HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL EXGURSIONS IN OPERA-LAND
.nspiration Caught from a Freneh Ballet?Incongruities of
the Modern Oratorio?The Composers Scheme for
a Religious Theatre?Stage Directions and
Scener_?"Moses" and "Christus."
By H. E. KREHBIEL
IS1S?Thfl Tribune A*?'n II* I '' '?
HAVE a strong belief in thc essential excellencc ol Biblical
? ? r thc purposes oi thc lyric drama at leasl from an
ical point ol view. 1 can sCc no reason against, but many
. a return to thc stage oi thc patriarchal and
figurea oi the people who arc a more potent power in the
world to-day, despite ther dispersal and loss oi national umty,
than thev were in the day. oi ther politieal grandeur and glory.
Throughout tbe greater part oi his creative eareer Anton Rubin*
stcin was thc champion oi a simiiar idea. 01 the twenty works
which he wrote for the theatre. including ballets, six were on i.i >
and to promote a propaganda which began with thc
: -Der Thurr.il.au .-.. Babel," in 1870, he not onlv
? hterarv held. hut made personal appeal for practical,
the Old World and the New. His, however,
is point oi view. not the historical or politieal. It is
very likely that a racial predilection had mueh to do wth his atti
n the subject, but in his efforl to bring religion into thc ser
| thc lyric stage hc was no more Jew than Christian: the
which he applied his greatest energies were those oi
Moses aml . hrist ...
Mueh againsl my indination I have heen compelled to believe
rfor Rubinstein came into my intellectual life under circum
stances and conditions which made hun the strongest personal
influence in music that I have ever felt) that there were
(,thcr ? besides those which hc gave for his championship
t.i Biblical opera. Smaller men than he. since Wagner's death,
have wntten trilogies and dreamed of theatres and fcstivals de
voted tn performances oi their works. Little wonder ii Rubin?
stein believed thal hc had created, or eould.create, a kind oi art
work which should take place by the side of "Der Ring des
Nibelungen," and have its special home like Bayreuth; and H may
have been a beliei that his projeet would excite the sympathetic
/eal oi the devout jew and pious Christian alike, as mueh as his
lack oi thc capaeity for self-criticism, which led him like a will
o'-the-wisp along the path which led into the bogs oi failure and
Genesis of Rubenstein's Work.
While I arai engaged in writing the
.imme book for the music fflflti
on in N'ew York ifl 1881, at which
"Tho Tov.ir of Babel" was performe.l
iti a truly magnificent manner, I?r.
Leopald Danroach, the conductor of
the festival, told me tht.t Rubinstein
had told him that the -mpulse to use
Biblical flahjoctfl in lyrieal dramas had
, . ? tfl him while witne-sing a ballet ,
. story many ye. |
| ... ile said that he had sel
ocm been moved so profoundly by any |
hpectacle as by this ballet, and it sug- j
? ft. him the propnety of treat
14 rod subjccts in a manner worthy j
? different from the convon
oratorio. The explanation has i
i,ot gotten lato thfl book-. but is not in
with the genesis of his j
Biblical operas. as rclatod by Rubin- j
in his eaaay on the subject
printed by Joseph Lewinsky in his i
booK "Vor den Coulisr-en," published
?er ot least three of the
- had been written. The com
?'.. defence of his works and hi*
of the effort which ho made to
I about a realization of his ideals
nr? to be rehearsod in justice to
] ii cl.arv ?- r U man and artist, as well
- ar.d the. BBbJectfl, which. I ' I
will in tho near future occupy
thfl minds of composer- Bgaia.
"The arai biaataia, "is
an art-form which I bave always boon
disposed ta igalaat The best
-. ma=torpieces of this form have,
not during the study of them but when
hearing then performe.l, always left
n.o euftft, .?.,!.?..!. aftflfl positively
. me Tho stiffness of the mu
aad atlll moro of the poetical
form always ?eomed to me absolutely
incongruous with the high dramatic
faaliag f the subject. To soe and
* ,.,.r ,-. tlflflBflfl 8 <:" - coats, white
cravat?. ycllow gloves, holding music
book* before them. or ladies in mod?
ern. often rxtravagant. toilets singing
the pi. grand imposing tigures
of the Old BBd N'ow TflfltaaaflBtfl has
alwnys d:fturbod me to such a dcgree
that 1 eould never attain to pure en
joymcr.t Irvohintnrily I felt and
thought l.ow much grandor, more im
I ri ..e, eivld and true would be all
that I ba.! I -i in the concert
room if represented on the Rtage with
costunieft docoration* and full action."
The aoataatiaa, ?aid Rubinstein in
effect, that Biblical subject* are ill
adapted to thfl stage because of thflir
sacn-d flhaiactflf is a tflfltifllflay of pov
erty for tho theatre, which should be
an agency in the service of the highest
? culture. The people have
a'ways waatfld to see stage representa
iacidflBta; witnes* tVie
? tho Middle Age* and
the Paaaiaa Piay at Oberammorgau
But yielifW to a prevalent
feeling that such representations are a
profanation of sacred history, he had
ved an appropnate type of art
work which 3vas to be producod in
theatres to bo specially built for the
j.urjiose ard by COflBflaaiflfl of ar'. I
be specially tiair.cd to that end. This
art-work was to be called Sacred Opera
tgtrieUkki Ovar). to distingu.*h lt
from secular opera, but its purpose was
to be purely artistic and wholly aepa
rate from the interest* of the Church.
