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?re-and and America
. BBatod mary times .
and by many of Its KnR-lish friends to ex- ?
an opinion upon the necessity of a
: -h question, Invari
nlily . ..- i'crn p .'
Amer.-a:. ; I and UM effect of
the Irish question upon American pub
. ? '>n.
There is no more difficult tiling than to
orhal li a do
. - nation -without
arousing the resentment O? that nation.
To say that the Irish problem is and re?
mains the erratest clsta-.-.e to a complete
accord between the United States and
Great Britain is to say something univer- ;
?.ally recognized in America?, but when
I hound to arouse protest in Great
face with another proposal to
;et'.le the Irish question. American com?
ment will necessarily be influenced by two
thir.gs: By the recognition that the Irish
question is primarily and in a sense en-'.
tirely a British question and hy similar
?efjaMfllitian of the fact that not until the
Irish question is settled will there cease to
le an ar.tatronism to Great Britain in this
country, fundamentally, perhaps, Irish in
its origin, but nevertheless enlisting the
\n-pathy and the support of a consider?
able non-Irish element.
If to-morrow there could be an an
n-mnccment that the Irish question had
leen in ?-"me measure even accommodated,
the effect in the United States would be
very great an 1 4 ery immediate. Those
who sympathize most ?*ith the Allied
cause, those who are most friendly to Eng
. will be the first to recognize how
great vvould be the advantage in this !
country and fat the Allied cause of such a
Militan ?Bit. 1 ',vi'-.cr hesitatingly they
may say i'.
The proposal that has now been made by j
Mr. Lloyd George has nothing of novelty
in it and ha? little immediate promise of
acceptance by the Irish themselves. The1
inly question tba' one ?ray a-k to-day is
whether the sincerity of the British gov
inimerit in making its new proffer will be
m Tmt igniied bj the BIBBS' of the Irish people.
9 If the Irish people as a mass believe that
the British are sincere in their proposal,
as almost everybody ehM in the world will
i.ow believe, it 4\ould not be difficult to
reach a solution ultimately.
li seems to The Tribune that never in
th" lone history of Anglo-Irish relations
lia? there he n a noora honest, more carne-t
desire 00 the part of the Knglish to reach
a settlement which ?-hall be jool and hon-!
(rabie. It seems to The Tribune that it j
should be recogni/.cd in this country that j
the proposal which is now being made is a !
proposal made in good faith and made
with the hope that It may at the least offer I
a bridge by which one may cross the chasm
dividing the two peoples.
No man ian say in what spirit Ireland
will accept the proposal and no man can
pretend that unless it is accepted in the
spirit in which it is made there is hope
of a solution U>-daj or to-morrow. Ameri?
cans will hop? that the latest proffer will
l?o accepted B1 '.at as a basis of confer?
ence and cooperation. They will recognize
that not all or most of the obstacles now
Dg Bl i . ?*lisb. They will recognize
that unie?*? there is a new spirit in Ireland,
?i.? then* stOUtA lo bo in Kngland, a great
tragedy will not finally come to an end.
The I'nited States as a nation has no
right to interf?ra ia the domestic affairs
of (?nat Britain. The neiv relations be?
tween the t4vo countries do not ehanjre this
fact. Nothing could he more complete
than the absence on the part of the British
of any effort to manipulate within our po?
litical system during the last two years
;.--i! a half. A ?;nrilar attitude is now de?
ll anded ?if the Amen
\" Am? ru-ari can now go beyond the
.i? i t that the settlement of the Irish
ii would bo th** greatest contribu?
tion to ? .'ai.lishiiiji the Allied cause in
Amenta that is conceivable. This is not
to aay that a solution is possible; this is
not to ap'Kirtion the blame for any failure
. ed the Knglish and the Irish; this bj
i ot to assert that it is a duty on the part of
(???cat Britain because of old or new rela
lions with the United States to ?hainge the
order of her domestic affairv This j?
merely to state the ?imple fact that a Mt
tlement would create a profound change In
many quarters in tin? country In the feei?
ng and attitude toward the Kngli"h and
complete the renewal of ancient relation?
ship and the estahlishment i^f a neal ?yin
ja'.hy vvi'h the British peopl-.
At the Front at Last
\ Sigfc Or? lohef and I Bl and
devout cheer? will le the ?espon-o of
American"; to the news that our destroyers
have actually taken up their offshore task
m British water?. It ha- been a long wait.
Over two year? have pasted sime the first
(?crman attain, mi American* m these self?
same waieis. At times it ha- seem? I g
?:' we should never a^unic mir share in
the fight against pira, y.
Now we are at the front at 1a<-t. It i
an important ?action of the fimit thal ara
enter, probably the must important of all
fur many months to come. Our destroyers
are excellent craft, ami wo have every
faith in Hear Admiral Sinis and bil men. a
faith boin of a brave past and looking t?>
a victorious to-mon HW . We shall not now
spend time m regretting that our fleet of
submarine chasers i so -mall and that val
nable time may elapse before our first
Iron ?an i"- reinforced hy the hun?
dreds of les*er , raft 'hat must follow. Wo
'hall only re?oive tha- what has now been
begun shall he carried through to the e:id
with every resource of will ami material.
Our flag is on the li'ing line. Wo ?hall
keep it there until it prevails.
