Newspaper Page Text
Jfrro ?ork tTnlmnc
?Val to Lflfla ?>*a Truth: Newa? KditoriaU?Advertisementa i mi aai paaMMi <??"* br Tha Trib .. N.a ViTla rr.,*, ....... ?^,.,,.,'it. K.chard ... -^;^r^ ,.rv K A ST-r. Treaaurer. AdUrrafl. B? Building. IM Nflfleafl S,rfet* N'W -ooc. FrPPrntt rp,t ja. ouiaidfl ol Oraaatflfl Nfl*ai > r. jl aa I i * < ? f *L1 ar) | . " h. ,'ofl Baa raaa ,v 0NLT. pan y oslt i . . >.ar . fct N>w Tork a. ,4., .sun atattfli V?B can purrha?e merchandiae ad verti.rd in THI TBIBUOT -ith flbflfl lule aafetv-f,r If ******+"*? .0lt, in anv ? ase THI IMW? guarantee* to pay your money back upon request. No red tape. No qu.b bling. We make good promptly if the advertiser does not. Questions and Answers We hat* rccfivod the followinp lettc| from Ut. EUarj SedgWadt, the editor of "The Atlantic Monthly": To the Editor of The Tribune. Sir: Will you allow a New England a-oter to look to you for correct inf >r mation T | : 9fl the present campaign begnti it haa been my privilege, in common with most of my fel'.ow-citizens, to listen to many diflC?taflU as to the advlsability of electing the Republican or the Democratic candidate. Like mo>t men. I have come to regard such quadrennial disputations as a very valuable part of my political education. but, to my il'T-appointment, the current debate flfll been hampered by the fact that the fallawaifl of Mr. Hughes have in every instance which hapfflBl to have come under my observation bflflfl unable to assert just what are the princip:. - of their champion on aub jects conceded by all parties to be of immediatfl and large importance. The candulate's frequer.t adoption of the terms "correct policies" and "Americar.;?m" bs defining his own T, ra Maaaa ta many ?b - ? e convictions of his follow ers withoal ment. It will be grar.ted. I I the eaalitioa aapportiag tha Repabli can ticket is made up of largfl bodies of Bfll who think vrr these aahjaetfl, and the voter flf inde pendent mind is r.ot unnaturally con fused as to the all-important qu of Mr. llllgh?*fl ow-n convif I se unusual circumstar.ces, r that The Tribune, a paper eh haa on ? ric occasions pr. correct Republican doctrine and which, dur:* ig thfl piaMBl eaaipaign, has ahown great vigor nnd frmr.ess of cr- | - ran aai laraflly a few questions 1 I by their phrasing to catch or trip, but to elicit genuine ar.d much-needed in fanaal 1 Mr. Hughes declares that he favors a "new ar.d convstent" policy toward Mexico which shall protect Ameriean and property. His most prominent auiporter, Colonel Roosevelt, who has an acknowledged genius in ahaping the issue* of a political campaign, makes a paiaionate demand for the employment of force in our dealing with the south? ern repubiic, and certainly createa the itnpresaion that In ao dolng he Ia voic ing the determlnatlon of tho Republi? can party. Ia it not fair, then, to aak whether, xindar cxisting eonditlona, Mr. Hughes helieve* in active intervention in Mardaal 2. Regarding our foreign policy, Mr. flfl haa broken through his usual feticence by making a flat atatement at l'hiladelphla. "Wu dfl r.ot propoae to tolerate ?ny imprcjer irterf<-rener with leg.tlmate commerc.-il intereourae. No Ameriean who ia exercising or.ly Amer? iean righta ahall be put on any black? list by any foreign nation." * statement haa but one apparer.t ?ignifleanee. If Great Britain continues hsr present policy Mr. Hughe* -arill, as Preaident, attempt to eoeree her by p%cin* an embargo on munitlor.a for th* Al!'. a. Does Mr. Hughea really tnean it ? I, Taafl a\a\oateem Mll lfl the subject of Mr. Hijfhes'fl datflfaataatl attacks. With ? ? year thfl pro%i*!ona of that Mll flataflflflttaally ox, ?? Tkt rre?i naat has aet forth hia def.nite pro gramme l I (flflt with much clanty. Mr. Hughr* nnn a atflfli. He ???? lavafl in flrhitrfltloa,** bat hns he ? programmeT 4 Vr. Haghaa has KiraigBfld Mr. V. lofl'fl mea* I /.rr.T.can merchant flaflliflfl. Doea Mr. Hugh'i Ui ing'.y of tr.e Woo\tta\ WtattOt '? doea he wiah that law err.e ?, Mr Hu('he? aerentuatea hi* own "Arr.eri'eri !*?*?< ? Dflflfl that "An ? lam" Imply eompu!*ory fl a_t1 The l!at af *???? gbt bfl flxtaad* .4 lt graatar Uatfth, but I w. tnaka opare. i . >. it ia astfaaHl %.ry flflflfll flftfl*! bl bflfl "..'?? ? flcar* ef 9U*jea*e*M. MMl general doubt # regardiag Mr. Hughes's poli If you will answer these questions as '. r!y as they aro asked you will do a hcrvice to hesitoting votcrs. li.I ERY BBDOWICTL Hoston. Mass.. Oct. 2.4, Ifl*. The Trihuno takes pleastire in an swerinp Mr. Sedpwick's questions, it being underfltood that it "-peakfl only tor ltsclf, its views of what Mr. . Huphos Btanda for being baafld si'.cly on the latter's public uttcr nr.ee.'': 1. I'nder oxis'inp eondition* doos Mr. ere in ar' . ntion Mr. Hughea ha i aaid arith the ut rn< st emphasis- that hc believes in cting tho livea and property of Amencan citizeni Bl home, on the high aeaa and in foreign countriea. I . Repablican platform, on which Mr. Hnghc . aaid regarding Mexico: "We promise to our citizens on and near the border, and to thoOA . ,11 Mexico, wherever they may he found, adequate and abaolute pro' r lives, liherty BBd property." The Democratic plat foRB of 1912, on which Mr. Wilson I: "Kvery American citizen residing or having property in any foreign country ie entitlcd to and must receirc the full profrrtinn ,,i the United Statea government both for himself and kie property." | This latter declaration has now been repudiated by -Mr. Wi! on, who 1 as BBt up?so far as Mexico is con? cerned?the eontrary doctrine that American.