologists Discuss This Attitude ?Some Say Men Have More Sentimen? tality Than Justice. thai too?witness Harry Thaw Mrs S. ? ?a executed becauae he was ?mpi Lincoln's death, yet she was only an BC4 I before the fact. The conspirators met H house, and she was not spared because she i a woman, nor should she have been. Occa i ally men ?re carried awiy by ser.rme- ? ad lai women off; then they hold that rare women for years afterward to show . ? erous they are. The old-fashioned man i indulges in maudlin sentimentality | rial privileges for women is usually the first I cheat her in business. I ,,m strong for w. at but I am stronger or justice. If women | I a vo:.e in lawma'.in.; they won't need any Cial privileges). They will tike care ot thetn ?r:.r?. The crime against Edith Cavell ?** not in eveeutinr; her, but in the fact thai r had no voice in the laws that governed he: " Miss Lillian Wald, head of the Henry Stir" Set'iemer.t, also regards the matter from a broad humanitarian view. "On the whole." said she, "the killing of Edith Cavell is just a part of the general horror and may be classed with the invasion of Pel |iuta and the sinking of the Lusitama. We are shocked to our marrow by the !< this splendid woman, this valuable nurse is as highly esteemed here as in England, and who cared tor Germans as well as her OV/S people. Now. if she merely, as a faithful, com? petent nurse, helped prisoners escape. ttsM ?1 a par? of the tenderness and compassion of nursing, and there isn't a woman living who would not have done the same. But it she v. i > engaged by the government as a spy. that if a different matter. She took her chinees and she should not have escaped because she was a woman. Which was the c.v-e I do not know. I do know that whatever the reason for her death, whether it was justified or not by the laws ot war, it is one of the most convincing proofs that war should be abolished." Like many other suffragists, Mrs Harriot Stanton Blatch reads into the Cavell case an? other argument for equal rights. "The furor of the men over the Cavell i ase ?s pure hysteria," she said. They hang, they electrocute, they shoot women in this country One group objects only when another group does it. When it comes their turn, they .tie quite ready to execute women, with whom they are always willing to share their sufferings, but never their powers. "Women can't sidestep res, risibility be^.i they are women," said Miss Henrietta Rodman. "War is not woman's expression?that is the only argument against tiie execution of Edith Cavell." "During this war Germany has committed three appalling outrages, which, from every point of view, are ulso three appalling blunders ?the invasion of Belgium, the destruction i ! the Lusitania. and the execution of Edith Cs veil," said Miss Elizabeth Jordan, of" Harper ot Brothers. "She has trieJ to justify each ot these, and in every attempt she has shown to a horrified world the vulnerable snot in bei mighty armor?the quality which, great as she is, must lead to her ultimate defeat. "No nation which performs and defends sum .1 '.ions can long survive; no such nation caw triumph ovei the civilised peoples ot the earth For Germany is undermining her own soc al structure as well as the world's; the is tearing away from beneath her ihe splendid foundation of civilization and high ideals which her own people built. That the many high-minded and heroic Germans should surfer for the blindness and blunders of the few is the real tragedy of the Fatherland." Other expressions are: Judge Elbert li. Gary: "My opinion is that Miss Cavell made herself amenable to military law and gave the Ger mans the right to put her to death, but 1 siso think that, as she was a woman and believed herself to be working in a good cause, it would have been better if hei punishment had been less. Alice Hill Chiirenden, of the Anti-Suffrage Association: "Certainly the execution of Edith Cavell was by no manner of means justified. Women irom the point of view of sentiment are e.i titled to certain privileges of protection." Miss Alberta Hill, of the Woman's Politi. al Union: "From the point of view of sentiment t execution o? Kdith Cavell was not juv, but it has at least refuted the argument ot t. antis' that in time of war women cannot d.e lor their country" Dr. Stephen S Wi^e: "The execution of Edith Cavell is perhaps technically justifiable. I am presuming that tiie German law dealt thoroughly by Miss Cavell. If so, one must be sorriei lor the spirit that informs and executes German law than for Miss Cavell." Mrs. Arthur M. Dodge, president of the Anti-Suhrage Association: "Capital punishment should only be meted out to women if it can be proved that they aie a danger to the community and cold-blooded criminals. Otherwise, from the viewpoint of sentiment?not sentimentality, be it undei stood?Edith Cavell should not have been put to death. George W. Kirchwey, formerly Dean 01 Law at Columbia University: "According to strict military law, \dith Cavell is guilty, and the fact that she is a woman should not be taken into considera? tion; but from the viewpoint of humanity and public opinion it seems to me that her cxecu tion was absolutely unju-.titied. It has been the practice of all nations to apnly the rule? of war less vigorously to women than to men. even though the oflence committed be tech nically the same, and I think this poli.y is sound?