The War First
Wide aril] be the envy of our correspond?
ent who writea of marvellous unreinem- '
bered birds te be seen for the looking in
Madison Square. All will hope that in the
course of time even-body will return to '
such cheerful begu?enient?. l'or the pres?
ent they can only take a moment's pleas?
ure in his calm report, and then return to
the one subject that makes,all das, even
spring and its better days, a vain business.
We Americans passed through much th?*
same spiritual experience in ihe early
days of the war-when the greatest war in
history really meant something in terms
of human beings and before our imagina?
tion? crumpled under the strain of untold
horrors and enormities. Then followed a
long period when we vent about our busi?
nesses much a? usual, observing birib? in
the park and what not else. To-day the
var is nearer than ever before. We nie
beginning to feel as overwhelmed as wat
Mr. Britling when the truth first took pos?
session of his soul. We should like to be
1 eguiled by other thing", but we simply
Some day when wa have .begun to settle
into our stride a? a nation, and feel that
at la?t our enthusiasm and will to help
are counting in a definite, practical, mighty
organization toward a single goal, we shall
probably In* able tu relax and think of
other things. Meantime wo can be very
grateful to the veenes and the thrasher?
and the yellowthroat- for sticking to their
jobs and reminding us that cheerfulness
and calm still exist on this troubled globe,
and may even again bo our own portion in
tho passage of the years and sea-oir. over
Madison Square ami ihe world in general.
]n ?>ur opinion th* outcry Bgainsi in
creased second class postal rates and the
use of the zone system in graduating these
rates is meretricious and unjustified. No
rbuse of long standing can be rooted out
without ?railings and gnashing* of teeih on
the part of its beneficiaries. The flat rate
charge for second class is such an abuse.
So is the notorious undercharge on secon 1
class matter from which certain publica
tions have long drawn an undeserved profit.
Wl have bad tO wait foi a war ta>; bill
sweeping beyond all precedent to gc' rid
of these two abuses. Tha' is the usual
story of progress. We bad to wait many
decades before we could g*'t the parcel
! .> stem reformo.) ami modernized. The
( \prcss companies and other powerful spe
c al interests Stood in UM way. They
wanted to restiut the sise of packages
carried by the postcflice, and they wai.lo I
i. retain the flat rate, -.?m-e its retention
would make it impossible for the govern?
ment to attempt pan?! carrying mi g larg?'
scale. Tiny lost their tight eventually;
but they kept our postoflice d"iritr bus neat
?.n an archaic plan long after most of the
other countries of the world had realized
the possibilities and public benefits of a
scientilic parcel po.-t system.
So now the exigencie? of the war trill
enable the government to shake off the grip
of those who have been using the mails for
decades at a charge far below the co.! ?if
the service. No one ?lonies that the Poet
Sanee Department loses a huge sum every
\?ar on second class business. It is hard
t , ggvy what the deficit i- S.VI.OIMI.OOO of*
swt.ooo.oou os ?]oo.ooo.ooo. when Con?
gresH is seeking to utilise every possible
source of new revenue and to close ever)
existing channel ^f wash? it is obvious
that H readjustment ought to be made by
which seem ,1 ? la?-s mail i-hall be conrp. !'? |
te pay g larger share of ihe actual cost of
! handling it.
Beeoaad class mail is bulky, ii oaght te
le subject tu the discriminations of the
li rif haul an?l the short haul. There is no
reason why the government should charge
as much for carrying publications from
New York to Philadelphia as for carrying
i them from New York to San h ra;.. .,,,..
The low 'bit rate ia ?MI anachronism. It
is a suivrai from the ?lays winn the coun?
try was sparsely settled, when there w. re
relatively few publications, nncentrntad
in a few Pastern ??ties, and when in the
interest of the diffusion of kimvvlcdg?. it
seemed sound public policy to encourage
a wide circulation of magazim?* aro! news?
Thoa* conditions have passed away. The
ancient argument is still made that the
publications which enjoy the greatest bene?
fit from the flat low rate exercise a potent
educational influence. But thi? i? mostly
buncombe. A prominent magazine Bash?
li<-hrr. in a letter the other day to Chairman
?Kitchin of the Mouse Ways and Mean<=|
| ' ommittee, frankly admitted that thi" edu?
? ;it lorial influer. ?J bj largely mythiia!.
The lo\\ flat rate has been, in fact, noth?
ing but a ?iitiHily paid to publications of
general i irculation. We do imt -"n why
that sub<-idy should be , ontinued. The ar ?
gUinent. made on Wednesday by the Mer- |
i I BBtS1 KxsmW iation of tin?? city agairw the I
.mi- system of rate-? la system whlchj
i .1 m the postal (haine in each u?" com?
mensurate bo sonic extent with tiie value j
of flu oBrviea given? prove? far too much.!
If, M tho asoosHation sa*.-, there are pe
nodical- whick i-anin't exist mice they are
i ailed on to pay mote m-rmal DtMtttl rales,
then it li cloai thal theoo perwdieali ure
living on the liounty of the ?govemnien*.