He developed way* and means for rais
ir.g the BflflBflaary funds, enlisting art
ists, overcoming the difficulties pre
r-onted by the rnt.r flflj OChai and the
j.olyphonic character of tho choral
, and set forth his aim in re
spect of tho subject-matter of the
drama* to be u representation in chron
4lo-tical ordor of the chief ineident*
Uescnbed Ifl the Old and New Te.sta
jnents. Jlc fl/outd be willing to include
ia hia Bchama Uibiical oyttat alraady
axiatiaSi if the>' orero not all, with the
exception of Mehul's "Joseph," made
unlit hy their treatment of sacred mat
ters, espeeially by their inclusion of
love episodes which brought them into
the domain of secular opera.
For years, while on his concert tour?
in various countries, Rubinstein laborfld
to put his plan into operation. Wher
ever he found a public accustomed to
oratorio performances he inquired into
the possibility of establishing his
sarreil theatre there. He laid the (
projeet before the Grand Duke of Wei
m_r, who told him that it was feasible '
only in large cities. The advice sent
him t<> Berlia, where he opened his
mind to the Minister of Kducation, von
Miihler. The offuial had his tloubts;
saered operas might do for Old I
ment stories, hut not for New; more
uch a theatre should bfl h nrivate,
not a governmental, undcrtaking. He
sought the opinion of Stanley. dean of
Wfl-tminfltCr Cathedral, who said that
he eould only conceive a realization of
I the idea in the oldtime popular manner,
upon a rude stage at a country fair.
For a spnee it looked as if the lead
?' the Jewish congregntions in
Paris would provide funds for the
enterprise io fai ai :t concerned itself
'with Babjectl taken from the Old Difl
pCBSatioa; but at the last they backed
out, fearing to take the initiative in a
matter likely to eattSfl popular clamor.
"I even thought of Ameriea," says
Rubinstein, "of the daring transatlan
; tic impresarios, with their lust of
enterprise, who might be inclined to
speeulate on a gigantic scale with my
idea. I had indeed almost suceeeded,
bat the lack of nrtists brought it to
thal the plans, already in a con
sidernble degree of forwardness, had to
be abandoned. I considered the pos?
sibility of forming an association of
composers and performing srtistl to
work together to carry on the enter?
prise materially, intellectually and ad
ministratively; but the great difliculty
of enlisting any considerable number of
artists for the furtherance of a new
idea in art frightened me back from
this purpose also." In these schemes
there are e.i.l- nces of Rubinstem's
willingness to follow examples set by
Haadel ns well as Wagaer. The former
composed "Judas Maecaba-us" and
"Alexander Halus" to please the JeWfl
who had come to his help when he
made financial shipwreck with his
.opera; the latter created the Richard
Wagner Verein to put the Bayreuth
enterprise on its feet.
Characteristics of the
Of the six sacred operas composed by
Rubinstein three may be said to be
praetieaals for stage reareaeatatioB.
They are "The Maccabees," ".nilaniith"
(baaed oa BoIosbob'i Boag of E
and "Chris'us." The tirst has hnd many
performances in (Iermany; thfl second
had a few perfon Hamburg in
1888; the [xrformed as an
1 oratorio in I'erhn in IHI, wa* staged
la Hremen in 1^.'5. It hns had, I be?
lieve, about foaiteea reprcsentations in
all. As for the other three works, "Der
Thurmbau zu Babii" t'r.t peiformance
in Konigsberg in 1870), "Dei v.rlorene
I'aradies" I>usse!dorf, 1ST.. . and
?-" (still awaiUag theatrieal rep
tatlOBi I believe', it may !?
Of them thnt they B__
. eumbine the oratorio and BBOrs
styles by utilizing th
oldtime oratorio chorus nnd thfl mod
jern orchestra, with thfl capaeity de
iscriptive of both raised tO the highest
'power, tu Ulaatrate ?n aetion whieh la
| beyond the capabilities of the ordinary
i stage machinery. In the chsraetOI of
Ithfl iorroi amploycd m th* worki ther*
Ifl no stnrtling innovation; we meet
the aaaflfl flltataatlatl of chorus, rrcita
tivo, arifl and flflJflflBaMa that we have
known b1b?8 the oratorio *tyle was per
factfld. A change, however, ha? come
o\er tho spirit of tho expre?*ion and
thfl fortns have all relaxed *omo of
their rigidity. Ifl the oratorio* of
ll.iiiilol and Haydn thore are instance*
not a few of musical delineation in the
instruniontal a* well a* the vocal part*;
but nothing in them can be thought
of, so far at least a* the ambition of
the dflfligfl evtends, nn a companion
pieco to tho scone in the opera which
pietartfl tho destruction of the Tower
,.f Babel. This is as far beyond the
bodaofl of the fancy of the old master*
as it is bevond the instrumental force*
which they controlled.
