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New-York tribune. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, March 16, 1917, Image 2

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Sturmer, former Premier, the lead
itN of t! . .irii's. ha' I
killed.
There ii no c< nfirmation of this,
and the iadicationj are to t ?
trary. Petrograd dispatches under
Wem ' .:y the two min
I. ters and other prominent men who
v. i e arrested ?
sre comfortably honoed m the Tauru
?lent i I "TI ' ' -aw them there
on W M. Sturmer wus
with pap* ind M.
ProtopopofT v. as lying on a sofa, a
i hysiral wreck.
The yarr Petragrad, ' -
upon by the rsoctionarisa to tief?" ?
them against the people, n
i m the rebellion. The bureau?
th? n sttos ptod to bring troops
from Finland to ippre-s the revolt,
but they n go. It waa then
thal Kronstadt was sei/.ed. ilel.-dng
. wileri' a ps are ,-tiii
loyal to the old jr<?\ernme:tt, i- being
besieged. Two deputies from the
Duma, M. Pepelauff and M. To
at ones wenl to Kr.ii. ia.it and took
the ?ommand.
The I at the front win n
the disturbances broke out, and a
series of v appealing for his
aid were sent by the revolutionary
lead? ?
treme msaSUNS. When the ministry
was ousted lie returned to in- paiace,
where the Czarina ia said to have re?
m.iinnl. a.al waa waited upon by a
committee of the Durna, which pre
1 an appeal for a parliament?
ary form men*. He was
informed at thi DM that the
revolution wa- not anti monarchial
and that the future would depend
on his answer.
Prefers Abdication lo
Loas of Power
The answer has not been received
and the whole cause 0? the abdica?
tion is still mott obscure, hut frorn
the fact that he gave up bil crown
it ii taken for granted here that he
preferred this to making any con
n which would in any way
limit Iii- own autocratic power. It
is known that he ha.> held a strong
conscientious belief in the divine
right of kinjj--:. Well informed Rus
here decline that he could not
have commanded the support of a
single important general if he had
attempted to meet the revolutionaries
with force.
According to information received
here, the Russian people have been
most distrustful during recent events
of the personal influence of Krnpress
Alexandra. She was supposed to
exercise the greatest influence over
Kmperor Nicholas,. Before her mar?
riage to the Kmperor of Russia, In
1, she waa the German Princess
Alix of Hans Darmstadt
In his announcement to the Com?
mons, Chancellor Bonar Kaw paid:
"Only to-night a mssssgl has been
received from our ambassador to
the effi -t that a statement from the
Durna announced that the En
had abdicated, and that Grand Duke
Michail Akzsndrovitch had been ap?
pointee regent,
"Thi re is 6ome comfort for us in
the comparative tranquillity with
which this change was conducted.
There i. also real comfort that all
the go\ernn.ent'8 information shows
that the movement was not in any
toward an effort to
I ' .
"On the contrary, the di. content
? the govemm?
carrying on the war, but for r
rying it on with that efficiency and
tnergy which the people had ex?
pect.
\
1 nels Underground
Man?uvres
In fact, the liberal friends of
country were never
f the future of the
A country than to-night, and they, sa
f well as all wl
a v;. itJon 0f the war,
) are ? . vslop
| ment % | the pro-Germa;
of thi ? Rii?
Fia. . ? ..f period o? 11
Ftruction i . able to
throw her BtrsUgUl into the war far
y than al
been able I
li li ah ? ? st at all likely that
there will be any further under?
ground peace nuinceuvres going on
in Russia. Sthetk co?
ition of '
with the other ailie,
ready it I i that the si
sadors ti Britain an 1 Francs have
-I official busineea relations
with Um new rulers.
It Is 4
ST leader- ?.f the
Durna and the Zesaotvi
?ution
4-nd that it had bsSS BSSSt ?arefully
t a- ' ad Por moi ? t il hail
St the hand:- of the
army SJSTI rod by tin
? ?
home were starving in the mwist of
yr*&' The
attempts I v the psople through the
Duma ts roach the Casr ha
Lnavailir p, and the i ?? of the
Durr, a
?
?
at
arehiesl,o; i ?>
a battle botWSSS UM m1' I
the ok ' I
I
f?jpr to \>i
toost vigor, ene/.gy ni Sftihsj
all three hating the Germans indi
? nina a nnMon.
