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Great Britain Debates the Bombing of
German Towns Sentiment in England Regarding Air Re? prisals Is Rapidly (Changing; Still There Is Argument For and Against REPRISALS are now the pro] subject of conversation in Lend where some are for tweaki their German cousin's nose for being boorish toward London civilians. Ma are for ignoring the bad manners of t Kaiser's baby-bombers and others ?lema retaliation for (?ermany's war by an ? fensive assault upon her in the air a through the sea. of which England is t perplexed mistress. Whether it be petty reprisal or offe sive retaliation, the airship and the m ri?e ship ire the ICCOptod weapon, and I world-at-war has given over di ? other agences for the moment. When twenty-two Gorman aeroplani of the Gotha tombing type SWOOped <I..-a upon Ix>ndon's fog they bagged only I civilians, losing nine planes in the er counter with London's aerial defend London's fit of nerves was not improve by the Berlin announcement that won raid? were in store, and such a crisis ha been precipitated by the stay-at-home that Lloyd George is at pains to assur them that, while the protection of th army in the field is the first consideratior the English towns would be hereafter pro tected by a greater aerial fleet, many unit of which will doubtless be made in th United States. Within six months England has adde< 20,000 men to the aeroplane factories though during that same period, Lloy 4'corge said, Germany had made prodig i'.us efforts to recapture her air supremacj and was now trying to divert. English aeroplanes from France to the defence ol London. But public opinion in Londor feels the exposure to be "a humiliation and a disgrace," and Parliament h:;s taken up the issue in secret session. France did not debate reprisals, but "n mediately dispatched B-l French aeroplanes to nine German cities, "doing extensive damage and in one instance penetrating as far as the Krupp works at Essen." The open town-* of Tr?ves, Cobleni and Bantheville were selected to make the German civilian smart in turn. \.N EYE FOR AN EYE?4? H KM AN BABIES FOB LONDON BABIES. The defence of London by bomb;ng lierman babies is the contribution of the repnsalists to the progress of the war. And this irrespective of the fact thai (.er man mothers have no voice in the govern-1 lient and are therefore "without means' I of preventing further raids on I.ond? babies." "The Westminster Gazette" d DOUncei reprisals as ?seles.-?. "The Spe tator" says the question is purely a mil ' tary one and that the "best reprisal is beat the enemy." Many ministers advocated reprisa I upon German civilians in the pulpits c the day of worship following the last rai< quoting the Bible's enthusiastic tdvocac "f reprisals. Lord Derby, however, dcj , recates the idea of reprisals as being " mere imitation of (ierman brutality" ur worthy of England, besides being ind fective. liaron Montagu, in the lions <.( Lords, claimed for the enemy "a pet feet right to bomb London, which was fortified city." To Hall Caine retaliation is the vor ce of the war. In "The London Dail; Chronicle" he writes: "Lei ns clrcr our hearts of confusion an our tongues of CHnt, and say plainly, what i plainly true, that the air raid of Wedne.'da was an atrocity deliberately inflicted by th Imotheri of Germany on the mothers of Kntr land. Can any reasonable mind doubt tha if the (ierman woman had from the tirst con i.omnprl the bombinjr of London as an out rage on the instincts of motherhood Fondor would never have been bombed? Even ad mitting that the German woman, notwith ' standing: her education and enlightenment, ii i not, and never has been, a free woman in th? 1 sense and in the measure in which the Kng i lish woman, the American woman or th< ; French woman is free, can it be thought thai 1 if she had vehemently opposed a form ol .warfare which made the destruction of ' child life in the country of the enemy ? probable and even an inevitable consequence , the most arbitrary government in the world : would' have dared tr practise it? Such a supposition is impossible of acceptance. Motherhood is a force which ploughs too ilecp into rational welfare to be defied by any Kaiscrism or any military despotism whatsoever. GERMAN WOMEN REJOICED OVER THE LISITAMA "We have no need, however, to speak in ra terms in this instance, for positive ones are only too plainly applicable. The GeriMll mother has not only not discouraged air raids on London, she has rejoiced in them. .lust as she held jubilee m the street'. and homes of Berlin over the sinking of the .na, which