They an* no1 ?elf-BUltaining. They main?
tain their" i in -illation only through the ;
The imrci-o of SBCOSld (la?-- rates and;
the graduation of them under ? /.one SJ/B-|
tem ate ;t step fm ward 4vliich W? -hal', owe |
to 44ar. Bul tin- step would have come
soutier or later, even without 4iai ; tot ii.
represents only fair ?b'aling and cum
Inviting Industrial Strife
.i i- of the prime requisites for the -in
Ceaafol prOBOCation of America's war lal
the e-tahli.-hment ol' a practical working
community of interest between capjtal and
labor. Nothing could be more fatal to!
both groups m the community ami to the j
community itself than to carry into this
\.ar period the industrial strife which too
frequently m peace tunes bus led to vast
lost of money, of energy, even of life,
'i his has been recognized by spokesmen for |
organized labor, who have pledged their!
effort? to the prevention of industrial dis-,
putes and strikes, provided employers
made no attempt to exploit the workers :
under the neiv conditions. It has been j
recognized by intelligent and public ;
spirited employers, who have bound them- !
selves to work for the desired cooperation
In view of this. President Wilson's con?
cern over any movement which would
smash this unity is manifestly justified.
"I have been very much alarme 1 at one or
two things that have happened-at the ap?
parent inclination of the legislatures of
one or two of our states to set aside even
temporarily the laws which have safe?
guarded standards of labor and of life," he
declares. "I think nothing would be more
(?eplorable than that." The President could
not have described more accurately if he
had mentioned it by name the Brown bill
enacted by this state's Legislature, em?
powering the Industrial Commission to
suspend all labor laws for the duration of
the war and two months thereafter. It
4\ould be, indeed, deplorable if that bill,
mistaken economically and wholly inde?
fensible on the humanitarian side, should
become law. Such a law would beyond a
peradventure produce industrial unrest
and all too probably industrial strife in
stead of cooperation and harmony. It
would make a mockery of the endeavor to
unite capital nid labor for the nation's
good, It would array das- against class,
the great mas-- of the exploited against
As the President so truly and eloquently
Pays, this 4var is a light fur democracy in
r* larger sense than is expressible in polit i
i al terms. To deprive workers of existing
safeguards does not jibe with that spirit.
The Brown bill would sanction such dep?
rivation lo the uttermost limit. Not male
workers alone, bul women and children,
muid be driven to exhaustion. Night work
and Sunday vork, all the evils of the
sweatahops and the canneries, would be re?
vived. Safety and sanitary regulations
would go by the board and all to no pur- j
pose, for overwork inevitably lessens pro?
duction, a? Great Britain's experience has
proved. The only beneficiaries would be
grasping employers who swelled their
profits ?it the expense of flesh and blood,
of the workers.
These considerations of economics and
humanity wen* disregarded by the law
makers' in passing this bill. It is to he
hoped they will not be disregarded by Got
ernor Whitman, who by vetoing this mea
ure can un.lu the I-egi slat lire's mistake.
The President has pointed out the great
dangen ami farnaddng cons?quences of
such legislation. New York State should
Dot jeopardize bo any degree the safety of I
this nati'ni by placing such a needless, : ndi
B shameful, statute on the la\4- hooks.
ITie Boys Who Never Grew Up
TO I UK TOEEION LEGION
If 'hr howl be ?f pole and thr hmJUOt of flame.
\Ylmt if puimni tie in the rup
If the meiden tu feit mir SOBtfa in the game. I
If lui- kisses bs '?Kith we'll Ides hut thr'
. " nu .
SIIII? the Legion of Hoya Who N'ever Grow
Blind 44 nli the blindness of Youth, but \\ it li
all of it
? loaror of viaiea than soars I ihe refrain
"France is bOBOt" ?mote their cars, and the
call of it
Wuk" the hoy drcutiiers from Nippon to
i S pin li.
I Boors irinn th?* Veldt and Hidalgoes from
A i ?t?-on,
1044IIH., from Argentine, Yankees from
Raes ?o' tha ? a Bl from Vente?* to Taragon
Kallicil ta I ranee, to play soldier again.
? the Tri color, long khaki files of them.
Throiigh the ?oile. do44ti the (hamp?
K14 -. .
Marched, \4lule gnsettes blew their HSSOS to
miles of them,
And oi.ly the old hrj.hed the tear ?*ain?
ii 44 a \
0 ' ikon tin erOWS spread their ominou?
Shad04Mi-.g FiEi.ee from Nancy to Fay,
Singing, thfy BBBKBOd 'gainst the Kai-er's
Singing the Boag of Boj hood at play.
If the hu.. I be of o"l<t nn<l Ihr Hemmt of fl",ue
M'hiit if poison lir in thr rup'
If the mnnlen hr fuir ,,"r ",ul , ,n the qnme.
It h.r ? ..#..? '., death we'll kit, JU,t the
At the lecion of boys ?ho 44,1) ,ievfr Krow
ap! I HARLKS LAW WATKINS. I
The Somma, L>?*Mj?mbi'r, 1916.
This Way for .Spring!
The Wonderful Month of May Moves
Into Madison Square
To the K-litor of The Tribune.
Sir: The followinr; lord? ?ere in Ma<li'on
Squaio on the evening of t'ie K,th:
(.ne Maryland yollowtbr*Bt
i-o 1?iv? li?e ?
I MI brown thrasher?.
( ?ne v . ? .
i lae ? sibil*,
Twolv? ?>v ? n bird
Twelve ?>r mer? whit? throated sparrow?
The oven bird? a"" easily identified by then j
gold?* crown? ami by the fad that they walk. |
Their breast I ure marked with brown.