- po into a foreipn country at their own risk. That they, as "a.'venturers" and trouble makers there, are not entitled to the pro? tection of our povernment, and that no protection oupht to he piven to them which may interfcre in any way with the Buccceaaful progreflfl of the Mexican revolution. This doc? trine has heen frankly outlined in Mr. Wilson's speech acceptinp a re nomination from the Democratic party and in Dr. Charles W. Eliot'fl recent article in "The Atlantic Monthly" for October. Mr. Hughea is certainly pledgea to po as far as i* ia neceaaary to po to protect the livea and property of Americans in Mexi "? Wt have had "active ihtoi'ventioii" in M'xico for the last three \vars and B half. Mr. Wilson ha i ed diplomatic*! ly, and also hy force, for purpOBBfl of his own (thouph not for the protec? tion of the livefl and property of American*). H<- has twice made */ar on Mexic >. H<- i duct ing war against Mexico, accordii g to leial ruling i f thi "kdvo ' | ?: ?:. Thfl ' is one l*y "active intervention." Mr. Hughea may be obliged to continue it. But in so far as he continues it he will do so not tn. ? ? empty pretext of "servinp humanity," but B/ith the entirely lepitimatc purpOBfl of protectinp American interests and maintaininp American riphts. 2. ff cireat Britalfl eoBtianea her ? ef Arnrr ican merchants ar.d putting lllefal re oni on American eornmeree, will Mr. Hoghea attempt to rn. ? ylacir.tr BB emharfo on IBOBil Bl ? ii'V The pree* haa protc trongly against Brit? ish violationa of the righta of neu ged In commerce. It ha. protcsted specifically and emphati cally againsl the British blacklist. But il irod so far practically BO com BSSioni from the British gDT -.t, for the reaaon, i ?? ioV that the British government doefl not ' Mr. Wilson means what he says. Mr. Huphcs is known Bfl a man who doe? mean what he says. How far he would have to go, if el< tfl secure a modification of the an noying and opprc-.-ive methods to' which Great Bntain has Kflorted, it Ifl manifestly Impossible t i puess. ' Mr. Hughea has atatod his purpose. It would be manifestly unfair * him to r'.mmit himself in advance to the details of its enforcement. I, What is Mr. Hagh*s'a nrr."rnmmej wi'h rpfrrence to the ' lawt Mr. BcgaMfl has aptly said: "Vou cannot repeal a sur ? The Adamson law* goflfl into effect on Jan I ary 1, 1!>17, nnd expirea by il limitations some time betweer Vi pust 1 and November 1, 1917. It would havo run three months before a Republican Congreeaj could I ? ? Bembled in extra se-sion to repeal lt, Moreover, many of thfl P rcronimendations regarding the problem oi rcpulatinp railroad and hours and preventing strike* remain te bfl actod on by the ? ' ' ' " s at its next BCflsion.; No one can fore<-< ?? what the situa? tion will be aftarr March 4 next. Mr. Hughflfl lightly criticised thfl I the Adamson law i n three eoui I led to ?*hour law, when 11 b law inc See ondly, il incn inquir] of the incre* e. Third | law was pflJBM d in a tat* of b : ? President ? | ? ? . , ? ng to b "hold-upM < ? - I brother I al and BflrforauuM <? cannei bow i rapeal i f the law, Mr. Huffhe* is ni ' opj ? i rl to railroad < ? genuint day, if they want it, Hc rirOM not hold that the increase in wapes asked was unreasonablc. He does not know whether it waa or not, any more than the President knew or Conpress knew. He ob jected rightly to lepislatinp umler OMTCarM and in the dark. What he f.rnmises -and all he can promise? i that if he is elected and a similar situation arises it will ba met in a nianly and rational fa-hinn. In vctipation will precede action, not follow it. 4. Doe- Mr. Hughes believc in ship ?nbflid The Republican platform of I91f> containcd a declaration in favor of lideral postal subventions and other lepislation to foster an Ameriean merchant marine. A subvention is subsidy. Mr. Huphes undouhtedly favora the policy of mbsidislng Ameriean deep-sca carriers. That policy has been applied with surccss ly ail the prcat maritime nations. It bj eronomical and ciTcctive, he caatt every million spent by the gov? ernment encourapes the outlay of many milUoni by private investor . lt ll preferable in every way to the eoartly and ineffectivc povernment OwneTflhip schemo fathered by Mr. Wilson and Mr. McAdoo, which sets the T.'vernm. nt up as a competitor with and destroyer of shippinp vent ures sustained by private capital. 5, Doaa Mr. Huphes flriah the Ffld flial Rflflflrtfl law amended? He may wish to see it amended. We do not know to what extent. The m is still in an experimental .