"The Tower of Babel."
"Paradiflfl Lost," tho text para
. i from portion* of Milton's
i pic, is an oratorio pure and simple.
lt deals with the ereation of the world
according to the Mosaic (or as Hux
lev would havr said. Miltonici theory
aad the medium of cxpres.sion is an
alteraation of racitati'vafl and choruse*.
the latter having some dramatic life
and a charactei istic accompaniment.
lt is wholly contemplativc; there is
i othing like action ifl it. "The Tower
of Habol" has action in the restneted
sense in which it enters into Mendels
sohn's oratonos, and scenic effects
which would tax the utmost power*
i.f the modern sta^-e machinist who
might attempt to carrv them out. A
n.imic towtr of Babel is more pre
1 osterous than a mimic Temple of
DflgOB; yot. unless Rubinstein's atagfl
dircctions are to be tnken in a Pick
wickian sense, we ought to listen to
this -BUSic while looking at a stagc
set more coloaaal than any ever con
t.inplateii by dramatist before. We
should see a wide stretch of the
Plain of Sliinar; in the foreground a
tow?r o tall as to give color of
plauaibility to a speech which prates
of an early piercing of hea'en and
BO large as to provide room for a
?leeping multitude on its scaffoldings.
Brick kilns, derricks and all the ap
paratus and machinery of building
should be on all hands, and from tho
summit of a mound should grow a
giant treo, against whose trunk should
baBg a braaflfl shield to bfl used a* a
signal gong. We should see in tho
pi-Ogrflflfl of the opera the bustling
activity Of the workmen, the roaring
and rolling smoke of the brick
kilns, and witnoss the miraculous spec
tacle of a man thrown into tho tire and
walking thence unhauned. We should
?Cfl i in dissolving views i the dispersion
of tiio races and bchold the unfolding
o." a raiabcu* in the sky. And, tinally.
we should get a glimpse of an open
bcavflfl and the Almighty on his
throne, and a yawring hell, with Satan
and his angels ex?rcising their drt-ad
dominion. Can such scenes be mim
icked successfully enough to preserve
a sorious frame cf mind in the ob
-rrvc? Hardly. Yet, the music seems
obviouslv ?(! have bflflfl written in the
i vp.etation that flight *hall aid hear?
ing to quicken the fancy and emotion
and excito the faculties to an apprecia
tion of the work.
A Large Chapter of Motaic
"The Tower of Babel" has been per?
forme.l upon the stage; how 1 cannot
even gaoflfl. Knowing, probably, that
the work would be given in concert
form oftener than in dramatic, Rubin?
stein tries to stimulate the fancy of
thoae who must bo only listeners by
profuflfl stage diroctions which are
printed in thfl score as well as the book
of flrords. "Mo.-es" is in the ?ame case.
By the time that Rubinstein had com?
pleted it he evidently realized that its
hybrid character a* well as its etupen
dous scope would stand in the way of
performances of any kind. Before it
had received a performance of any
kind, before even a portion of its music
had been heard in public, he wrote in a
letter to a friend: "It is too thcatrical
for the concert room and too much like
an oratorio for the theatre. It is, ln
fact, the perfect type of the sacred
opera that I have dreamed of for years.
What will come of it I do not know; I
do not think it can be performed en?
tire. As it contain* eight distinct
parts one or two may from time to
time bo given either in a concert or on
America was the first country to act
on the suggestion of a fragmontary
performance. The first scene was
brought forward by Walter Damrosch
at a public rehearsal and concert of the
Symphony Society ithe Oratorio Soci
Bt] assisting! on January 18 and 19,
1889. The third scene was performed
by the (ierman Licderkranz of New
York, under Reinhold L Herman, on
January "7 of the same year. The
third and fourth scenes were in the
scheme of the ('incinnati Music Fflflti
val, Theodore Thomas, conductor, on
May "jr>, 181 I
Each of the eight scenes into which
tin- work is ihvuled deals with an epi
;n the life of Israel's lawgiver.
In the lirst scone we have the inei?
dent of the finding of the child in the
bulrushes; i the second occurs the
oppression of the hraelitcs by the
Egyptian t^akmaatara, the *laying of
one of the ov.r-c'-is by Moata, who,
till then rogarded as the king's son,
now proclainis himself one of the op
? d race. The third scene dis
- Maeti protecting ZaVPernJat
daughter of Jcthro, a Midianitish
from a band of marauding
Fdomites, hi* acceptance of Jejhro's
hospitality and the scene of the burn
ing bush and the proclamation of his
mission. Scene IV deals with the
plagBflflf those of blood, haii, locusts,
frogfl an.l vermin being delineated in
tho instrumenta! introduction to the
pait. the action beginning while the
land la shroiided in the "thick dark
' riess that might be felt." The
K'unitiaitx eall upon Osiris to
! .lispel the darkness, but are foreed
' at lait to ajppeal to Mo?ti- He d?