caused the drowning of one hundred helpless little children and brought DO military advantage to the arms of her country, so 'in the hope of having ai in frightening England into submission) oh? will find joy in Wednesday's bombing of London, knowing full wcH that it did nothing more helpful to Germany than to send ten little English hoys and girls to the grave und t? to the hoapital. "The.?e an* hard words, hut for (?od's sake trip our minds of the delusion that the German woman thinks the Ittffaring of Eaglish mo'hrr over the loas of her l.nglish chibl is to be put into the ?ame category of human calamity with the suffer? ing of the German mothpr over the loss or even the peril of her German child. She does not. Whatever her feeling in days of may he, in this time of war she thinks it right to safeguard the welfare of one Ger 1 man child at the cost, if need he, of the lives j of ten thousand English children. At mo [ ments of great emotional excitation human .:<?? of criminal illusions, and war brought i such criminal illusion to ? ? i.rrman mother. Some of u-- have known ? of it linee the early days of the war, and if ut this moment anv tender-heartr 1 person of : our own race has a doubt of it i baneful power, let hin Spend a shilling on Mr. Ar? cher's demoniac anthology, called '(iems of (li'iin'in Thought." There ho will find among other manifestations of a moral lunacy such as the history of the human mind The interior of one of the huge munition factories near London which . justify, in German opinion, the air raids. A view of London from St. Paul's. Photos by Brown Brother? cannot parallel, the most appalling proof that to the heart of the German woman and n.an alike any acts whatever are justifiable which are directed toward punishing the English people and forcing them into sub? jection." "The Westminster Gazette," while it disagrees with the .-entiment expressed by Hall Caine, strongly advocates reprisals: "Mere r?-pr; ala, in the sense of bombing Gcrm.nr I killing German wonv-n and children, simply because they have bombed our towns ar..| killed ?mr women and children would be both unworthy and fut,]?*. ' It may he, as some helievo. that the (Irr^.an? weald .-how less fortitude und? r the 1 deals than our people do, but they have much i less opportunity than our? of influencing their government, and that government has never shown the slightest seropls in sacri? ficing its civilian population for any military ! urpose. For that reason, it is almost cer sn illusion to soppo Brill get any relief from the bombing ? man to? ne, and t ho e m he '-.'??? ? are. in our opinion, ignorant of th* psyohol Ogy of the German gOVl rnment, if not of thf . German people. ? "Rut these sir nidi bavi by general con rent a ?letirnte military purpoi us on to different ground. That purpi to comp"! ri*e iriUldrawal of aeroplanes from the battle ground for the defence of the civilian population, and BO give The enemy an advantage m the legitimate air ?truggle over our own righting men. Now, if that is to become a regular practice, it introduces a new military factor to which we aro hound to find a reply. "This is no? a question of vindictiveaeae, it is a question wheth?*r we o?r remain pas? sive and allow i he ?nemy not merely to kill and maim our civilian population, bill I a signal military advantage by .-" doing. We are afraid ?I ? neeeeaary to wain h m that, we can ; THAT AMEBI? V THINKS IBO?T REPRISALS. Reprisals, upon civilians find warm ad? vocates in the United Statte. "The Sun" suggests "thrashing the outlaw nation savagely" and "reprisals by great air fleets, administering t<> German cities ex? actly the same treatment," would stop the German raiders. An American fleet of aeroplanes for this purpose is advocated, and Orville Wright acquiesces in this nig? in, and adds that "aeroplane raids could be conducted against business cen? tres and population central in Western Germany, producing upon her irreparable injury." a reply to the "boding oil'" uaed by anadiani at the M-esaines Ridge, Ger? many came forward with a new discovery \\ Hall Caine Passionately Pleads That th( Death of Women and Children Be Avenged; Reprisals as War Measure in diaboU.