Pro-Germans Blamed
I or 1 nod Riots
The recent food rioti m the R
Man cities, which formed the
f?>r the revolution, were not caused
,.r conditions. ,n the opinion of
..a-, but by the roachinal
of the pi ? ' . a ho havt
been Imprisoned. They are declared
to ba\?- boen trying to force the
nation to ?i promatarc peace by fore
: through disorganiz.'i
lion of tin food supply. Against.
clique men of all clown and all
? [)inions have now revolted.
No x "tu ' . ed in the war
has undergone I worse time than
I a i: n ria re ? ntly. With three
haixf-fs unexpoited, every
part of the country has- been suffer?
ing from want of food, even the
wealthy frequently being unable to
buy bread and meat for love or
money. Meanwhile, the articles of
primary consumption, like nutter,
milk, oil, coal? leather and soap are
e<iually scarce.
The Russian?- recognize that there
monak dislocation, due to the
war, but tiny also know that the
I shortage ii about !?."> per
.!,'? to tia?.sport difficulties
It ?I a case of the aristocracy anti
ns.
I$t is a case of the aristocracy ai d
the democracy uniting for the com?
mon good. The first step was the
killing of Rasputin, the wild ami re?
actionary monk who had such power
OVOT the Czar.
Gives Durna
Control
The revolution was as successful
a it wa> sudden. It has given com?
plete control of the government of
Russia to the Durna, backed by the
army, and what is tanned the "Pu.-h
the War l'ai ty" ii now in power.
The revolution, which evidently
Wai carefully prepared, broke out
simultaneously in Petrograd and
Moscow. The garrisons, which
c ? yod the instructions of the revolu?
tionaries, immediately took pOMOO
Hoii of these cities.
All pro-German reactionaries are
being rounded up by the new govern?
ment. Strict military rule pre?
vails, and the army has the situation
IO well in hand that it is not ex
pected adherents of the late govern?
ment will be able to offer any serious
ance, even in remote provinces.
Renter's Petrograd correspondent
sends the following dispatch, under
date of March 14 :
it correspondont has been in
the streets both night and day for
the last three days. He has seen
lines of hungry men, women
and children, and has goon th? wan?
ton tiring of rifles and machine guns
and civil war In the main thorough
i a i ingle
word against war.
Fighting
In Barracks
The military ia .Petrograd is tak?
ing orders from the committee and
( the city, which is quiet.
The fighting which occurred was in
the barracks, and a number of offi?
cers were killed.
The Grand Duke Cyril informed
the Doma that he would place at its
disposal the marines under his or?
nad afterward visited M. Rod?
zianko in the Durna and told him
that he v.a- entirely at Rodzianko's
order?.
The people of Moscow adhered to
the revolutionary movement without
?lied.
The Militan.- Committee of the
Duma/* says Reuter's Petrograd cor?
in a dispatch dated
??-?lay. "ha- asked all the offi?
cers not yt employed by the com?
mittee to undertake the organization
Of the Midien who joined the people
und help guard the capital. The
committee usuel a statement point?
ing out that at the present moment,
when facing ai enemj who wish
take advantage of the temporary
f ?he eouatry, it was eb
toly necessary to make every of
to maintain the power of the
army. It added 'hat the blood of the
I uns who have died during the
two and a half years of war pledged
the people to do this.
Telegraphed
Io Fleets
"The President of the Durna sent
telegram? t?> the commanders of the
Baltic and Black Si a Meets, to the
- of the armies on the Northern,
Southwestern. Western, Rumanian
and < . ffonl g1 ,1 to th.
chief of the General Stall rec,
w,g that the army and navy pre
absolute calm and lo bo sail that
gainst the foreign
enemy wa no1 luspended or weak
or a ?ingle moment. The
mi.-i.iiKi'-r
added :
i valiantly
? ?
igjonaJ committed Is aided by
tpitali
moral support of the
alta gi ! w ?rular
? fl er, loldii r and
lid fulfill hi? duty.'
of the Petto;
ling anani?
.- aer? < d to n- OgnJ.
? oi ii ? ( thi committee
? til 'h' format.
? ? ' government
ia] bodyguai I regii
to da It i,
ulunuU'l th,at Lhcie art liov, ?'J/A'J
'
troops in the capita!. The political ;
prisoners in the Schloeeeelburg have
been released "
"During the revolution,'' M] a
Keuter ?iispauh from Petrogra?!.