( ompo.er of six BlbUcal operas.
mrtnds the liberation of his peo?
ple ns the price to be paid for
the removal of the plague; receiving B
promise from I'hornoh. BS utters a
prayer ending with "I.et there be
light." The result is celebratcd in a
brilliant choral iieelamation of the rc
turning sun. The scene has a parallel
ia Rossini's opera. I'lmritolt now
equivocates; he will free the sons of
Jacob, but not the women, children or
chattels. MoOOO threatens punishment
Jn the death of nll of Kgypt's tirst-j
born. aiul imtnediately solo and chorus
reiess bewail the new atfliction. When1
the king hears that his son is dead he j
grvrs his consent, atid the /..../?
depart with an ejaeulation of thanks to
fehovah. The passage of the Red Sea, |
Uiriam't eelebratioa of that miracle,,
the backsliding of the Isroclitcx nnd
their worship af ths goldaa calf, ther
reception of tbe Tables of the I.aw, the!
battle between the /xrae'i.r,. nnd)
Mnabitcn on the threshold of the f
Promised I.and and thc evanishment
and apotheosis of MoOOO :-fe the con-',
tents of the remainder of the work.
Operas from the New Dis
It is scarcely to be wonder.'d nt that
the ?ebjeetl which opera con.j
have found adaptable to their uses in ?
i the New Testament are very few com-J
j pared with those olfered by the Old ,
! The books written by the eraageli '
j around the most stupendous tragical
; story of all time set forth little or!
j nothing outside of the birth, childhood, :
i teachings, miracles, death and resur- '
! rection of Jesus of Nasareth whieh
] eould by any '.iterary ingenurty be ;
turned into a stage play er.ci-pt the
; parahles w-ith which Cnrist eaforeed
I and lllustrated His sermons. The sub- '?
! lime language and imagery of the '
( Apocalypse have furnished forth the
textaal body ef mnny oratorios, but it j
; still transcends the capaeity of mortal i
In tbe parable of the Prndlgal Son
then is no personage whose presenta
I tion in dramatic garb eould be looked ;
upon as a profanation of the Scripture*.
It is this fact, probably. coupled with
;ts profoundly beautiful reflection of
human nature, which has made it a
popular subject with opera writers. ;
j There was an Italian "Figliuolo Pro- j
I digo" as early as 1701, composed by j
' one Biffi; a Freneh melodrama, "I.'Kn
fnnt Prodigue," by Morange about 1810;
| a German piece of similar character ;
| by Joseph Hrcchsler in Yienna in ls.'i.
Pierre Gaveaux, who composed "I.eo
nore, ou l'Amour Oonjugal," which
provided Beethaees with his "Fidclio,"
brought out a comic opera on the sub
j ject of the Prodigal Son in 1811, and
' Rerton, who had also dipped into Old
I Testament story in an oratorio, en
] titled "Absalon," illustrated the para- '
I blo in a ballet. The most recent set- i
tings of the theme are also the most
?igaineaatl Auber's five-act opera
' "l.'Knfant I'rodigue," brought out in
I Paris in 1K.0, and Ponchielli's "II Fi
1 gliuolo Prodigo," in four acts, which
! had its first representation at La Scalu
The media-val mysteries were fre
I quently interspersed with choral songs,
'. for which the liturgy of the Church
! provided material. If we choose to
. look upon them ns incipient operas or
trecursors of that art-form we must !
] yet observc that theii mo-.'.., h authors,
' willing enough to trich out the story of
tbe Nativity with hgen.iary matter
! drawn from the Apocryphal New Teata*
: ment, which discloses anything but a
reverential attitude toward the sublime
tragedy, nevertheless stood in such
av.e before the spe-ctaele of Caivary
j that they deemed- it wise to leave its
1 dramatic troatment to the church ser- |
viee la the Passion Tide. In that ser- j
. vice there was something approaching'
' to characteniation in the mar:
the reading by tne throfl deacoai sp*
j pointed to delrver. . the ,
I r.arrative, the WOldl of Chlisi ar.d thc
I utterances of the Apostles and people;
I and it may be that this and the htur
gical solemnities of Holy Week were
I reverently thought suffleient by them
and th* authori of tbe firit .acreii
opera*. NflTflrthfllflflfli BTfl Itatfl Kfliflflr*a
"Oer Blutigfl BBd Sterbendo Josus,"
performed fll Hamburg, aad Ut
sio's "Lb PflflfliOBfl dl GflflB Christi,"
lompo ed firat by Caldara, which prob?
ably wr.s Bfl oratorio.
Earlicr than thflac wi:s Thflila'a "Die
Gflbati Christi," performed in Bafla
barg in 1881. Tha birth af Christ and
his childhood i thero was an operatic
repies. r.ta'ioii af his prcsentation in
tho Temple) arare aabjacta which ap
peahd more t.> the writers of the rude
playi whieh eatortd to the popular love
for dramatic ni'irnmery than did His
on. I BBB BBflahlag now more |
?peeifically of lyrifl dramas, but it is
woi'hy of r.ot. that in the Covontry j
mys'eiie . ti llono points out in the ;
prefaer to his book, "Ancient Mystenes '
'.??.I," there are oight plays, or I
-MBgaaal . whieh deal witn tho Natirityi
as related in fhe canon and the pseudo
gospels. ln thorn much stress was laid
BpOfl the Mispicions of the Virgin
Mother's chastity, for here was mate?
rial that was good for rude diversion
II as iBatrUCtiOB in righteousness.