-?tape. The law was amended in various particulars at the last ses sion of the present Conpress. The I'resident sipned an amendatory act OH Septernber 7 laat Many people think that ln boom times the pres? ent law contributes too powerfully to an inflation of credit fi. Does "Americanism" imply com >? militiiry service? The principle of universal military liabiiity has lonp been cmbodied in our laws. All citizens of the United States of military ape not servinp in the regular army or the orpanized militia are includcd in the unorpan laed militia, over which Conpress ex er.-ises full control. Few people seem to know that the principle of coir.puls-iry military ser? vice was actually applied in the Hay army reorpanization law passed at the la.-t ??'-^ion of Conpress. It is in operation to-day?with Mr. Wil? son's approval. Secti( ? * 78 and 7!' of the Hay act provide for the creation of National Gnard reaerve battaliona, to feed the called into the service of the Un ?? 1 Statea in time of war. ling to the official ruling of the Advocate General of the .. we are DOW in a state of war arith Me_oo. S.-ction 79 of the Hay law providea that nnder such eondi? tions one reeerve battalion shall be [zed, either from the enlisted re.-erve or from the unorpanized mi? litia, for each ref?Ient of infantry or cavalry, or each nine batteriea of field artillery or each twelve com of coast artillery. When the memben of three or more regimenta . National Guard of any itata, ry or distriet shall have linn brought intd the Mrvice of the . Statea the i*. ? taliona of such regimenta may be organized into proviaional regimenti and high? er units. And Section 7:- say.-: "// for any raaaon there thaU 7,,,t be tn ' tntory evli.it ,,u , top the reoi rve baU Xedxont at the. preeeribed t,?? tiiri, fit nwmber of ihe nnorganxted militia thoU bt drafted into the fer>-trc of the United Statet to maintain rock i,f oueh batteiient ot the prnjtcr gth." Wfl already have "compulsory service"; for the President now pOflflflatTJCn ampie power to draft the ui.orpanized militia into the Na? tional Guard after the National Guard has been called into ti. Iim*, as was done l?y Preaidential proclamation laal June. Mr. Hughea atanda for a real first line army and a real army reeerre, We believfl thal he purpoa> .- ***atting them. The main point lfl to pet then;. wbethi i we depend on volun teering or call into use tbe un doubted power of the national pov? ernment, exercised alreany in the Hay law, U> draft afl niany of our ritizi'.ns as may be needed for miii duty. A Raid with an Obvious Purpose lt haa been raggeated thal the re eetit German raid ln the Engliah u DTobaaMy eon *eivad as a diverajon to eoter the eaeape of r*ommerce deatroyera from the North Sea. lt is hardly necessary, how? ever, to look for an lndb*ect object, . lering the olaTiwifl uiel ilnam of ipting or bampering the eroao Channc 1 transport service. If hither to the Gi rmana have failed to Inter elfectively with th pai age of troops to the Continenl it ii not be* they have thoupht it auper* fliioiis to du so; ;ind to BUppOflfl that ? ? nr ; -;t hflWl l>ecn meri'Iy a feint ia nnreaaonable, not only in tbe light of the parlial success ? fld, but alao because of the im probability of facilitating a rwcond* . ly by i Deb nrnenfl Whether t ln- attempi was reaily justined by the eveat lfl another ques? tion. The German ofncial report bj too indeflaite t<> be of any use ln eatimating the importancfl of thfl af fair. lt ?peake of two or three Brit* ish d<-stroycra or torpedo boats and at least eleven other vessels "either j sunk or damaped," a circumstance enabling the German newspapers to make headlines about "twe'.ve British ships sent to bottom.'; There is no rBBBOn to believe, even on the strenpth of the German claim, that more than two destroyers were lost, the ; other "ships" beinp probably small I raft employed Bfl lookouts. On the 1 other side the British profess to have sunk two German destroyers. This ; is denied, but it is difficult to accept | the denial. The statement that the ( flotilla returned "without loss" Ifl no 1 moro trustworthy en the face of it than that which was given out after the Battle of Jutland and I iiuently amended by the admission that. a battle-crui.ver and two lipht cruisers must be added to the list of ? There is naturally some disap pointment in England at the flUCCflflfl ful escape of eipht flf the ten torpedo craft engBgad in the raid. It is true that only one transport- an empty one?w-as Ftink, but it is the | bility of makin;: a raid of this kind at all that is diseonccrtinp. For more than two years troops have pone repularly back and forth across the Thannel with such evident im munity that people had ceased to think of the perils. of the service. The risk run by the Germans must have been great, and they deserve credit for extraordinary daring. It il unlikely, hoWBTer, that such raids Will come to be a matter of routine, fnr supposinp two destroyers were lost the result was not sufTiciently encourapinp to justify the risk run. More Money for the Policemen Police Commissioner Wooda's plea to the Board of Kstimate for ad.li tional members of hia force and for pay increases for first prade patrol men, captains and insptctors OUght to be pranted if the BUthoritiefl ean possibly flcrape Dp the ncce-sary money. The Police Depflurtnatnt de serves much at the hands of this community. It is now by lonp odds better than it has ever been, cleaner, freer from praft, more effieient. It has recently done DOtably good work in the transit strike. That servi.