(?ne might ?poad H day in tb? Weeda and
BOl ?ee ?o many vanotic?. OB* ?f tbl Irish
gardeaan ipok? of th? tbraaber a? ?i "Jai M | '?
thru?!'." mu? aaked m? if I kaew the ?onie of1
the "Iriih ibraih.*1 Of tears* I didal refer)
IO I?,hu Mci orma.k. I ?MEA BEEBEE.
New- V..ik. May IS, 111 I
Superior to the Metropolitan
To the Editor of IT?' Tribune
Sir: Ma? i laderas ihe lntei ?..' Mr. Han
is praise ?f tb? Beeiet] ??f AaterieaB Wagers'
B?rf*rataaeet al iii?* Lyceum Theatre? When j
he wiites of the superiority ?it their work to,
that of ama] ?f the forolg* artist* ?t the
big, mipoi tant, expensive Metropolitan he
-av? BO more 1 ban the truth. Wlmn have we
. ?1 a peifonaaaee in that stately insti?
tution a? tiie Lyceum audience? enjoy those
of those little operas" The acting of the'
native artists i? far above that of the foreign
?lager*, while thr characterisations given
i?y Mr. K11??. Mr. Bisabas?, Misa Kaston-Mc-:
Leaaan, Mis? Haward sad Mr, Mimili e**uld
ortainl) ehalleage histrionic eestparises
anyvvhei. V .nmpatiy which bo??ts of tl.e
Borrica? of these ladies, and Miss Gates and;
Mi?s Garrison to boot, is certainly to be con- :
gratalated upon the ?core ef beauty, while
the whole entertainment moves with a snap
and a go, which, though it comes partly from
tho fact that the audience follows, every word
of the text, !s certainly most unusual in any
perfenaaae* which bears the dignified name
I am familiar with "The Mock Doctor" In
the provincial French theatres, and in the
Komische (?per in Berlin, and can assure
the American Biagers that their performance
was lauaoaiarablj aaperior to any l ever saw
there. Not only was the staging ol' a far
higher erado of excellence, rspenallv that of
1'..ti.1 bj Mr. ( ?almora, but. the whole
perfenaaaee wai men refiaed, and Mis?
Howard*? interpretation of the character of
biiiiiii'line. which foreign taste or lack of it
broadens: mid eoarseTls, added greatly by
its delightful lightness to the ensemble. I
am not so familiar with European interpre
., ona of the other work?., but they would
probably stand comparison t-?|ually a? well.
It will b<- n reflection upon the artistic
appreciation of the richest city in the world,
fri'in which it will not soon recover, if this
organisation I? allowed te di? from lack of
?unpoit. Let us all try to help the American
Singer?, regardless of w.-r price!
M. DE I". BRATTON.
New York. May IS, 1*17,
Less I heology in National Songs
To the Kditor of The Tribuno.
Sir: A national nong should be dignified,
appropriate and ?legaba*. "The Star-Spar.
rrled Kanner" is none of these.
"Oh, say!" la certainly not dignified.
It is not appropriate. It is founded on a
single incident in a war with our mother
country, a country with which we have been
Bl peace far more than a hundred years, and
with which we uri- now actually allied in a
war f?.r the preservation of American ideals,
ah ich arc the ideals of civilization. Why
shoubl our national ?ong be everlastingly
recalling a ?iiiarrcl with our best friends?
There is nothing appropriate about that.
it is not singable. Everybody know? that.
Iii?- h?>st tuno that we have for a national
?ong is ".lohn Une? II." II IS true that the
"Hat'lo Hymn of (he Republic" I? ?BBg m
that tune, but tin* words of that lv 11111 do not
fill th" bill. "Mine eyes have ?ecu the glory
of the coming of the Lord" savors too 1
much of the Kaiser's idea of graciously be
slow log a junior partnership on the Lord in
tbl conduct of public affairs. It weald seen.
to be mer? appropriate to have a national
?de ?lea! leal B th theology and more With I
our not the Lord's responsibility to defend '
ami m*int*in the principles of liberty and
"America" eanno! bo sung to the tune of1
".li'hn Brown." If it could the combination]
might be ideal. Hut even then it might be
well to amend "Sweet land of liberty'' by
lubatltatiag "Deat lan.) of liberty." "Sweet"'
i a little bit too ?aeehariaa ii such a place
I'. II. LAM,WORTHY.
W ,rrrn. Penn.. May If, l'.'l?.
Wanted-A Way to Help
To the Kditor of Ihe Tribune.
Sir: ! wa- n.uch interested in Miss Doris
r Irviag*? QBery in yesterday's Tribune as to
how- a business woman may ?io her bit, I.
tu??, foci that whit? tb? various courses and
elaase? which women of leisure are taking
up to fit them for service arc not available
for the working woman there must be ways
in which she could employ some of her eve-I
Biaga to her country's profit. There are
Btaaj patriotic activities ?n which men are
.agaged ?ut of baaiaeaa hour?, but the organ
? ,1 \??>rk of the women is ?lone dur tig the
??ay. and hence we who toil are excluded.
Ml - Irviag baa releed the feeiiaga, I am
sure, of a laroo number of us who, trained to
v, <>rk ead eager to help, could surely be use?
ful if some one would ?bow u< tho way.
Now *i "i k, May la, Ifl7.
v ailing a Brute a Brute
To the Kditor of The Tribune.