Thal BabiBfltflifl daro.l to compose a
I ? drama mu.-t be loflkfld ul"in ?8
I roof ol' the profoUBd sincerity of his |
belief iri thfl ni! form arhieh bfl fondly ,
BOpod bfl ha.l i-n-at.'d; also, pflrttBBfl, Bfl
evidence of his artistic ingeniousne-1
Only a blBTfl <>r naive m:nd could have
calmly contemplated a labor from which
graal dramatista, men as groat as Her>
bel, shrank baek la alarm. After tho
coinpletn.n of "Lohengrin" Wagner ap?
plied himself to the creation of a tlBg
fldy which he called "Josus of Na/.ar
eth." Wfl know his plan in detail, but
he abatidonod it after ho had offered
l.is Bhfltchflfl ft. B French poct as tha
af .1 ijrrii draaui which ho hope-l
to writo for Paris. He confoss.es that!
he was curious to know what the
Frer.chman would do with a work the ,
stage production of which would "pro
voke a thousand frights." He himself j
was unwilling to stir up such a tem-1
pest in Germany; instead, he put his,
sketches aside and used some of their
material in hlfl "Parsifal."
Wagner IgBOrad thfl religious, or, let
us say, the ecclesiastical, point of view
entirely in "Jesus of Nazareth." His ,
hero was to have been, as I have de
scribed him elsewhero, "a human !
philosopher who preacheil the saving!
grace of Love and sought to redeem
hlfl time and people from the domina
tion of conventional law tne offspring
Bflfl. Hi.s philosophy was so-|
cialism imbuod by Love." (8flfl "A Book
of Operas," page 288,) Rubenstein j
proeeedfld along the lines of history, or ]
orthodox bfll ef, as unreservodly in his
"Christus" 88 he had done in his
"Mose-i." The work may be said to ,
have brought hlfl creativo activities to ;
a close, although two conipositions >a
set of six pianofort.- p (cai and an or- .
chestral suite) appear in his list of
numbered works after the sacred opora.
He died on Novomber 10, 19199, without
having seen a stago repre.-entation of
it. Nor did he live to Bflfl a public the
atrical porfurmance of his "Moses,"
though hc wa., priviloged to flritfl
private performance arrangod at the
German National Theatre in Prague so
that he might form an opinion of its
effectiveness The public has never
been permitted ft. learn anything about
the impression which the work made.
On ."lay ti, Ibea, a series of repre- .
aaatatloBfl of "Cbriatus*1 was begun in
?, largely throagh the instru-!
tj < f Pl -?"? Bflfll Bulthaupt, a
potent ;.-..: panraaiva pfltraaaaBfl Ifl the
aid Hanaeatic town. He was not only
a poet and the author of the book of
this OBfltfl and of some of Bruch's
varfcfl, but also a painter, and his
niural decorution* ln the Bremen
Chaaahfll of ftiniineree are proudly di?
playfld b] thfl citizens of the town. It
wa.- under the supervision of the paint
I that the Bremen representa
tions were given and, unless. I an.
1 the scenerv or much
of it. Oafl of the provis.ons of the p.r
fonaaBCflfl arai that applause was pro* I
rarsaea for the sacred'
character of the scenes, which were as
fraahiy set f.rth a, at Oberammergau.
The content* of the tragedy, briefly
outlined. ar* Uu-se: Them ara seven I
scenes and an epilogue. The fir*t
sr. ne shows the temptation of Christ
in the wilderness, where the dcvil
"sh-wed unto him all thc kingdoms of
the world in a moment of time." This
disclosure is made by a series of
scenes, each opening for a short time
in the background castles, palac*s,
gnrdens, motlntains of gold and massive
heaps of earth's treasures. In the sec?
ond scene John the Baptist is seen and
heard prenching on the banks of the
Jordan, in whose waters he baptizes
Jesus. This scene at the Hremen rep
resentations was painted from sketchcs
made by Herr Handrich in Palestine,
as was also that of the "Scrmon on the
Mount" and "The Miracle of the I.oaves
and Fishes," which form the subject of
the next part. The fourth tableau
shows the expulsion of the money
changers from thc Temple; the fifth ]
the last supper, with the Garden of I
Gethsemane as a background; the sixth
?he trial and the laat the crucifixion.
Here, ns if harking back to his "Tower
of Babel." Rubinstein i.rings in pict?
ures of heaven nnd hell, with angels ?
and devils contemplating the catastro
phe. The proclamation of the Gospel
to the Gentiles by Bt Paul is the sub?
ject of the epilogue.