-e haa received much praise, but praise pays no procery bills. Tbe men de serve suhstantial recognitkm, in ne ihk coin of th* reahrn, if it be within the poBBabUitaBS. There has been M increase in the numberi of the Police Department, BBTB for the men put on temporanly durir.p tlie strike. since 1913. The regular roll thia year ia some 200 men short of the number on thi t 11 in 1914) for there were budgel cuts in 1915 and 1916 whirh causdd the Commissioner to carry unfilled every racancy in the force. He wai I ? I add 235 men to the rMtrolmen al ? ?? ? ml a'. ailable. That is an emi .? request If it. were pranted the city, COnsideril ' population, would still be under policed acrording to the scale of po lice to populatii n in moal "'' the n cities of this country and Kurope. It' N'ew Vork, in proportion, had Bfl policemen aa Philadelphia, the force would number 13,538, ii of some 10,000; while if we had ai many guardiana as London, there vou'.ii be an army Of moro than ..'Its. N. ly . ntend thal thia i il I iliced at present The raani ? id is that it never before has had B0 few policemen for tbe BTOrk they are required to do. The grawth of the city and the growth of the de? mand i i n the di partmenl ha1 ? stripped the growth of the force. The force has stood still for three years, but the need for police activity has not by any mean-. Traffio ' I tion, to take only one phase of the department's work, has demanded for a couple of years i ore men than ever before. Obviously these men, OB duty all day, cannot be ttsed at nipht for a protection against law breakers. Tbe patrolmen need the proposed increase. They. like all other sal aried men, nre victims of the tremen .? augmented ct ri of living. Their nominal salary of $1,400 a year is not their real salary, for they have to pay for bedding and equipment, which means about $100 a year. It la years since the higher officen of the department?captains and ln Bpecton have bad anv :alary in TheflC rnen do a highly ro aponsible work, exacting in its de? mand-, va My important t<> the com? munity. They are underpaid flVBn by compariaon with "'her employes of the public?the liipber ollicials in the Pire Departmenl whose Johfl roughly eorrespond arith theira. These reo.uesta of Cor%*ni liner Woods baVB been denied by thfl sub committee of the Board of Estimate not, it is undentood, with nny projudiee tO their merit, but be there la b generei policy thal tbe city may nol spend more money this cominp year fot MpeffOna] ser? vice" than was allowed in the cur? rent budpet. The bolding down of diture* is a policy with which no taxpayer will quarrel, to be Neverthelesa, the policing of this city is one of its major act r. ities, alTeeting ? ent. It would i e a j.. bi rise, i ii.d foolish -. tem to maintain for a eon :!erable period a force manife-tly Inadflojuate for its Job, and then to diflrotiragfl the members of it by DOderpaying 'them. it is tn bfl hopad tbe Board of Erttimate wHl be able to i*Bc**a*acile Itaelf to mfleting the demandfl Mr. W.ls put* forrward for tbe men who have done such excellent work for ? the public More tb in two weeks ago the | ? mot Btaphaae was piatflfld* - injr from Halifax to New Vork. She: rj ninety-four passenjrers, inrlud lag women and children, and a crew of ?'ven members. She contained no contraband and flral Bflt dflfltinfld tfl any port of a belliirerent country. Manv of her BaflflflBgflrfl, includinR women and younjr children, were Amer- ' . . Thi y w< re dining in the - o'clock on Sunday flTflning, October 8, when the captuin suddenly itractad them to cm- \ mmediateiy on the lifeboats of , ? K, rcsflfll, arhleh araa about to bfl sunk. On* 1 nadn d aad ' ? "ne persons. all of them nen-eombatanta, were within ? Blinotfla burned into six liffl* . leavinp behind them nearly all thi ir personal effect-. As one of the siirvivrs Bflld 1 "WoaUflfl with infants in their arms were lowercd into the ? with rope', wh le others were flbligfld ta elimb down the rope lad ?; Vo \ oata, lfl the darkne -? of the night, thflieapon put out upon the | leh was still runninfc BBod* ?ratflly hjgfa from thi ' a r" ? i r. after the tarpadafld ?ad diaap* . d ifl the dflpthfl flf the ocean. The boats thus east fldrif, apofl the blgh aeflfl wiira at Iflflflt sixty rniles frora thfl nearflflt mainland, hut just before thfl eaptfllfl gBVfl his notice to tha paflseagera a Buaabflr flf toi fitu ot ti ?? ?\merieaa navy ... upon tha .-i"!'