Sir: Jail now I saw your editorial "Why
They Po It" lu The Tribune of May 8, and I
em so pleased with its truth and courage of
statement I feel I should so advise you and
e\pr.?s my hearty approval. I admire your
Bra] ?I hew rig cl.jse to th?. line of truth, re
gardle-s of who may be hit by the chips, and,
your courage to "cell a spade a spa?le." Youri
using the words, "brutes." "brutal" and "scien?
tific barbarism" are fully ju?tit'ed. I hope
y*B will keep up this good work of boldly'
holding up the mirror of publicity on Ger-1
many'? doings the la?t thirty-four month?.
R. H LANYON:.
( hieago, May 12. 1!MT
A Vacation at Haymaking
To ?h? Kditnr of The Tribaae
Sr: I Will have two WOO**1 vacation dur-i
ing haying time in Julv. and am willing to!
spend it on a farm where an experienced man
WOald he wanted Whet* ?lo I applv? Hat
not New York State a Labor Board to handle
Thanking you for your attention.
E. JAY SANFORD.
Krookfield ('enter. C*BB . Mai If, lui?
I Write to the New York Slate Kmployment
Bureau al Alban). Ed J
War Censorship in England
By Arthur S. Draper
FIRST ARTI* LE
N?. minor issue of the war has aious?d met*
latSteet throughout (ireat Britain than the
ban which has been placed on the foreign ?ir- '
culation of "Ihe \at.iui." n Liberal weekly.'
edited by EL W. Mas ingham. The House ?.!
i ?names* devoted ?everal hours of It? tala?
nble time to a di?cu??ion of the case. The ,
Prime Minister found it necessary to defend
Ihe government's action; the House of Lords j
debated the question; th Baglitk pro- hu..
printed column- of pro!.?1
I have had loag talks ?vith Mi. Massing
ham and studied tlooilj th? IpOOChea of the ?
Prime Minister. Mr I'.i.nar Lav? and Lord
Derby ia which they justified and explained
the principles by which the censois are
guided in their difficult task?. Censer inp
is - uch a bread, vital laaae of tb? war ii
may be worth while for American ro*d?r*
in consider the ?piestion in the light of Brit?
ain's experience after three yean si arar.
On the ?url'ace the fat* of ""'I lie Nation"
i? of comparatively little consequence in
these tunes of world changes ami epoch mak?
ing event?, but it serves as a text for a con?
sideration of censorship ia general. Mr.
Masslagaes*. has thi weight of press opinion
on Ins ?ide; he has the support of nearly
every writer and editor of Kngland, whether
Liberal or Conservative, warlike or pacifist.
I have full details of the actions loading
up to the final decision t* prohibit the ex?
port of "The Nation." I have talked with
Mr. Massingham and know his views of the
prohibition and the war In general. This
is a domestic ?luestion. which should he set?
tled easily and quickly, but it contains a
lesson America should learn ami profit by.
for the censorship of the I'nited S'ntes will
wield a tremendous influence upon the course
of the war.
"The Nation" Kpisode
The history of the latest episode ia the
life of "The Nation" can be traced briefly.
Its Issue of March .'! contained an article by
It* military critic maintaining that Britain
lind been slow in following up the retreat?
ing German? and that the withdrawal amount?
ed to a strategic defeat of the Allies. This
?.omtnent was reproduced verbatim by the
(ierman wireless service as propaganda ma?
terial. The article. W8! not, however, en?
tirely responsible for the ban: it was the
last straw which forced the War Office to
act because it considered "The Nation" wa?
"habitually" trying ,0 bring about peace bv
negotiation and building up a "stalemate"
)n the minds of the public to strengthen
With hardly an exception The Nation's"
supporters have made it plain that they do
not accept nor approve the views expressed
by the military writer In "The Nation." but
that their protest was based on the broad
ground that there must be freedom of opin?
ion and comment. Their argument was tha!
if the policy of prohibition was carried to
.attreaaes there would be a ga?;-ru!e of the
press, which is not the general conception of
the proper way to conduct a press censorship
.ii a democratic country. Such a censor "lip
would bl based on the premise that all offi?
cials are always right and therefore above
criticism; whereas the advocates of a free
pr?s* hold that the people should have all
the facts and decide the case on its merits.
If the people of a democracy are qualified to
select their leaders, the press reasons that
they are qualified to judge tho?e leaders and
there must be freedom of opinion if they are
to judge fairly. The supporters of "Ihe
Nation" are firmly agreed Britain's cause is
hurt more by the ban on the publication than
by any encouragement it could give to the
The German System
No one can lay down hard and fast rules
for a censor; you cannot measure opinion by
a yardstick or weigh it hy the pound. Any
censorship depends largely upon the person
ality of the censor. There is one exception.
That i| one where iron-clad rulen are en?
forced, forbidding the publication of any
kind of criticism military, naval or political.
In Britain there is supposed to be no censor?
ship of political news and comment; in Ger?
many there is a drastic oensorsh p of every
thing. But (ierman newspapers and period
icals are just as much a part of the state
and under ils order as are the army and
navy. They say what Prussian autocracy
wants to say; certainly not always what the
(ierman people feel and believe. Thai* are
two sides to the question whether this i? the
proper thing to do in war to attain the high
A Year of Bungle
Only I rench Fire Can Put Kfnciency
Into Our Army
To the Kditor of The Tribune.