"the hated Kreaty prison wa? seized
by the revolutionist! sftsr ? abort
resistance by ita guards. All the
political prisoner? held there, includ?
ing the members of the wollun i '
group, snooted a month a?", were
liberstsd. The same course was fol?
lowed at the preliminary detention
? an.l the women's prison. I '?
? ? ?? beadquartera were demo,
un??i with all the archive
lating to political personages and or?
ganization-.
"Among thi i ,f,?i were
Bishop Pitrim, the Metropolitan of
Petrograd; If. Kurloff, who was in
charge of the police arrangement? at
me of the murder of Premier \
Stolypm. an?! whose activities have
been renewed recently, anti (?encrai
Soukhomlinoff. former Minister of
War.
Troops and People
Declare for Revolution
Petrograd, Mnrch li.- The pnrrisun
?t Kharkov ha? formally joined the
revolution and is supporting the pro
ii covornment. Strikes in ?ym
r with the movement have he?",
:n factories and on the streetcar
?
Kharkov in the capital of the prov?
Of the same name It is 480 miles
south of Moscow and ha?? a population
of about 200,000.
Moscow, Rejoicing,
Rallies to the Cause
Of New Government
London, March 15.?"Moscow, th?;
ancient capital of Russia, resounds
w.'h popular rejoicings over the over?
throw of the government," (.ays Reu?
tet 'i Moscow correspondent. "The offi.
Cers have rallied to the new national
gol?< rnment, ?uni a military commit!??'
ha-, been formed to preserva order and
reg?lete food supplies. The committee
i backed b> ? brigade of artillery, Bri
? ota of infantry and the armed
I
eral Droseraky, commander of
roopi in the Moscow district, has
been arrested. .Mote than a thousand
pol?n- and gendarmas also have been
arrested ana brought to the Town Hall
Ali tha polit ra! prisoners in the great
Butynky Prison hflvp been released
?'The eities of Kharkov and Nishnl
Novgorod, 'he lot ter the cnpitul ol' the
province or' the ame narrie, have de< ,
dared for the ni sr truvernnient.'
Army and NavyBack Durna
Bonar Law Tells Commons
London, March IS, In the House of !
Commons to-night Sir James Henry i
I, Liberal, questioned tin gev*
? rnment concerninjf the situation in
I Andrew Honur Law, ( hancel
lor of the Exchequer. ? ving: |
"I quite agri ? that in a matter cf
this gravity it is the government's !
duty, if it ?s in their power, to eve
the house nil the information
could be ...?;> imparted. I am
? ? . |
. ." i on. ? proper plat a i
formati n of thi kind hould bl
?
"Th.- ftral nowa thi ? had
rouble in Roaaii
?? L It was I
that I
? t?o-n
the |
information,
'l'y degree) ? became plan
Petrograd i i ng mor- or less '
und< r oi lered rall ib I that m -
? ?? raia avai rhieh the Presidsnt of.
111- I .. : eil i,: eent roi. Al
most from the outset the soldiei
.sailor-, i...ve t?r. n tha sida at I
Durna in trie revolution. In? result
has EH SB, .fi.rni.ir,?."
reached tha gerernoaeat, that there
ha? not bean any -?nous los? of hi?' "
Berlin Gets First
Official Report
Of Revolution
Petrograd Uprising Begun
March 12r After Duma
Defied Czar's Ukase
30,000 Soldiers Revolt
Cabinet Ministers Thrown in
Jail and Provisional Rule
Inaugurated
! , raitt ftuturi ni the
Rusoiom roeolaftoa w thnt the fini
of it tame to the outside world
in the following dispntek frota Ber?
lin. S'o other tOUTCt htti yet ?iub
lith?d the text of ti"' r'atrmmt
which it contents, and ?kick wau
eiulently issued btfon the resolution
un? complet i.
Berlin, March |S hv wirele-s to
Seyvtlle). There ha? been a success
fal revolution m Russia, according to
th? overseas Nowa Agency (th? official
? erman news bureau' The followia|
statement uas jivi-n oat to-dav by the
rews agency:
The following official report was
i in Petrograd on March 14 about
the successful Russian revolution:
"The population of Petrograd, in?
censed by the complete disorganiza?
tion of transport services and of ali?
mentation, had been irritated for a
long Um? against the government and
had becomo restless. The population
held th-s government responsible for
all its sufferings. The government,
expecting trouble, took measures on a
large seile in order to maintain order
ard. among other things, ordered dis?
solution of the Council of the Empire
and the Durna.