. aad two of .... thfl Brieaaafl aml tha lialch picked up the crew and passen had bflflfl about tw?Bty minutes on the rarfaea of the water. A I'ickwickian Assurance ?. ,,<? (hflflfl paflflflBgtra were Amer? iean <? ? I they h:nl taken pas- I Bflgfl ia thfl merchant vcsael upon the ranea of their President that "the Of BOB-4**OB8bataatfl cannot law i - t -rhtfally bx pat ia Jajopardy" and' thflt this gOTflramflBt would en* ? ., , i ,-,.: ? ? inbjcet noti-com ? rehant veflsal "to the . ,i la small DOfll ?lfl into jflopardy and tob ratad by this gavflrn* ment It is true-that the di?*embarkation of .. paaflflBgflra tooh plae* within hailing diflUBCfl of Ameriean war ihipi, snd thfl doubtful question whether the Step'nano would have Le. n sunk if theflfl warships had BOl ,.,-.r i-.-.n Oflly bfl flBflWI r?d fll tel that niaialtaBflooflly me" submarine sank four other ??. ? ? i gnadiflfl and (he ? it ia set aagg ? thia aight of all ;? ? ? thfl proxim th? aflrflhipa palliatfld but little tion of neutr.il righta, for tb" obvioai reuson that if thfl injr of tha Btcphaao would have bai n I but for the rtroximity of ? ? tably fol* ? ? r the BabmariBfl ta ... . | ? . mi re auxiliary of German v'hmarincs in comntfli ling i '^'ht to be un Our War>-hips Misemployed !' |i ni.' ? i af Ameriean warships to facilitatfl any nation in thfl . of tr.e merchant marine of fl i..i:itry with which America is at To dfl so is to make it virtually .... Amer;. done and doobtlcsa aronld hava they BOt i. .' umi'!* Bil ? ;on only ei ifl Ita w.-akr.' ? -11 ? ? BOl iea OpO n of tho Babnaariai that ai I ? ? ment had ' ?.'?. r a el( ar and ? ed aa coin ra, if it fltl drive ? ai gtn of the Stephano to the open sea on small boni r/'i;;s of Ameriean i rahipi would al ' re in dflfflBCfl flf tbe un ? Ameriean eitiaena to arithou! nndne Jflopardy upon the ? iin of the Brieaflon, bow* iiuild not act ns bis lanflfl of and hamanity nndonbtedly promptfld him, for ha had raaaon to know. ? fli ? ' rymon, and ii ?? world, tl ?an bfl placed upon the of Pi ? ' ? ? ? now for more than I firoved rui'ic "scrapa flf paper." Thflia* fore, hi' did not feel tr.-.- to vindieate th" andoobted position of this govern ment that the ?I tli" Til.marine for the d<*stmeti"n at an ?BMraj'fl floiiaa*ren ifl ./ maeaaeita uit?' ? ??'il fln'tlk thi prtbacflj I,., oj Ifliafl? .l*/i thfl bi | (fltflbl flflcd and in ,, 'it;...- rtible rkihl "i'i thfl nt-fllM tauaoaitifll Ot n.>n-*nm aata. More than two waeha ba*/fl paflflfld tbin outraire Waa cotnmit'ed m th.- rflrj teeth ef tha reaeated warn* ingi of I rnmflnt that ti*.is raodfl of ararfarfl wonld aot ba toUratad. iioliand's Prateat Holland, a small nation, existing in thfl i'ii y ihadew flf Ganaaay and ? f itanfld with destruction If Germaay i p**flTflil in thifl conflict, was, nevi tth.less, not slow to express its eoadflmnation of this !ste?t activity of ibraariae. Aa one of the tiv.> ihips . Dnteb tflasi I, M n, ti." Miaiater of Foreign AnTaira ;nr Holland, nt flBCfl mud" a publii* ln whieh i.e axprtflflfld his confidence thal Gflnaaay woald "dla ?;" a.* flf b rr eomaaaader and tendcr reparation for thia abnolutely onju ? iAabla .?!??*." Holland haa aJafl promptly forbldden i of belligerenl war i lata lo r tarritorial vratara, etcept under thfll "i daauge, while littlfl atatfl, promptly followfld ti ? plaitfl flf the aubma I an adiet, dati d : ? ? rhieb forbada the ? ? i into bflt ? remainfld on th.e sur Kag. While Holland and Norway weri I thi majflflty of in ?i tioaal la*' thfl grflataflt of n.ii itions rflnaaiai ailant, bbIi except the iflmi-oBlclal atateaiflnta thfll have i?iiinr fi on Bhadaw Laara aad froaa ,??? Dflflartmflnt to tha effect th.it tha Wilflon Admialatratiofl is net dla* i ? . | to rfl| ird thia tei <<( thfl Oflr* man submarine a in violatiOB of Oflr* '?oe*1. it Ii tbiTi'/iir" not tarprlfliag that li.i i- Alfrod Ztauaflnaaa, Uador sre latary of Fo/fligti AJfaira fur Oflrmany, took flcflaalae, on Oetabar 16, 1916, whilfl deprflcatlng thfl action of n.,i land and Norway, to flgpfefll publidy THE CASE OF THE U-53 By JAMES M. BECK Author of "The Eyidence in the Caae." his satisfaction with the attitude of | this fi-overnmcnt With respect t* the , admission of German submarines t* our ports, whero they can replenish (hair stocks of fuel and food and ob- j tnin the necessary information to en abla them to proceed ajrain to ?ea and destroy merchant marine ar.d jeopard ize the lives of our citizens. This public aeknowlcdtfment followed j a visit which the German Ambassador taada to Proaldaat ffllsoa'a aammar home nfter the sinkinjj ot the** tive ressals, and on laariraaj Shadow Lbwb von HernstoriT mado the hijrhly ! humorous and tactful retr.ark that "Ger- ; many k >epe all it.