Sir: 1 have just read the very BBbiassod
article of the "Rejected Candidate" and also
the splendid editorial on "The Military Value
of tho A. B." I have served three years in
the regular army in the artillery, and I BBSI
service a? a first sergeant, of the Signal
("orps during the Spanish-American War. In?
cidentally. I am a college graduate. I have
followed very closely all of the plans for
forming IBS new army. Perhaps I am wrong,
but it seemed to me that it wa? a broad
minded act on the part of the Army Board
to try to get college graduates interested in
becoming officers. It is true that many of
our college graduates are merely oseli
beings with the A. B. tacked to them. The
4*.orld would never know th.-4t they had had
any education unless they could ?how that
A. B.; but such graduates are in the minor?
ity, and these very few men are not encour?
aged to train for a conimin>>ion. But, all other
things being equal, the man 441th the college
' ' ilueation will be of more value as an officer
during the next four or five year? of the
4-.ar than the man with only a high school
training, no matter ho4v thorough that train?
ing may be.
The officer? of thi? first army Brill have
fearful responsibilities thrust upon them.
After the first half million men are killed or
wounded, any competent officer will he lead?
ing a regiment or a brigade instead of a
company. If ?irving on staff duty he will
have responsibilities now undreamed of. In
the light and heavy artillery, in the engineer
corp?, in the ordnance department and in the
quartermaster'? department there will be
thousand? of the mo?t complicated problems
to be ?olved problems, for the most part,
that must be ?olved by the officer himself, on
the ?pot and with little superior guidance.
Just the question of range finding alone in?
volve? a knowledge of college mechanic? und
prn'ie? and college mathematics which no
high ?ehool boy has had or can even grasp.
In the handling of heavy artillery there are
1 que?t:ons of electricity, elevation? and ?ir
preisure which tax the mind? of the bright?
est men Then there are grave question? of
civil and military law, food, transportation,
coordination, efficiency and morale.
To be sure, if there were lime our corre?
spondent could be prepared to undertake
many of these responsibilities But the
training time i? abort. Kverything must be
done under the pressure of limited time. The
new officer? will have a little concentrated
of the nation; but there is !
is SO far a? democracies are ron
earned. Thal is the opposite to what the'
Gorssaa ajororBsaoBt i< taking
[, . t of 44-,'ir pass on? flame high.
!,?.'.'i-tic-- o' "tin--? alSBOOl fanatical and ?en?e
ol' proportion ii ?BSaotisaOS I"*1 Frequently
th? i small! tni!il-mannered, temperate editor
tarai fraatle; ba thro4v? hi? ?lait? of hatred
" enemy; ii?- grows su-?picious of his.
colleagues who preserve their calm and count
the cot of the 44iir not only to the enemy
? -, th? . "'ii country. The editor of
. I . i Muiiche-t'i- Cuardian" once told me he
ne4r*r allowed th" '4',ril "Hun" to appear in
his paper. "TBS duardihn" ha* been abused,
attacked as pro-'icrmiin. but to-day it? tem?
perate time li appreciated everywhere, and
when it arraigns the (.erman-t for their
atroiit.es Ita indictment becomes doubly
Kipling and the < ensor
I...ty ard Kipliag ?ia? iieei, ?.c-.erely criti?
cised N.Or publishing a ?tory of a
'iernuin aviator 4vho fell in Kngland and was
fooad fatall] injured hy an Knglish woman
44 ho refoaed to help hm because ?he had
suffered fruin a Zeppelin attack. The strong?
est of Ins critics MU? a periodical which has
hurled invective at the enemy all through the
arar ami does so to-day, but considers Mr.
I Kipling's story an indictment of British
\4 mi', ti.hood.
Britain ha* had three (rosi?1 experience of
leonaorshlp; from tlau to time she ha?
grumbled and complained; she knows little
| to-day of the immense SOBtOrshtp organ?
ization thal BBS lowl| '.?.en created, but if
that organization *.va? -?uddenly thrown ns.de
disastroOS results would nlmost certainly foi
? Straajja as ii may Moss,thors ii m (?rea*
Britain to-day no proaa eOBSorship properly
so called. The British journalist is bound
by tat sajne law which governs every other
Briton. He is not compelled to ?ubmit his
art des to the cen?or; he has that privilege
! if he desire? to take advantage of it. Many
| British journalists submit nothing to the
I censor, preferring to publish articles on their
. own responsibility and to take the conse
I quences if these articles violate the law.
This is an extremely important point for
. consideration by America. They should de
?lide at once 4vhcther the British system is
; preferable or whether it is advisable to cen
? sor everything before its publication. The
sakoaaa of the British system is that the
damage is done before the public prosecutor
can take action; he locks the stable after
.the hots** BBS ma away. It is of little value
to pros.eeu*e an editor after he has committed
tl-.e crime of giving information un4vittingly
to the enemy. On the other hand, the cen?
sorship of a 1 i.i'.cles M a task of immense
proportions. Again, the judgment of most
editors is aaasaallj; good, and this war has
proven that their patriotism almost invari?
ably checks their natuial instinct, to "score
a beat" over thtlr journalistic rivals.
Press Bureau Only Ad4??cs
Biitain has what it calls a Press Bureau.
Kditors can go there and get advice as to
what matters, if published, might bring them
into the law court.?, not as newspaper men. but
as private citizen-. If an article is subnvt
ted to tile Press Bureau and the censor de?
letes certain paragraphs there is nothing to
prevent the editor from publishing these very
paragraphs, but. should the public prosecutor
bring action, which he is almost certain to
do. and should he obtain a conviction, the
?entence would naturally be doubly severe.