The fifty-ninth VVorcebtcr Music Fes?
tival this year wil! be held in Me
chanics' Hall, September 23-2_. The
choral work selected for repetition is
"The Children's Crusade," Pierne, that
wa_ given last year, and which intro
daead a splendid chorus of bchool chil-1
dren. Other choral works will be Ros-,
sini's "Stabat Mater" and Florent
Schmitt's "47th I'salm." The festival
will be conducted by Dr. Arthur Mees,
with Gustav Strube as associate con-;
ductor. The orchestra will be com-,
posed of sixty players from the Boston
I'resident Arthur J. Bassett has en?
gaged the following artists: Mme.
Alrr.a Gluck, soprano; Mme. Marie Sun
dclfus, soprano; Miss Florence Hinkle,
soprano; Miss Marcella Craft, soprano:
Miss Henriette Wnkefield, contralto;
I't'tey Grainger, pi.inist; Theo Karl,
tenor; Lambert Murphy, tenor; Wilfrod
Glenn, bass, and Marion Green, bass.
There will be tive concirtu in all.
The first will be given on Wednesday
evening, September 27, when "The Chil?
dren's Crusade" will be given. The
seeond concert will be Thursday after?
noon, and will be giv?n by the Boston
Symphony Orchestra and Percy Grain
ger, pianist. Thursday evening, Sep?
tember 2S, the "Stabat Mater" and
"47th Psalm" will be given. The fourth
concert, on Friday afternoon, will be
by thc orchestra and Miss Craft. The
tifth and last concert will be Friday
evening. September 29, when the art?
ists' night programme will be given
by Mme. Gluck, Mr. Karl and Miss
Wakefield, and the orchestra and
chorus. September 25 and 26 will be
devoted to rehearsals.
The opening concert of the soloists
of the Sistine Chapel Choir will be .
given in Carnegie Hall September 21.,
Their stay in Ameriea will be limited,!
owing to the necessity of their attend- ?
anee at the special services to be held
this year at. Christmas in the Vatican j
by Popr> Benediet XV. The soloists
will leave Italy early next month. Si_r
nor Cametti, one of the precentors of ;
the choir, will accompany them, and it
is po.sible that the Abbe Perosi, the |
organist of St. Peter's, will come on
later and give a recital of some of his
compositions and oratorios.
The programme of the concert to be
given on the Central Park Mail this
evening by Franz Kaltenbom and his
orchestra is as follows:
"Star 8p_n.li_ Banner "
March?"Slu ' . T.chalkowjk.
Owit_l_? Zaiora".?? Hata I
S>_ii.lio.ry N. '? ln C minor.MtBOfM
I'ai-.taile fer Otwe. ' I.InU" t'onlii-til-Kl.m.-k* >
Mr. -Win Ail.IUniii.l_.
Tl.r*. dll .--. Il'i.ir SI11".G*rm?n
OMtt-ifl Tbedf." Uam ?
Ma l.nie Itu. 'rf. " . I
W'tlti '**>__n, Wdb und __?_n| '.. - " ?
Ui _j in k .llu .
Kiiaps.aly No. I.U?'t
On August 27, at the orchestra con- (
eerts to be given at Wildwood, N. J-,!
Mclanie Kurt. the dramatic soprano of
the Metropolitan Opera Company, will;
appear as the soloist, singing gome of
the arias in which she has become
Johannes Sembach, tenor of the Met?
ropolitan Opera Company, will be the
soloist at the orchestral concert to be
held to-day at Wildwood, N. J.
I'asquale Amato, who is spending his
summer at Lake Placid, would like
some one to write an opera for him in
which the chief character will be the
Italian poet Dante. The itrong, aqui
line features of the barytone, accord?
ing to Gastaldon, the Italian composer,
ere suited to the impersonation of
Dante. Amato has already impersonat-i
ed this character at the Teatro Adriano,
in Rome, where he sang the Dante
serenade written by Gastaldon.
The birthday of Ernest Schelling,;
ptaaist, was celebrated at his estate,'
Krag Myr, at Bar Harbor, Me., by a
surprise party arrnnged for him by
llrs. Schelling, at which about forty
four guests were present, among whom
were Fritz Kreisler, Josef Hofmann,
Harold Bauer, Leopold Godowsky, Leo
pold Stokowski, Olga Samarolf, Karl
Fnedberg, Ossip Gabrilowitsch, Harold
Randolph, Arthur Whitmg, Francii ?
Rogers, Walter Damrosch an.i Wai _'..??
YACHTING PART. AT SOIM) BF.ACH
James Thomson, who ifl at the Kath
rru re Inn, Sound Beach. Conn., enter- i
tained a pi.rty aboard his 40-foot yawl \
Jeanmtte Saturday, August 5, when he j
made a trip to Huntington, L. I. Among
hii _?_.._. wcro Mr. and Mn. W. IL
A Generous Quarterly
and a Wise Treatise
Contenta of Mr. Sonneck's Magazine?The rCaleido-K^p,,
Grainger?A Suggestive Book on Singing.
Th musician or music lover who has
a serious bent of mind will find it pos?
sible to sit down to a very pleasant
nnd protitablo two hours' companion
ship with "The Musical Quarterly" for
July, of which O. G. Sonneck is editor
and G. Schirmer publisher. George
Whitfield Andrews, of Oberlin, .1
courses in the beginning on music
and religion, and when Mr. W. J. Hen
dcrson, music critic of "The New Yor_
Sun," presents a historical study "f
florid passages in music, and discrim
inatingly justifics some of them in
early opera, he finds early examples .n
the liturgical song of the Chureh.