* pla IgBfl t vrywhere," i a remark which la ealeulated to cx elt* Kome amazement and dcrision in j JJelpium and elsewhere. Count von I'ernstorfT rnijrht 81*11 smile and Herr Alfred Zimmerman micht well indulpe in puhlic expressions of gratification, for Preflldaat Wilson, as will here? after appear, had said on April 16, JOlri, ia flzplieit laagaage, that if Ger? many should ajrain sacnfieo or jeop nrdize the lives of non-combatants by the use of its submarine* the Ger- , man Ambassador would b? given his pa-sporta. If the (juestion is put on no hitfher plSBB than dollars and cents, it is amaxlag that wi*h continuinj; losses to ? BB eetamarea Bf many millions of dol? lars the i'nited Btataa doaa not veatore to do that which Holland am! Norway have done namely, to re. trict the BB limited access of submarines to our harbors and territorinl BBt* rs. r'xtra-Terrlforial Kights Limited The extra-territorial riphts of for eijrn warships in our waters exist only by courtesy and the comity of na tlons. America, without departinp f n>m its poliev of neutrality, could at any timo forliid the entrance into its ter ritorial watora of any warships, pro* ?/ided that th<? prohihition applied equalljr to all belligereata. The rifht of total prohlbition b*hig dear, it aroald ba equalljr within the eompe bov . power to forhid tha entraaca of ur.y particolax class of aarablpa, and, as the anbatartaa ia a eomparatirelj new method of wnrfare and its BZSCt under interr.atioi.al law has not jret >>*?< b clearly aatablisbad, it is with? in the power of the I'nited Statea to ? | to its harbors of all sub? marines. Only in this way can the submarine ? -led and the d*Bg*r of arar ba n.inimized, for at present the peaeefal rBlatloaa between the I'nited States and Germany Jiang- ot; a thread, beiog depoadeat upon the prudeaea and dlaeretloB of any submarine com? mander. Far from rccojrnizinf* this obvious ?ration sip : tha ainkiag of thaaa flre ships Bg public for the first tlma a r.ot. ly addresaed tha Allied natioB*, in which it is aaid: In nril-r. hriwiver. that there *hnn'rl l?. a taadiae ??' to the at-.i ? ,.,;? ol tha Un ? i BtaB i, ti.e aorara ? . ? i Uaitad Btataa aaaoaaaea la ?? Ulted poa ??? - *v al 11 h* Ha . ba th.- daty ef i.. dis . f ncatral aad beHia-ereat nationaJltjr aad tba* ra -.ponsilnlity f..r ar.;- conflicl Ihal ir.ay I. tween beHlfereot vaiahipa aad nitc. aeeaaat ot the nej-Urt of a bi Usartal ta aa rUatiaare'eh batwaaa tr. arlaaB aaaa* t aal paa ih>- aaeMai Bt pawar. An l ntinielv Notice At any time such a notice would huve b<" n gratnitona, for BbriooBljr any bei ligeroat thal aeeideatally f-ank an ean inbnariBa would acknowl edga liability nnd make reparation. Why, tlien. with tha cries of American women and children, who were obliged ? ' iwi red by ropea Into a be il eommltt d to tha merelea of th still r thia eapecial occasion to warn irahipa of tha Allied powera that they nuis*. BOt in their BttOBl] I ?BTB the llTOfl Of their C Our eituens from BUddeB death through lubmarinea make any mistake as to the Bationality of the labnarlneT '. eanl ob m i it be exer tod for thia unneccssary proaunclamaBto moat oafortnaate nnd only too arell ealeulated to gire the arroaeoua im presaion to foreigfl nations that this rorernnent was more intent upon pro* ? erman aubmarlaea than the lives of its own citizens upon the high seas. Preflideol i I ioa ethiag bs*t* to lafegaard the lives of his fellow -citizens. "The Ilerald" radio fltatioB : ient out a atatemenl aitnply ghr? ir.jr ns enrreat news the aames af the reaaala sunk and the loealitica of the diaaater. for thia il ne* raprimaaded BBd discipline,1 hy Secretary D Thus. even tha American press must be ?tranffled to permit tha suhmarine to creep more surely upon its iiuany. Safety for Non-combatants When the war broke out no ptinci [ plc of international law wns more ae euialjr eatabllahed than that war should he io conductcd that injury, death, or ??ven undue jeopardy should be apared : to Bon-eoBibatanta, so fai as waa *"?*? ?oaably poaaible. Applyiag thia rule to tha question of commerce dostroyinjr in i naval wnrfare, it araa held that a B8U tral f**S*l COOld BOt BB de-troycl. , even though lt esrriad eontrahaBd, an les< its eoatinoance in some way im perillad the nttnekinu ?/0*8*l. Whll" the right to deatroy tha merehaal ihi] of B Lelliarerent was clearly recogBiScd, . yet it was BUhjoet to the eondition thnt ' provision must b* made for tha lives of paaaeagora nnd cr?:w. This eonld ba I aeeompllshed, Bceordiag to tha then ex ? practice. either by the war ves sel puttinic a prize crew on board the IBerehaat ship and tnkinir it into port to ba adjadlcatad b lawfal prixo, or i>y takini? the passenurers and cn w upon the ararahlp and traaaportiag them to n place of aaaared safety. I( oelthw of those conditions could he ohserved the warship wns then obliged t* per* ? . raerchaat vesael, wIth its pa*. laogera aad crew, to proceed bb Ita vayage nfter the eoatrabaad eargo, if any. had been affeetoally removed or ilestroyed. Germany enrried the rule to the ex treiae of holdiag thal the crew of a balligemml Bterehaal reaaol seald B*l t**a be ?"?agfljrded a i pi iobi r ot amr, and in l1""11 pr*tfl*t*d BgaiBflt the ac? tion of thfl r'rem-h eovemnicnt in de I taininir ?? captivcs the crew of a Ger niiin inerchniU vessel. 1 The True Hule of Senrrh and Priir The rule ef intei nutional law. to whieh ii'-arly all the ci\ili'.