"The Nation," for instance, seldom, if ever,
submitted its art.des to the Press Bureau.
Many other periodicals which have continued
' to publish their articles uncensored right
: through the war could be mentioned. Time
; after tims thojr have been able to "score
beats" (HIT their rivals who submitted the
same ar'ielcs to the censor, and had his ad
, rsrsa opinion. Complaint after complaint has
I been made to the censor, but all he can do is
, t,, advise the public prosecutor to act. The
i ttor knows the difficulty of obtaining a con
I viction, and ?o the conscientious can only
smile and profit.
'ITie British ecn?or makes a ?harp distinc
jt:on hoterooa home and foreign consumption
of nowa. In the country of origin great lati
' tude M allo44.-d. l-'or example. "The Nation"
, is porssitted to circulate freely in fireat Brit'
lam. hut its i yport is forbidden. I must n?v
1 asaarily submit overything I 4\*rito to the co?
lor; I can do nothing on my own rsBpBBBJ
bility. As a newspaper man I am treated like
. any one else 4vho desires to convoy informa
| '.ion to America. If John Jones, m London,
'-.ants to toll his mother in Boston that she
'i- now a grandmother, he BBOBt submit hi?
I cable message or letter containing the good
instruction from superiors. They will have
"..> grasp years of work in three or four brief
month?. II ia a long prVCOia from iron oro
to the Hnllhed steel cannon; that ia why the
munition maker is now commencing with
steel already finished t?.? rush through the
ftnilhed gun, and that is why the Army
Board must commence with the college man
rather than with the high school graduate.
It is not ? question of H college graduate or
one who is not. It i? a <|iic?tion of start?
ing with tho?.. who have the highest train?
ing. If there were time, mental examina?
tions could be held, but these would take
weeks and months. The State Regents have
not yet finished reading the high school ex?
aminations given in .lanianry.
New, as to the waiting and the apparent
helplessness in Interviewing candidates.
What you have observed is not a circum?
stance to what you will see dining the next
year. The army and army officials thrive on
wa ting, hur?!'! ag, changing of plans arid all
kinds of inefficiency. Nor is this the fault
! of the officers of the army. They have been
schooled III this very sort of thing by having
to come and go at. the whims of Congress
and Congressional committee?. In the Span?
ish-American War and on the border com?
manders would rout out their men live hours
before H call just, to be sure that they would
the on time. The men would stand idle for
hours waiting waiting. But you will see
thousands of serious delays from now on for
the next eighteen months heart rending <!<.
lay?. ,? iii-re thoUBBBdl of lives will be lost,
due directly to changeableness and dallying.
Then you mention the flippancy of one offi?
cer. Please don't min?! that. These officers
?.re not angel-. .lust now they are being
v orked to death. The Brmy is short-handed
at every turn. The majority of army offi
ii-rs are exceptionally fine men, broad-minded
and sympathetic; the rest are made of pretty
poor material to begin with, and it is a
wonder that they make out as well a? they
do under these trying circumstances. Not all
lawyers or judges are perfect in disposition.
From now on all must be worked out in a
hurry, and with no certainty of perfection.
Bungling, waiting, more bungung and more
araitiag, that will be the story of the first
year of the war. But after that thing? will
gradually righ? themselves. Marvellous and
VMinderful chances will take place. Even
your flippant officer will change hi? snobbery
for something better. Hi? disposition and
his innermost heart will change. Trench
life, attack? under fire theae are the thing?
that will take away all pettiness and all
littleness. The soul of the man, the soul of
the army and the soul of our nation will i
then be changed in the twinkling of an eye. I
1 W. W. M.
Lawrence Park, N. Y,. May 16. 1017.
The policy under which the ban on ti?
jort of "The Nation" wa? placed i*?m|. *
:hat publication? habitually containi?? *
er which may be useful to the enea** ??alja
owed to leave the country only if thit a.'
.er is insigr.i^cart by companion wita ti.
propagandist value to the Allied tiste ?'?
they report and tie ritwi whlt^ .jj
? .press. The anin.ua of the pubheatia.
?Iso taken into consid?r?t or. It ieemt rui!
involved, but it i? (imple Sjpp^ -
rime?** of London happen* to contai? ?, |
ticl? which the (ierman propaganda mtnL
>eize? upon and sends o'.t in it? wirti?,, ,_
irice The Br.tish cenaor hold? the jt,
propagandist valut- of "The T met" a* taav.i
more than compensate? for the piu ,_ (
Germany ha* found n th? pjdding. Ti?!?,
ish authorities responnble for the baa
'The Nation" cona.Jered prs?ct.cally tt|f,
sue was more plum to Germany than at?o_
to Britain. ?".?.vai
The Question of Animai
There * a w de ocean between th? t*,,
of II. V\ . Ma.4?ngham. the ed. ter of ?TV, I
Nation." and tho-o of the War Office, u m I
pounded ,n both houses of Parliament. | tj,
to reflect them accurately, in the hop? ?
Americans will use them as a ruide ii tari,
own censorship. 1 hose v no tupport th? ?r>
;sh censorship contend there is great rir*.
in the words "habitually" ?r.d "ar.iatm* a
used in the declaration of policy. 0* %
o her hand. it< crit.es CDritrnd that it em,
too much rein to the judgment of the te**,
1 must make it pla.r that th? foil?,,
defence of the_ government ?n no war m?.