-m which she u-.ed in her raids, making several small aeropla carrying this new missile more effeci than a great Zeppelin. Meanwhile, C many, an expert in brutality facing London and New York amateur straf? not to be.out'lone in reprisals, promises aerial fleet cf 200 ships, while the **1 nische Zeitunrr" suggests 1,000. UNDER the captain "Release I Fleets," America's* authoritative n itary periodical, 'The Army and N'a Journal," enthoiiaitically indorses W -ton Spencer Churchill's demand for a s thrust at Germany?an ofTensi-ce war:'.: instead of a passive one. Some of tl journal's interesting speculations run fellows: "No development m the war news sin ? the definite alignment of the belligerent n tions was assumed in the autumn o*" tl Bad BO concrete a foundation m comnv I or holds so practical a promise ? >:' fa mg resulrs as does the increasing <i mand that the next grand assault upon Ge 1 many be from the sea, or air and sea cor h ined. "The proposal of a sea offensive had ti indorsement of eminent strategists even b< ? fore the addition of the United States nav I to cap the already marked superiority of th : Allied marine forces over those of their er j emy. It is in accord with principles of ?con ; omy in view of the fearful cost of minor ad vanees on the land; official reports of casual ties within recent months show an average o I per day. "The annals of history need not b' searched further than a half century baci to find added backtng in precedent. Grant': ! encircling armies held the Confederacy in i i death g:;p, '"it it area Parragat and his as 1 sociates who broke the back of the resist ! anee acains' him. Operations on the Mis. ? pi, at Mobile, Wilmington and Charles? ton gave a larger net result, compared with n men and material, than did any as? sault on land. "Germany's heel of Achilles may pal be found in the 200-mile arc thai Itretehes from the coas' of Denmark to the northern limits of Holland. The estuaries of Schleswig-Hol? stein must include many bays and coves that vie licking in prime defensive qualities. If not. Helgoland Bight itself might he es ?-ayed." "The Army and Navy Journal" quotes a statement by Winston Spencer Churchill,' now "no of the leading publicists of Eng? land, which appeared in "The Sunday. Pictorial" ( London) : "The Allied ravie? have to-dty ?. ^ dreadnoughts to every one a*, the d ** German) and Auatria, and, in tmSi* more than four old battleships ??? m\ , the enemy. But the superiority in'**!i' of metal, modernity and tOBBaje **"f greater than even these imm.er.ie *r? '* ply. Are we really content to se? 7 * ma*-? of about 200 battleship? wait .,?'" the off chance of the Genua fleet is. ! to light, until peace perhap.? an -*sJ|2l tory peace is declared? When *hr battleship, were iunk in the Dard..,' ' was represented as a ?-rr-ja?. rivil J^? but ?hat k.nd of ? ?.;,* ., 7. * rn the day peace ?i?rn?d hundred, -fy tleahipi are found to have been rtocfa? unused and pas? Into obaoleaeeeoa, *ok planted in future wars by airplar.ei s??! "' marines The American journal thus phrase, a situation: "The Mississippi of the German rr-be again.st humanity is the Elba R-rer u many's Vieksbwg may be the impcrt???,. of Hamburg, eighty m;les from the t*i Put a Farragct in command to uj tag ?Damn the torpe.loe-,' end release the ?ty ? But the air as a field for m?rt bet, killing exchanges occupies only a f-fsst of American attention. The ?ntrz*. tion to build a splendid aeri?! art?* with which to recapture peace for ?? world is manifested in Congre*-! in? ? camp. The Aero Club of Amir:?*? k expressly urged upon Pr?sider.*. W..? the desirability and the feasih;,. plying 40,000 aeroplane-, and hasalsor.* gested that the appropriation be incra? to SJ.ooo.OOO.ooo. Secretary Danitliii asked for $4.-),000,ooo additfoul J?| navy's aerial needs. The Council of *.?. fence, has now definite plans for the pr duction of .3,500 aeroplanes per not*. under the existing $639,000.000 apprcpr* tion. Allied experts are agr-eed that a war in the air will be vital, if not a The decision of Americans fa ?y. \ using the wings which the Wrf.'i offered them for a decade but whi:h in treated as State Fair toys, calls (ort**e ing schools on a large scale. MEM tow under construction at Daytcr, (b Mount Clemens, Mich., and Rtatail As yet only 1,000 itudentl of irarr have enrolled at the prelirmnsr**tan camps as aspiring to fly in the?a?-/* German providence. I*,///^/*?