>'d states of |tha world ba-/e formerly niibscribed, rnys: Mrr.lianl ehiim uimli tlie l.iuh a?a>, beiiititfing to ? BaMflBraat yuMu . ? ? I ahall be subject to visit and tOOteh tr the warahipa of another helln-.r-nt. and 1/ upon mrh itrarck it i* found that auch merchant ?hlp Ia of enemy IflflflBlar, or fnund to be carryin* contraband .if **sr, aaid ahip may be seiied and detaimd . until auch time aa her cane may be determined by a priie c.mrt, which ah-ill decide whether or not auch veaael is a Iawful prize. Previous to the present war, the pos? sibility of any auch course of conduct as has been since followed by GaraBBfl submarines was not diaCBflflad by jnrifltfl or courts. because It WBfl rc aarded aa an unthinkable possibility. Tfl sai-rit'ice or faopaldlSfl tbe live* flf nea-eoiabataata was mgardad as pure piracy and was believed to have been forever ended when the Mediterranean and the last of the Bpaalflfl buccaneers i to plv the profession flf the "flkoll and erosshones" upon the so eallfld Spanish Main. Kor tive months after the present war begail Bfl one BBggflfltfld as n think able possibility that thfl Itaafl of non combatants eould bo thua sacnliced %r jeopardizel. The tirst latfBaBtiefl to tho contrary was the autnorucd m terview by Adrriral Tirpltfl, fljfvea to th- world on thfl e*/? "f ?Chrifltm?fl, 1914, in which he stated that lt was the latenttoa of Qflrmaay to torpedo every I merchant vess.d belonging to the Al? lies, and directing his challenge spe citically to America, be asked: "\. .*.at v/ill America say?" We took up the challenge, and jon February 1". 1616, eflllfld thfl atten | tion of the Gflrman goTflrnaiflBt to the very serioua possibility of such a ! course, which Wfl then atigflaatised aa an indcfenaible violation of BflOtral rlahtfl, /<"? ******* the gaooromeot be JJIIJimnl '" bflld the GflTOflafl jV'"' errmert Ifl a a'r.r' flflfl 00 I MUtg, ttmi tt take any *'???>? it might he aflllflflflflflll I 1 tal.it to aafeKuard the Americim Hflflfl and liberty and to secure to Amencan citizens the full enjoyment of their ac kn.iwledK?-d rij-htg on the Mgh scac. Tbe Gflrman gorerBmaat ah?**. ' contempt for this threat of "strict ac eonntability" by aiahiBg, ob March 28, 1915, the Falaba, the Gnlfllght ? few I later and the Lusitania ofl 7, 1915, when more than 1,000 women and children were fed to the ; fishes. The First Lusitania Noto On May 13, 1915. President Wilson ??Bt a not" in which hc stated that The fovemment of the T'nifed Stataa AflfllNfl t.. r:\'.\ th" BttflBtl n of the Im perial ("'rman ('ov.-rnm. Bt with the gtaa a, t" tha fact thal I ? ? ? ?.! th.ir praai al aifltbod l tn. talk ragflJnal thfl traaafl ??' tv it flawatoa 9m la tha proetietU r<- ' em ptaytaa iiitrwaitafli la Ihe ?!? atraetioa of commtrf" without <ii.-r? irnrdinB* t_flfl r ilis of tfllrnflaa, laattaa and ham which ni m-dern opinion reatardj as Imp" i. It is virtually impo?.?ible f"r the of? ficers of a submarine to vaflM a menhant man at Bflfl an-l flSafltfBfl laflf pap< rs and I- i-. (rlrtnaUr Impoflflible for th'-m to mnke a ; If thfl? cannot put a flrfflM ttOW OB flflaaN fl*f hflf taaw unnii 1 ?'.? haa witkomt Uaaamg h.r c-.-i/' r:r. .' r.li M I NM I l .' ' '' ' ' ''"" ... ... 1 Theae BBfll . H '?? th" !m perial Cermon ('? 'verament I mit>. Wa ara Inl *** of which v." have spo^en. UflBfl >' f,.r 1 v. n thal pooi 1 ?? aaara ? ?ot rlarcn rir.i in at Itael twa af th* Bflflflfl ciud, not sn mu.-h Bfl B v.arninic . .! ."./?: || "i'" I ranr I .""' H ' ? rekomtt. at .1 ?,. ,. , ..... .; ./JH..U* an iri i'i'. I flBflBg flfllVfld orbeeiptat ".' joatiet aai aotmxaaaatt. Thus PrflflidflBt W ' '*? the ? national la I ?? flng mi ? . aad the ni. vit.il,:.' MBclaaioa waa th* Baa of thfl ? ;,s '?? eommorcfl doned, Th ? . mariflfl ita Iflgitimatfl u.-vyn war . stroyinp bflttlflflhipfl. N,? Baad Paid to Our Protest Notwithatanding thia dear dflmand, which, tained, wonld have maalfl a BOtablfl and noblfl applieatioi !' law to ? Bflw nothod of warfara, tha >?"?? man gOTflramflBt continued to use the ? iriae in ,y? rary raaaaer da r.otinced by l*Teflident WilflOH. On June 2*? it sunk the Armenian and killed eleven citizens. ElflTfla daya later It kfld tha Ordaaa without war Thereupon our government, on July 21, 1918, gaT? to *he Ganaafl gowa ment the la^t waraiag that srenerally precedes a declaration of war. flflflflrt* lag th.it aeother such act would be re f-arded as "delibert'tely unfricn.ily." The answer to thifl was the sinkinp; of the Arabic, on AagBflt 19, when ni' re Ameriean citizens were ffld tfl I K m tb? Ganaaa Por elgn Offlefl gaaa to oet gorflrnm?nt th? liners will Bflfl be sunk hy o.ir submarine* withmit aaralBfl and without tafety of the titem of Boo-eoanbataBtfl, provtaW that the lineri fla BOt try la eacape or flflflf r.^istati.-". With this clear flflflnraaefl, the hor ror of the Lusitania WBfl ai;.'iin re ;.i .?.', d Ofl N' ? ambflr 7, 1916, b I Anconn was sunk, and on Sflpl 30, 1915, by tha On all thflsfl oeeaflloBfl the lives of Amencan citizens. inc I u and children, were cruelly s.u-ri.' Notea I'pon Notes Then l'ollowed more notes and more diplomatic jnggUry, flll ?f lt Ba*/lag the etTect, if not the purpo-e, of chb.ro formiag the conscience of the Ameri? ean pooplfl, until April, 1916, when thi Snasflx was dflfltroyad withoal wara* I t.rpedo. BBd after the usual amount flf false explanations the ii,r man Foreign Ofica laally admittod thia a.