Durna Defies Imperial I kase
"The Durna, however, on March 11
decided not to accept the imperial
ukase, but to continue its meetings.
The Durna immediately instituted an
executive committee, presided over by
M. Kodzianko, preiolent of the Durna.
That committee, declared itself to be a
proviaii na] go. ??ruinent and issued the
? g appeal :
"'? oi .- the difTiciiltie i in re
gmrd to domestic tranquillity, winch aro
to thl D4 i.? y o:' t lu :,,ria. r vT"-. -
i ?. the exeeut re committee of
the Duma feels compelled to take pub?
lic order ?a It? own hands. Fully con
iciou? ?f th? responsibility arising
from this deeiaiOB the committee ex
ilnty that th? popula
t;,.!! and the army will lend their
assistance fu| th? ???ilicuh task of n,
?Ung B BOW government which will ac
Cepl th? wiebea of the people and enjoy
their ?
All Ministers Put in Jail
"The executive committee rested it
pOi the population "f the capital,
full revolution, and upon
lintel with tht
r? rolutioniat?. It am sted a,? tho min
? | then te jail. Th?
Isred lhat the ministerial
? ? ? po longer 1 ??istod.
on th? third day of the
revolt:- pit? ?I 01*04 t I?
returning swiftly, is completely in the
of the ,.\.. .*.:?. ,? eommttte? of
the Du ' roepe e ii ch gar
rii.I Petrograd and numbered more
i -apport th.?
revolution. Dei i i ! agelbara, I olonei
Great Gi aeral StarT, has been
appointed commander of Petrograd by
the comm!'tee.
Ti tterdey ?vening the commit'ee i?
i?ued preclemetieai te the population,
troops, ra.'rouds and banks, ask?
ing thom te reeum? theil usual ac
I ' pul Jf ( ii 00 U xx ;? - ei.ns, ,;
by the Dub I ? for provisional
management ?>f the Petrograd Teleg
raphic Ag acj fhii probably refers
Russian news
I
Revolt in Russia Kindled
By Strikes and Food Riots
Populace Convinced That Czar's Advisers Were Traitors
To Nation?Hunger Pinched Thousands?Plot
For Separate Peace Was Suspected
Petrograd, March 15. Last week's
factory Strikes arid -tree', demonstra
tiOUS, comparatively innocent in them
-, provided tha ^-park which set
aflame the growing unrest and arigrj
discontent that pervaded the i
population of Ruaaia, Thus ?mau a I
flotations of hungry factory workers
.- foi bna?i changed in ??
?to a revolution uh eh swept the
whole city, spread to the government
troops who had been called to hold the
i rowd? in check, and. supported by the
Duma, end'.d in the downfall of the
j.overnnient.
The revelations in the Duma of gov
eminent stupidity and corruption, and
allegations of treason against the chief
members of the Cabinet, sent a
of protest thrOVgn the country, and all
small resc
group, Winch *till cherished
traditional ideas < f th? sid n.
a Inch exited h? fore '? red a
constitution, ii? elan d themsi
misst the sinister infl.
en undrimining the beal effort i
i eeuotry succesafully to ian?, eu
the war.
Kven the Imperial l SUneil. which
.? eon li -
..I lillie.! lt?elf with the P' .
will, held spec iii meetings, m whick at?
. v.?i. called to rh?. "?.?-i loos eon*
dition
brought hy the gnscrapuloui dei
'm! heu.ls."
"Hark Forte?," I'ro-l,ernuiii
With an mlmity unpreredented, the
: f.v :ite.I ,i
frort ?gain-; iii?- government, The br
l"' prevailed everywhere and wa
? i that pre (Jenson court cirri?.*
anti the g?. ira dell ?? every*
thing m theil power to Interfere with
the proper eendui I "f the war and bring
about .-i peace.
.'.n asd Protopopoff
11 aqua trio, kiiown aj
chief ame..
rected. Bul
, . clarad to se o
als of German influence which wa?
? ? I
the mi of ti i ? i ? pla for
?