//**^^^^^ Speed the Thing in the Air SPEED above all things is the highei asset of aeroplanes on the We-ter front. The fastest fleet can. b descending on the tails of other aeroplane: put their oppor.en*- oat of action. Th fastest scouting machines can also oui manoeuvre their enemies and escape eve from superior r.umhe--s. For those rei sens a great commercial competition i going on in France, England and German to see who can produce the fastest figbtin units. What torpedo boats are to th dreadnoughts these scouts are to the bal tleplanes and reconnoissance machine?. A British eorrespondent recently wrot bis observation of aeroplanes: 1 ea our lines during mv viail to the Hritish fron and srhen some of ears eame up and ?irov them off I thought that oui thoroughbred., ud the G ' ickneyj There were, however, r.lenty of German aere planes on the German nur- (,f the line, a ooni Th h'okker is fairly played out <>n the '>'. front, where tt I and th. Halhentadter i *K ? k'htmg mai'r ?? I) Ly a IM-hersepow?i Mi the L V. G :1er and thi Aviatik ar< work are carried on! by lepara! a ?harp ?. between thesi different spheres of aerial activity. Th. rganization of the German air service i? fairly well known to us. and***we also knot* to our cost that we vers nie? ?,.,? nurpbers of fast ?in| lighting ma? chines at the i.; impaign We must mak- up our minds that when I we relax <.ur efforts at home rill be i! u?, and this is not true of a-, a*.on alone. The German? produce w.rr.e star p o?. ?I ' tS r"r"l. and I fancy that the personnel in the Ger? man observa?,oti be: -awn largely from the artillery, as it should he. Hut I ?hou'd ?ay that ihe general level of sfl ie higher || our ?ervice than in the G end assuredly, despite th'- , ? <!, f??* fighter? and hie numerous anti-aircraft bat tariei and sections, he h?saceomp!ishrd?much less than | . ad our pilot? retain all - offensive We must expect ups and downs in a novel kind, when ?o much | ? ??? and industry ?re arrayed BgaiBSt SB, but th? -querab!? ?? ? ? ?-, v;:!l prevail BS the er?i f ?..?!*, ' . Sties is equal to the energy at the front. The enemy rnad? a gr?a? effort to lappresi our flying r.'.en who were ?? | rn, and produced two f??t eae-seoter bal every one of his artillery ?ron'? We were in ir.vers? proportion, a ? .he air fiad an ttaeemSBOnlp warm ?irne, and Ter*? heavj? easuait.i* achines and ?like I'i,l the flyiny I ' ? I ?e and lease the bold free to the ?nsmj ?. the enemy did when we were .j-.er.or !? | -.<ar* ' lasperlabab i. thing of the U. S. Inventors Pitted Against U-Boats I REPRISALS and retaliation at .-ea have scarcely departed from mere defensive operations against the submarine, though the authoritative "Army and Navy Journal" has voiced the feeling in the American navy for a naval offen? sive as suggested by Winston Churchill. The submarine toll continues large, if not so large as during the "Black Week?" of May and June. The outstanding factl are two: The failure of Germany's ruthless programme to produce the delirium of starvation in the English within the time ? d the failure of the Americans and of the English to conquer the submarine. The American enthusiasts who early an? nounced the complete mastery of the sub? marine enemy have either adopt? d some other vocation or arc indulging the world gratuitously with continuing marine lusses, as no records to support the an? nouncements are available. The difficulties of the problem have been increased by German initiative in provid? ing net-cutting devices, telescopic peri . (equilibrium pumps to enable the submarine to stand still and devices for obscuring of exhaust traces. The Ger? mans pretend that the submarine campaign has b? ' ess, but the assurances of Admiral von ('apelle, Minister of Marine, and of Chancellor von Bethmann-Hollweg fail to satisfy German "distrust of the i fTc-tiveness ?if this weapon to compel peace.*1 Park Benjamin, in "The Independent," emphasizes the fact that as yet the Ger? man l'-hoat. has kept ahead of Allied of-1 Above A plan involving a protecting V-shaped structure Competed Of Bide walls connected by a bottom beneath the ship's hull. It is a mere shell, as may be seen from the dia grammatic drawing. Courtesy of Popular Science Monthly At the right- -A device for warding off torpedoes, revolv? ing disk* flrtd from special guns. Observers in the fighting top, on lighting a torpedo'l wake, can calculate where the le will strike a*'d have the ?lisks discharged accordingly. ?Courte.-y of Popular Meckanict forts to disorganize submarine warfare. This writer observes: "No new invention for the destruction of Counting Sunken I -Boats Old Lady?Why rant the Admiralty trll us how m.iny ?uihmarin**.