-* flj p racy. Thi renaoa, on Apnl lf>. 191?. our ajarammaat cave t.> Genaany H war" \ ? r Bgflin st.-itin-* in uneiiuivoeal ? that the ? ?'.. ..,',.??,inn,. ? , | ,1 1 , ? ? . . . ullirli i?r..iii|.iiti(.i'.' u il/i (??' prflflflfllplflfl flf aam.t'Mfv. th" loti^' . Il-b.-.l and in.-ontrovrrtil.le nuhU uf afluliah aii'l the flaewd Inunnnltiflfl of i,,,n eombatauita. the note ATOeflflded to Iflf tb it if it was the purpose flf tbe lm| trnmont to contanue its method flfaiflh* ine; merchant ships without Bflfllth, warninir or aafflgaardlag thfl IHrflfl flf aon ciinbntants, there araa but "(Hie co. raa" that the povernment flf the I'n l".l States r.iuid Jiursue, Bad would be ta ?,.. r .'i|./,....!i'.r relattoma ?. >'h th. On*. ? . gaajaarfl altofi th. r. Nothinf* eould bo plainer than this wurnui";, BOthlBg 111010 cleur than thia assuranc*) to tne world, and gflfaaa more juat. ? Mr. Wilson's demand in th? *kiit? noto was that Germany ahould now imme<i:ately dnrlar* la affaal an ahanJennunt of iu prcaent matara* of aubmarine warfare aaainat BBBflalaaa ar.d frcialbt carry ina ves*e!a. What wer* the "pretent mttaa4y which were thus to be abandontd! Ti "present methods" thu? denounce-J iy not COI tJBja. ^ se!s without warning *.v.1 withoatsh mi; non-combatants opportunity to aa! eapa, but also in sinkinjr vess*;, ,j.a out any senrch and without givitig ta non-combatants any f-reater lecurit* for then* safety than lifeboati. Whll th- sBBBBSfltofl "present methods ? Btaadiag by Itaelf, i* son-.ewhat arabij. BOBS, yet it mu-t be cocsidered jn .j," liKht of Mr. Wilson's previous warnin-ft that a submarine eould r.ot be uaed a. a commerce destroyer because of th? obvious im|).- ?* a pri? crew on board. No Vindiration Yet The Idea tbal i ar govensMat ?indi L.'lt.d th* i in the tcmpornry adjustment that fob BBflJSBI U dispre-vod by tha f*et that in the monta of J"' ' '.'"narines tank J7 avtrali m July, 43; in AogBBt, I0B, and in !*?> - thi deatiBaBisi ' tanta reai?d for M livea wi i , n tha 277 merehaat ;,e.i. It is hun ? ? refleet that it ii unlikely r ehaBBBJ of ib will be appraeiably lesstnai ? ce in a method which he and thit geveraa n pe*tedl*f denounctd. ? re. ivd him on tho irround that "he | .s out of war" will eoat ? ua ta rejoiea that h? has arnin preeenred the peace, withoat stoppinp to eonaid ag Injary '.i th.. falr I I a, as wall ns to thi BOB, of this policy of iBBCtlOB. The (ontempt af Europe The writer, hnvII .? returnH from Kurope, where he had exceptional i.nport un .:r.lon of ?v.th tht sad but un. -on that Mr. Wilson a | hour tht iro<t iv,- - BBBlltj in the publle life of my B That his i -en ba a 'he mott humiliating i l An-.. rican hit tory, Th" I " r-,s -?' of America in tht eivilized wor, I aad as long* 81 ?: r.ov, livil | . . to tijrht" i OBtOBBBaV ble phrase now on mon'i lips is any part of ? I'n.rr. Wl te WUbOB, from tho grest Virg I that there is | I I I I I ~ *'** BOMBB B*l ' flflflfll if r ? .'4lu>? ?/ to th* '- .'.nian, whr, = * one eon ag "too proud tO I If tha | -evitit ith tht reara con front I I "* hia ; -s Let PEARY SEES "YVOFUL LACK" OF U. S. FLIERS Aerial Defence Weakest Rranch of Service, Says fxplorer Wea rwlee, . but "mo-t wi fuily laekiBg" iB *?''ri?! Robad I i f tht 1 Nation:.! A audli ? ''''*'* ? -.ow, he d< **? :aac ' ten*' andr- ' ,cin . ? mach:;-..? ' ?**?? raergoae-f ariaea. We caa ret the mar' t,ut ' n a man to one. And l FrBBee. *??* r:d 10T aviation." . Admiral Peary deflned.**Ion' damentala of preparedness for lmrned' roouatiog "inr gaaa; rrrn , rtancr protac* railita or ABBtraliaa aj ? MERCHANTS TO DISCUSS RAIL TERMINAL MOVE Will Considor \Va\s to Fight Roads' Proposals The Ifercha ta'a ; ho]i a BBBBtlag B1 IM Broadway thia af"1" noon ? the BBOTfl rnadfli hy ?J new lorm ' ' ?-, mir.ais . I tha trunk railwayj w? wa ? bank of the 1 * ff-V. nider the proper means for oppoaiai iueh action. M >;*?& ? t'.on and Oi ?"''. .1 orcaaisatioBi bave Deem New Jersej eitiea novr 'njoymg wr ???? *'?< i '* f* ,'Tr.Zt* .'!.? Cobb i ^.rlt takiBR the poaitiyn tnai * '' *** '" ' CS i than to coi ' V*n rert cw ?? WIDOW Aa\D BABIF-S IN WAHT. Aid Asked for l*..miK af Man Killed h> lall A man tl 'iSe working on ? wind< i ' mti tor * '*'; h'"?n? from ?.. I'ea, who had c ^n 1 all th ? - to put him t>n Bit ltv September he had r*pai?J J;\? ? ? Scptembei "*Lm hia da ' ^ lowaill and waa brougl I ,,.. 1 .aS tute, her fnendr. unable te ??' her until such time a-^ >ne rfKT'^t C*B*p*BBati0B if the aUit C?**? ln favor. ., . ..jB The W.dowed Mothers" r?nVT? eiation, IW Bowery. has been ??*J?2 it, and ?H tfifts for the h.i.rn* the family. which .hould he mnrttom \V , mav ? to Mrs Menrj ''?'? . man, 62 Broadway, er to the reaeaa tho li , B4 Thanks are offered to K.iihrriM $10. II. T . $1, and Schuler, >1, ?" ^ ebwea ajfljaia*!