EdwiB Hughes wrltes about the contri?
bution to the teehnic of pianoforte
playing made by the late Rafael Josefy.
which he finds to be large and valua?
ble. Henry F. Gilbert, of Cambridg--.
Mass., conducts an inquiry into the
question of why some compositions
live, while others, written with BflJ ia:
correctness nnd an equal expenditure
of intelligence, die either out of hand
or shortly after their creation. Hii
answer summed up in a phrase that
the difference lies in the spiritual con
tents of the works: "In a word, that
which makes music live is not so mueh
its art quality as its heart quality."
And this element of true emotional ex
pressiveness, he tells us, is the vital
fluid of folksong.
Mr. Gilbert is not the idle propounder
of a theory, but an active practiser of
the doctrine which he preaches. He
has poured the essence of folksong i of
Afro-American folksong specifically i
into some of his compositions for or?
chestra. He has a fellow, so far as the
gencral proposition is concerned, in Mr.
Percy Grainger, who is the subject of
an article in "The Quarterly." written
by Mr. Cyril Scott, of London. Of Mr.
Scott's article it may be said in lan
guage which he would have us believe
that Mr. Grainger admires that it
"goes the whole hog" in proclaiming
the qualities of its subject as man and
musician. In his opinion, Mr. Grainger,
whose splendid qualities everybody
seems glad to admit, is a paragon. a
nonpareil, a flower and a nonesuch in
a score of ways. Ho is a young Her
cules who strangled the serpent Har
monic Law in his cradle. He wrote in
the whole-tonc scale before he knew
that a Debussy exis'ed. He is not only
a Siamese twin-brother of Rudyard
Kipling, but the bond between the two
is so strong that when Grainger sets
words by Kipling to music he ceases to
be Grainger and becomes Kipling. He
us an iconoclast who at seventeen years
of age conccived a great scheme for
revolutionizmg the law.. of rhythm.
He is a composer who set asidc the
law of evolution as represented by
such men as Beethoven and Wagner.
but was already peculiar (if not grand
and gloomy from childhood. so that at
an age "when Wagner was writing ef
fusively like Meyerbeer" he was al
ready writing like himself. He did not
get his folksong idioms from Grieg, but
influenced Grieg in hi? predil-ction I
for folksong idioms. Psycholog
ically this amiable young man
as a soul-type is "a Northerner,
saturated with the inf.uence sf a
previous northern incarnation." Mr.
Crainger delights in the cxhibition of
physical force, hs ia illustrated by the
fact that Mr. Scott once saw him cx
hibit a childlike glee as he watched
thiee men strain themselves and sweat
while lifting a pianoforte around a
troublesome corner on a phenomenally
hot day. He has not only the spirit
of the Vikings of old but of the ath
leticisrn of to-day, which accounts for
the fact that he labels a string quartet
a "string foursome." He unblushingly
hkes vulgarity, and this is why there i
t are vulgaritie* in his muiie at Uam
and why he frequorftiy choose* Ww<1
for song* which make hi* i*mi;,
singers blush. But thlfl fll r.ot a rj.IW,
In fact, Mr. Graingor ha* onlj ?J
fault which Mr. I ? rJoe*, tet
seem disposed to forg-ve he Khflj Hr.
Cyril Scott'* BBfl
(ft.ar Hie and wrlta j,
"The Quarterly." r
"Melody" an.l "T .,f \>ri
and ffhflhflflp?rflj*1 Dl I ikar *r?ns:i:
ing their w ? V.r-,.
takes modern thflfltras, iariaflflaj tJu
Metropolftan Op?l U*k far
not rflallaiag '?'
of the - * dnm?ji
Frank \mn\ft, flf aittflj ?
fanta*tic sketch, aitb I littlfl driv* ?
the programme* of piaanta, entitl-4
"Kluckhuhn's Chord"; Bfl 81 War* ta
scribes some Btag -*n fo'.i.
poetry in South i Percjr i.
Scholes, of London, co tl batflfl i bi?.
graphical sketch flf BflBry hflflj|
Cloment Antrobus Harr -. of Crieff.
Scotland, goss:ps about thfl manner ,a
which music ha- tfld bjr i;t.
Washington, discusses "The Philoieajk.
of Copyright." Iii
!y an extensive gleaner and t hWril
H. S. Kirkland bai * ?? .
book, very lucid ;:. ai w?!l u
wise and helpful, which he ealli "Ei
piaflfliaa i" Biag I which hu
been publishtd by R iadftr
m Boston. It is Bfll ?'." tti
the cxpression "old II -?JWV
doe* r.ot appear antt I piftt,
two facts which alone justify ieai
word* of commcnt. lt il dflfligaai t*
mako a singer or ttudent of -
think about his art, I ?* pur.
pose, which is somflthing flien] .
to give merely sensuous ; i Ufl, i*:
to that end to use sorrething mori
than more'.y tochnical Bflfl
to lift singing above moro vocftlizatior..