?.f. i ti.?- i.??..
and the temoval of J turmrr from the |
j rremier?h?p the name ministerial la*
Alienee, wearing s new maali in the
form of a changed Cahir.et, Durna effl
. ali dec arad, atill flourished with no?
diminished strength. Direct appeals
ware mads to th.. Emp?rer bj u!l ?orts
..f representative bmiie? and influential
officials to sum- the country from the
?' reatened It and to ap
1 point a now Cabinet which might en?
joy the eonfldenee or* the people
Hut th?. government, except for
empty Concessions and Compromises
remained obdurate te all appi-jl*. and
showed not th?> sh(ihte?t inclination to
ehaage the direction of it,? policy or to
*r<eilt- io th? ?I'niand? more and more
, inu'lly expressed.
thought I't-Miluiii.n Impossible
It wa- the epiniea of the majority
i of the ili-put'.i in the Durna that, de*
. spite th - Itatc ef affair?, an open
? revolution waa kmpoaaible, as ihr
eountr) realized? that .1 revolution
wouKi serloualy int'-rrupt the work of
tbs war un.l would be paying into the
of tho^e who had this very end
lew,
Open lette! were printed in the
papers from popular
Duma li ?tiers an.! nroclamntions were
1 usted in ti n sent ?. begging
tti*? population not te create demon*
? ?n? or eau-?' am disorders which
1 might le.nl te interruption of the
ifactura of munitiena or paralyse
al actil ity of the city.
already arranged for
"?Ian h 6, including a gen?'ral --trike
? the Durna of a
? gmen, wera in
averti ?I Hu', the moment
was S ' o?'.1, a>- bv th:> '.min
; sople, "? ho wera e.onvini ed I
iio> were being 1 tplc ted by the
government, received what
lered te be tha .as' proof
of the meiTU :.?;,? \ und corruption af
'heir own government when they were
n; j 1 ?ed that th?' already insufficient
supply of fool hsd become ?till more
meagre and that for some day? it
woulil be nece.si-ar, to go without
bread altogether.
Pat es1 I 'i leag -u?Tci hit- by
11 to?) much foi the
popula* <? < ' f'etrograd, who kn^w
that the ip*?? r 1 ? 1 of Rui?ia wat storel
? I til immense quantities of gram and
all i-. ins, and, a ith<<tit
an\ other motive at firnt than to voice
. mond .'o' breed I s peuple
? teta and the demon*
. san which ??Jon kindled,
into a revolution. '
I
Pro-German Bureaucrats
Caught in Their Own Trap
Russian Chiefs, Doomed to Play Kaiser's Game,
Waited Too Long Before Attempting to
Check Indignation of People
By ISAAC DON I.FVIM ?
The |ong-dr,i-.x n-out conti
the Ru?sian democracy and autocracy
has noxv end- ,1 dramatically
complete triumph of the former. The
citadel of reactionism on earth is no
more. No greater triumph for th?
cause of civilization and freedom has
l,?en registered m history since the
French Revolution.
The incalculable consequences o''
this epochal event become apparent
only from a review of the causes and
forces ' responsible for '.t. The Rus?
sian revolution is entirely a product
of the war. Had there been no xxar,
had Rusria not been allied with the
great democracies of Europe, Czarism
xvould still be rampant to-day in the
great Slavic empire.
For the forces that accomplished the
change in the Russian government are
not the usual revolutionaries of Rus?
sia. The iudustrial classes and the
peasantry which rebelled in 190a did
not lead this time. There were no
revolutionary propagandists, no agita?
tors. No separate parties and factions
existed in Russia on the eve o' the
revolt. The masses felt that some?
thing was ia the air, but they were
kept in ignorance ot the coming coup.
Pru -slanism Hated by Democracy
Ard the .eaders of the revolution
aie Russia's finest and ablest sons.
The chiefs of the armv, the Durna, the
Imperial Council, the great social or?
ganizations working for the prosecu?
tion of the war and many high court
offleials and relatives of the Czar com?
bined for the first time in Rus-ian
history, against the small cli?,ue of
(iermanophiles controlling the Ru-'-ian
government. No revolution could nee?
been successful without such a Com?
bination. And such a comb ii
could never have been created ??thou?
the issue of the present war, the
struggle b'tween democracy an?l Pru.
?lanisst,
The Russian bureaucracy made a
fatal blunder when it catered tin- xxar
on the side of France against Prus-ia.
For no two po'itical in-titutions were
??ver more closely related to each other
than Prussianism and Ciorism. The
place of Russian bureaucracy In the
great conflict ragiog to-day in Europe
was attie bv side with Prussia. Elut the
Czar's advisers realized it only when
it was too late. Their feate xxas sealed.
The future of Russia's democracy was
aaaared by Russia'? participation la
th? struggle.