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ io way r??m
lent? my own views, lut practican. ."^
phrases the defender?' Argument?,??d ti tiri
it is a composite expression of their new? |
shall put it within quotation*.)
"^.nco December last 'The Nati??' mi
preached peace by negotiation. w?tk ,?_
week this paper has sought to pr?t? that ta?
government ought to have given ? a?r? cor
dial welcome lo Germany's peace pet**,,',?
in December la?t. and ought to leek put?
now by negotiation Publie opinion ia tin
country does not support Mr. Massing*?*',
views, and the entry of ?le United States ist?
tile war very ciearly prove? that in that cm
try, too, it haa become quite obvious thi"
there can be no peace with Germany until ga
torces have been beater decisively on liai
aad sea ar.d her people nave been compel??!
lo rea'.i/.e that further resntance ii hop?;*?
"At a time when those who direct Gurra?,
policy are seeking to k?ep up th? droopier
spirits of their soldiers, when the Gerat:
people are losing confider.ee in themieiTu,a
their army and in their leader*, at tarli i
time as this 'The Nation' publnhed ? lenei
of articles belittling the achievement *flm
ish armies, belauding the enemy's comaiei
erg and encouraging the enemy to proleaga
hopeless itruggle, No analogy can he farr*
drawn between the action of 'Th* Nati?*'ill
that of otner newspaper-:. In seekiagtipun
before tim country the need for the virtmi
trosecution of the war, wie latter ni; vit?
employed language winch, divorced fr*a in
context, has been used by th? enemy for til?
purposes of his propaganda; identic?! ir um
with his own and calculate?! ? o entonne* th?
(.erman people to continued reiiitaae?. Baa
if, in the sacred narnu ut ! berty, Mr. ?u
s.ingham must be allowed to go on ?mtiaj
and publishing German propaganda, it h
surely too much to expec. that he aheald ar
permitted to export it to the enemy."
The Masaingham Defesc?
That is the case of the proiecutloi; tk
defence is pretty well known in Aetna.
Mr. Massmgham holds that m a dewe?*?;
there must be no censorship of opinion: Vi ?
perfectly willing to have the world J??r
?? hether the sentiment? expressed i? "???
Nation" conflict w ?th the policy outli?*1 ir'
President Wilson's add-es to learn*,
w hether he ha? given encouragement t? th?
?nemy. whether Ins article? have notei*R?*t<!
i desire to overthrow (?orman militari?* i*
doe? not fear for the fate of "The Sties."
but he is deeply interested ii? the que*****?
whether any organization can be iel ?I b
That, raise? two impor'ani point* i? *?*
censorship the personality o' rheceniefU.
whether he shall be armed with power t****
sor views as well as new?
(7*0 be concluded to-tnorroec.)
Extend Sixth Avenue
A Proposal for a New IhoroiigHf?**
for the "L" Southward
To ti? Kditor of The Tribune.
Sir: The city at present plans th* ?
ter-nination of the "Minetta?." These ?".
at tn? start of Sixth Avenue.
Wcul?! nott a rearrangement of the it***1
pla.i and elevated road, with this cle*****"
of the "Minetta?." be perhaps advis?W*
Namely, to cpnt.nue Sixth Avenu* RM
Minetta Lane ?outheasterly to Weit Srm?
way at about Houston Street and carry B*
elevated road in this direction. ^^
Relieving Third Street of the P***
structure would give possibilities lo ?
street in connection with Washington ?Pf
South for high-type houaing, while the ?^
nation there of the two curve?, Sixth Aw**?
ami West Broadway, won d make for ?*.
faste- travel on tin? road. The P'0****
which must give way to permit thi? c***f
are, i morally speaking, old liou?e?. ?M
eos* o' the land alone (?ay sixty feet *?'.*
would be the only real consideration. A
?treal thus arranged would f*cl''t*,"jwt,
well, vehicular traffic from W??t Br**w*\
through to i or nearly to? Gi*eawieh Aw
whi'h is a diagonal artery and **_"",.
crosstewn travel, reaching Eighth Av*,?'
Fourteenth Street on a short cut. ra**
Vanck Street Seventh Avenue on it? .*??.
Ture i? a growing inclination to .**
?ubwey less, preference m?tead. ?heW r~
*ibl?, being given to the "I." road?. *?
faater schedule for the latter. e?p*ci*lV
Sixtn Avenue route, which is rare') ^
crowied. may stimulate the nd* ?er?
lessen correspondingly the congestion e?
underground roads. LEWIS PHILsUr*
New York. May H, 1917.
High Collars for the Army
To the Editor of The Tribune. |
Sir: Your eorrespondent tinting
day's Tribune is. I am convinced. P?"'^,
tirical Of course there i? no reason ?BB<
men ?hould wear low do**n aloppi' ,
after the British fa.'hion. instead of t" gj
"upright" pattern of true Am'"fM*| mell
no rea?on why army men ?houldI B?H^
patent leather ?hoe? ?*ith or w,,M",?t,
?pats. etc.. and no reason, only "'V-gaf
preparation for war. in which we .??.JT.gi
posed to be engaged, ?hould have its?^
parade atmo.pher? and more of isa a^
field. It ?eem? hardly '.ha .??'f^pjf
to ?uggest "dolling up" our ?olditri ^
d,?p?rag? tha fighting ?"./."?,Z* (??ij
Auburndalt. N. Y.. May II, IM?? ** .
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