He does not ft a par*
and beautiful tor.o ' iuf
fieient to exprt |fl af both
;.ain. To: |
in the service flf thl --fll cf
roiCfl production flhfl f-*1 *t.i
but a means. All th ka uid.
is somewhat obvious flad Bflt new. Per?
haps it is too often forgottflfl th*t it
was qu'te as much somet-ur.j mor*
thpr. mere bcauty of voiee *?*"> "'"?
nical sklll, something more than r*v?
and volubility of uttorance, sometkai
more than ? marvellously perfort pra
? on of tho comp. e ??*?
torn which made the succes- of th*
-. r in the days flf I'orpora and tl*
gxaai Tho Bflaotiaaa of ti*
hearer- aad i I thi -.jelrei
cou.d not have beon - II itory
*ays they woro by a bcauty that Wil
merely sensuou- Bai Mr. K:rkl?a4
does not cot.tent himself fl th <1:*<?*?
ing such truisms. He presuppose- sonf
technical training and put* forth
thought* about a higher rnuiieal
education. For this he lays a founds
tion in the study of psychology; tfl*
action o( the mind in think'-ft-, fe?li?4t
and willing; tho quality, inte:-,>;ty,nri
oty, activity and complexity ? '''httma
tions araa wd by thought
woro - . B thfl l"i?*l
ca! ,>etting of I . ctrsitl
of modo, major and flliaor, ?-??">
and modulations. Ho lafljuirafl into th*
means of communieatlng a c .nceptioa
of a *ong and the reaction on ?p?c*
and singing of omotional co: <1 tioni H
discloso.i in pitch, timbp* a:.d dyaaaiic*'
There i.s some obscurity Ib 11* cflipt**
on vocal color, but on the whole hil
little book iBTitflfl tfl thought ***hi<->i
cannot bfl pursuod ? Bflfll to
the Btadi nt.
Civic Orchestral Concerts
Half of the series of twenty conc irtl
being offered this summer to the New
York public by the Civic Orchestral So?
ciety have been given. The results
have been satisfactory and encouraging
ir. so far as both society and public are
concerned. The people show a desire to
have more, the society a desire to give
more. The one handicap has been the
large number of uncomfortably warm
Tuesday and Friday evenings. Induce
ments must be mighty to persuade from
four to eight thousand individuals to
gather on a hot night in a lighted hall,
even in so e .durable a place as Ma
Square Gard.n. But in spite of this
Ldgerley. Mrs. M. L. Miller, Miss J. C.
Viller, Miss Beatrice Prouty, Miss L.
Themson, Miss R. Thomson and Zeke
Others registered at the Kathmere
j-re Mr. and Mrs. *.. N Rhodes and tlie
Misses Madelaine and BeSS.S Rhodes.
Nea York; Mr. und Mr-. H. C Mac
Kenzie and Miss Dorothy MacKenzie,
Brooklyn, Mr. md Mrs. T. C. Figgatl
BBd Miss Violct Figgatt, New Y-.rk,
Mr. and Mrs. F. Fckford Rhoades, '?'.
Beatries Rhoades and Master TedJv
Rhoades, Plamtield, N. J.; Mr. and Mr'
E. R. Siering, Robert Sicr.ng and the
Misses Constance and Alice Btoriag
Mr. and Mrs. L. R. B_.rrows and Lam
bert B. Barrows, jr., Mr. and Mrs.
Fraak Beamish, all of Brooklyn; Mr.
and Mrs. Howard R. Sherman and
howard R. Bhenaaa, jr. Moatelair; Mr.
and Mrs. K. M. Widmay.-r, Montclair;
Misi Marguente Rev.lle, New York
City; Mrs. A. Hurst and Miss Theo
phila Hurst, Glen Ridge; Mr. and Mr-.
!?'. ?'. Lockhart, Bound Brook. N. J.;
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph OL Schaefllcr and i
_-:a* __iizabeth Schaeffler.
handicap the thousand* hr; ?
and the concerts have bad a -.r*i?')'iB
| and color I I BSS a*?P-*)
compensation. Mr I . the ton
ductor, ta to be congratul.C 1 on Ml
? oa of programr I
a noticeable effect on thfl liSS ?f **?
aadieaee. i? <??
Vally, tenor, and M H Mnyisrd IS*
ad s hope that !?.?'?
-gain later in thr- MBSOB, on a COOl*
evening when the audienci
larger. MOBSior de Val f, a Be!|i??
formerly direct ei .-? ? '
gian Red 1 thil <r?011'
try only two B_OBths, SS ! I ? :"
? sapeareace bers si
The progri'.mm- foi.
Friday evemr.g's SOlol t *ai ?
Mary Gailojr, liaHaist Her l|BU*'
ber was Brurh's | ?*im**
The programme follol
i> r ' ' i
* : ' ? "i ?
?i ? i y
Ha ? ;,,.
I'aolo Gdlhco, piatu-t, will *>? ***
soloist n.-\t Taeoday sisafa _. ?"** j*
Mary Jordan, contralto, on Plidsl tnm
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