When th? xxar broke out the Rus?
sian Durna ?as a conservative body
Three months later the lame Durna
xxas air? a?iy progronhro, and even
militant. How did this transforma?
tion come about? Only through the
natura of the present war.
Corruption I- Revealed
The Russian goverameut was unable
!?, meet the aaormoo? demanda mad?
upon it by the straggle without the
Darna'? eedperatioa. And whea the
conservative but honest Durna ap?
proached th, governYni-nt closely for
th? purpose of OaoperatlBg :n th?
prosecution of the war it dis?.,
the indescribable corruption, igno
raaee, incompetence and di
dominating the whole governmental
plant.
The same thinxr happened in the
army, the setnstvos sad other public
bodies that came m close contact xxith
the government in connection with the
business of the war. The appalling con?
dition* prevailing in the official organ?
ism opened the eyes even of the most
conservative and loyal citizens Men
xvho were the -t,inchest supporter? of
Csarism taraed m a short tim? into
radicals. High army officers, honest
but reaetieaory tchinovmks, patriotic
members ?,f the court, soon became
revolutionaries at heal?.
Disaster Was Expected
Rut all these elements, the Durna in?
cluded, believed that revolution m Rus
nu during tile xv.ir vxuui.l mt .1., di-asti r
te the Allied chu-? Tiny therefore
contlned their activities toward th.? im?
provement of the government. Hut their
kio ?sa was practically nil, for it soon
became apparent that the Ru-s;un gee?
t rnment was a nest of treason; that
'he pro-German elements in the court
were dominating Russia, ami that los?
ing the xxar. und not xvinnitig it, xxas
the chief uhjoct of the C/.sr's advisers.
The Minister of War, SukhomlinorT,
betrayed his country in return for Ger?
man gold. This betrayal COS! Russia
hundreds of thousands of soldiers killed
and captured anti tens of thousands of
miles ol' its ?hoieeel territory. But
this betrayal did nut proxoke the Rus?
sian democracy to revolutionary out
barst?. For this democracy did not
desire to jeopardize the Allies hy weak
.- Russia internally.
When the government, however, he
gan systematically to \xeaken Rasaia'i
rear; xxhen interna! conditions were
carefully and gradually brought to a
?tate of chaos an<l disorganization by
th? authonti?'-? themselves; when all
the efforts of certain high officials were
directed toward destroying the back
bone of the pi my -the transportation
tratest?iba leaden of the, army and
the democracy realized that the gov?
ernment was working
? ? of affairs developed ?bo it
a >ear ago. Boris Stunner, a r?-..
ary and pro-German, became Rus^.a's
Premier. Ile got his high po?t thanks
.1 H tenes of Rasputin, the monk,
laminated the Csai ead the Csar*
ina. R.isputin was the centre of a
of charlatans and German
Raaputia'a favor was
?ufficient to make one a miniat
Russia, is I a beiu-wd in s
ita peace between Russia >nd
iny, it ?a obvious why he sup
st iniii. A close collaborator
of liasputm, an International swindler
aid spy, Ifeuooeviteh-llanuilov, bo
. private secretary of the Rus?
sian Prime Minister
8 ace tuen a baale royal waa s
in Russia, a battle on which the fate
of civilisation hinged. On one side
wa a Rasputin, St?rmer, severa! court
? .y unos and some reactionary
icrata. Thase will so down in
h tory as the "dark forces." On
'?? r hand Stood the arm; . the
Duma, the nobility, the entire out on
Suffering I'nites I nuntry
Never was Rt-na -?o united a? in the
last few months. The chaos created by
the government caused the suffering
ef all. Policemen, tchinovnik, Cossues:
or workingman were alike affected by
the lack of food. In this sense, the
food difficulties precipitated the revo?
lution. For they intensified popular
feeing against the government. They
niede the people think more than ever
before. And this led to a realization
on the part of the entire nation that
the government was traitorous, lneom
petent an?i inefficient.
ares the foundation upon which
the success of the revolution rested
Tht Ros?los government had no sup?
port whatsoever in the rnnks of the
nation. It was wholly and purely the
creation of a few intriguers. It was
supported by i ot more than two or
three hundred people In the empire.
It ia true, these people were among the
most influential in the country, but
without the gurport of a large popular
following the government coud not
exist.
Conditions became critical in Russia
last November. The disorder in the
food supplie? strained the relations be
tween the government and the democ?
racy to the extreme. When the Dum?
convened the nation waited breathless?
ly for the coming developments. The
loader ef the Duma. Mlliukoff. bitterly
attacked Premier St?rmer. Thi? attack
led to the resignation of St?rmer.
Protopopoff Retained Place
For a moment it seemed that the
Duma had triumphed. Hut Protopopoff,
tl s Minister of Interior, who wa? a
proteg? of Ra?put:n und a friend d"f
Stunner, retained his post in spite of
hil protest?. The newly appointed Pre*
mier, Trep.off, wa? anxious to get rid of
Protopopoff. But the latter'! connec?
tion with Rasputin secured his position.
The situation grew more and more
acute every day.
Dark rurrjors of a separate pence
spread from Rus ?a. The army was
aroused as rever before. For the Rus
sian army wants to vindicate its He
f. at- m Poland. The Russian army
and the Russian people firmly believe
that had it not been for tho govern
'? trea?on Poland and Lithuania
would never have been lost to the
Teutons.
An attempt was made by ?nmo of tht
lending figures in the Durna and in the
army to reconstruct the government by
the elimination of Rasputin. The monk
was killed about ten w-eks ago It was
hoped that that would lend to the over?
throw of the hated Protopopoff. But
instead UVsaeood the downfall of Tre
poff. And Protopopoff's power increased
even more.
New Repressive Measure?
Protopopoff inaugurated a ?erie? <sf
repressive measures that were euleu
luted to paralyse Russia's lighting cu
paeity in a bri"'' time. The big sec n1
organizations cooperating with the War
Ministry in the prosecution of the war
VOie put hy him under police regu'a
tion. The army and the Durna made
every effort to eua! Protopopoff. Hu'
h?- was invincible. He de: ed all Russia
lie became a aaeuoeo that had to be re?
moved ut all coats
Protopopoff thus precipitated the
i evolution. Me und St?rmer are re?
port-d k.lied. That end? the career
of the "?lark force?" m Russia. All
that is eflC'ient and intelligent in that
country will now come t<i the front.
A new leaf has been turned in the his?
tory of the great S'mvlc nation.
There can be no doubt thut hence?
forth Russia will be rule?! in the man
tier of Great Britain. The fact that
Michael Rodzianko, the President of
the Durna, is the head of the executive
Committee responsible for the revolu
t'on. mea.is that Russia is to have a
tully constitutional form of severn*
ment wttn a Ministry responsible to
the Durna,
The appointment of Prince Lvoff
Premier is in itself of tremendous im
portanec. A man of high ideals and
wonderful ability, he will tirsr of all
orgunisi the nution for the prosecu?
tion of the struggle against Germany.
In this wi-irk he will have the Coopere-.
Don of th? entire nation.
Wall Street Calm
Over Russian Crisis
-
Rubles Hold Firm and Stock
Market Shows Barely Any
Effect from Revolt
Wall Street refaced tS ?" come excited I
play over tue news o' the revo-'
lution in Rasais. The stock market,!
in recent ?reek? ha? become in-'
ured to development? of a nature to
produce a shock in the financial world,
remeioed impervious to thi suggestion
that this latest political disturbance
might be fcrriaching ia It? conse
qut ncea.
Plica? Meed off somexxhat when the
repoli ?rel carne out OB the t ckers,
but tra ' ' aaytbiag, became even
more lluggiah 'han It lud been before.
Subsequent.y there was a tendency to
recovery.
The txchaog? >'..' of the Russian
ruble wa? maintained flmilv at If II
Coate, unch*ng*d from Wednesday
I.aat week the ruble ?it a new low r?c
ord of 27.? > cents. Sine? then there
has been some slight improv?>m?nt, al?
though tht value o' th? ruble still re
i.iatni far ivliw the norma! rato of
>'..? cent? '. r.? presen ..-citation rep?
resents a ataeocat of about ti per cent
The Russian government has placed
in Ulli market ?inc.? the beginning of
the vi.r two eoai aggregating *7r,,iiu",
1 la? WOI i 11 :e? j iLi is?ue for
180,000,004, ?old en I ?>?? per cent
basis, which matura* In l'Jl?. The
1 olh?r waa fet K'?.'-XiOjJO'^tutining fer'
fivo year? at Isa per cent, ?old on a;
basis to yield t>\ per cent. This issue
osaturas in Ittl.
Htsid? s the?e external operations
there have boen sale? of Russian in?
ternal bonds in large volume, taken '?
largely by ?'ecu atore, Besides these
u small amount of Russian Treasury
i derstood to be bald by a
few munitions makers, who accepted
them in lieu of cash. Also some cred?
its have been extended by New York
burks to Russian banks, though the
?mount of ?uch lending is said to be
small.
Hankers raid that they did not be?
lieve the developments "at Petragrad
would aerieualj affect the position of
these Russian ob.igations. There was,
ho'Tever, a decline yesterday in Rus?
sian aovernment honds fiuoted in this
mark", the >*aa falling from s;tN ,,,
II . ?? loss of I', points on dealings ,
of 150,001 The llfea, on dealing? of
f i i 0 " , sold 'lorn ^?-i ?| to 14H They
c1 ed Wednesday a' 15 Quotations1
on RusaiSS nternsl bonds here were
proeticaUy unchanged.
TRY
KNABE
TUNERS
FOR YOUR PIANO
437Fifth?ve.
Phoa*-3CK)!Vdfiaerbih
????^^?^^^*^****#??************?*ja*f*f**?
Soldiers, Priests
And Workmen
In Duma's Army
Thousands Flock to Parlia?
ment Building to Join
Civilian Forces
Rebels Cheer for
British Attache
Colonel Engelhard, a Deputy,
Is Placed in Command
at Petrograd
Petrograd, March 15. The scene at
the Durna before the revolution was in
full Barn? xxas ?xtraerdiaary. The mem
bcrs stood about the broad corridors
talking calmly, the serious priest mern-j
:.g black goxvn?, with flow?
ing hair, ead members from th?; prov?
inces in top boots and blousen mingling
with well groomed und frock-coated
representative?.
At the front gates the troop? began
to assemble. They xvcre without arms.
They were revolting rsgimeuts. One
body, in marching order, entered the
side gate and halted before the en?
trance. A Durna member spoke from
the steps, explaining the attitude of
that body and assuring the regiments
that the Durna was with them.
Army of Civilian Soldiers
Auto trucks, packed witn men, ?o'.
?hers and civilian?, with and without
arms, rolled up tile circular drive an?.
stopped before the door while some
occupant delivered a lurid oration, and
then went on. cheere?! by the crowds.
Then came a small army of civilian
solders, factory workers, clerke, stu?
dents armed with ritte? taken from the
captured arsenals, their pale faces and
black winter clothing ''orming a ?'range
picture agains' the snow piled high in
the Durna garden.
For an hour they atood in more or
less military formation before tht
building and at dus* marcued away
toward the centre of the city, followed
by the revol'ing soldiers. The crowd
xxas extremely orderly.
A group o? a du/en soldiers puaheo
into the corridor al the building ?ml
?.emanded to be allowed to ??dresa the
members. A mild mannered young
civilian of the student type took' them
in hand with a little difficulty and led
then into the open.
A delegation auk-til for food. Im
mediately waitera from the Durna re?
aurant were sent out with tray? of tea
und food until the ['lace mus cea:
out.
I heer llrltish Attache.
There wa? a characteristic
xvhen the mutinous soldiers occupu
the arsenal. The Hnt.sh military a'
tache wa? lound there and wa? cheer? ,
by the leldiers, who gov? h m a gil., i
of honor to see him safely to the em
bessj building Crewda ?No guthere,
around the British Embassy
?heeied heartily.
The me m be i s of tie Imperial Cou1
eil ?em a etoaoags to Emperor Nieln.
las oui lin; 11 conditions and recom
rneniling a change in the .1.tenor po.
icy in BOCordaae? With the decisiu
of the Durna and the dismissal 1?
the present Cabinet and a,iv ia ; ?,*
reorganisation m actoidance with th?
desires of the people and their rep
.?uves. Tile meSMgO boretwe.
ignatu
rhs Itewl, organised revolution?r
army, xxhose numu-ra are grown
hourly, is indar sommaad of Colon?
EngUherd, of the General Staff, wh
I? a.-o a member ot the Durna. Un?
after another roriou? dattchmsatS ap
peered at the Durna ?some with then
stundards i.i.d officer?. As fast as
they reported tiley .xere formed into
battalion? and assigned to peet? Tai
president of the Imperial Council, J
(,. 1 ihtehog ovitotT, va? arreated uni
placed nedor guard in the Durna build?
ing.
The stu?tent bodies were appealed to
by the new government committee to
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