*?. have bam sunk? ja? k?Well, y see. inurn. we can t spare enough divers to walk about the 1 -?ttoni ??i the fiea and count 'em! Tkt Pateiag Skow, I.?union r the (ierman l'-boats which are blockading ?he F'.ritiah coas?, nor for effectively protect ..??ainst them, has as yet come to light, nor does there now appear any more ehance of such discoveries being made than has existed seer since the war began, 'The resurrections, and reresurrections, and re-rercsurrections of old ideas, of course, have been legior.. In France twenty ? ?il plans have been offered to the gov? ernment, out of which Bfl per cent went irn me,i n'ely into the wastebatket. (Jf the re? maining .1 per cent, held for further exami? nation, hut one-third were thought worth con . r.d from these lart nothing ap? pear., to have mntenaii* I. "In this country the m?il is crammed with 'letters on the subject to the War Depart ment, and 'he Navy Department, and the Commission for Technical Research, and the Council of Nation,,! Defence, and the Naval COB all ng Hoard; and now comes a 'Subma? rine Defence Association,' componed of ttl B sf . Pping and allied interests, 'to act as si ort of clearing house for any pr?t? idea? which may he submitted.' And the pro? fessional 'wizards' who were 'going to in vent' ?re gradually fading out of the lime- , lipht. Like Glendower, th?y s?id they 'could I ?cat 11 spirits from the vasty deep.' Rut their. sassier te Hotspur's query, 'Will they come when von ?|.> call for them V turns out to be only watchful waiting. Von can't make peo? ple invent, nor hens lay eggs, because of an urgent public demand, i.or by the aid of debating at Stiel which are organized to ex eite their enthu? leam." The Naval Consulting Board, which is composed of engineers who have been KCOmmendtid by the various national en gineering societies, has been examining and rtcc<mmending for experiment i grant many devics for protecting merchnr:* . sels again-t U-boats. These dtvieti in some cases, are tvolvtd by mem! en of the board; in other cases they are dcrvicei BUg getttd by far-tntttrad American citizens of inventive mind, anxious to render ships les? vulnerable to the dreaded torprtdo. The plan which settUS most to appeal to the imagination of the meist! il OM cal? culated to protect a ve.*?.-el by sen ens, either lowed by the . * i If or self propelled, Which provide a lane <.f safety, moving with the vessel and impanel t.? a torpedo. But it has been found that such scretni are extremely difficult to maintain in proper position, and that they retard both speed rand man<*euvre. Again, many of the suggested devient would pre? vent the launching of lifeboats or rafts from th?' vessel to be protected. Many of the inventions presented come from men entirely lacking in technical training, and it is frequently necessary, on the part of the board, to explain the most rudimentary principles of mechanics and engineering in order that the inventor may not feel that his invention bin been turned down without being given the courtesy and earnest thought to which it ?S entitled. For instance, there is a general miscon? ception regarding the "electrification" of water, metals and the atmosphere. No conceivable method of "charging the sea with electricity." of "shooting a bomb of electricity" or of "charging the atmosphere with electrocuting current" contains any clement of practicability, it il pointed out. ?Suggestion.- along these lines, in the opinion of the board, are valueless, as even an elementary study of the laws gov? erning the application of electrical en? ergy .-hows. On the other hand?and it render? the prospect, perhaps, a shade more cheerful ?the most promising of the many ideas ..(Tered are not being made public. They are being tested in .secret, always with the hope that they may prove the golden fleece for which half the world is so feverishly seeking. The German figures allow the Allies an available tonnage of 10,000,000, including new construction, confiscated German -hips and neutral ships. Of this Albert Ballin, the German marine authority, claims that 6,500,000 tons ha? been destroyed since February. Against these claims stand the undimini.-hod girth of John Bull. Meanwhile building more ships to take the place of those sunk is the one naval policy of the Allies, and it is bein;r pursued with great industry. Chairman Dcnman tit the Shipping Board has asked for * 000,<XH) additional for ships, the |<900,000,? 000 already voted being inadequate. The Denman-Goethils controversy over wood and steel has emerged a? a policy for steel so long ai steel can be had, then for wood. Turning out fabricated steel ships of ?tandardized parts like Ford cats from a hopper is now under way. Our Oriental ally, Japan, has been called upon for (vOO.000 tons of merchant ship? ping for the Atlantic trade, and. by an odd bargain, she has consented after being given in return American steel supplies, though the Japanese public is protesting vigorously aga.nst the diminution of do? mestic tonnage. The eighty-seven interned German ships have been formally turned over to the Shipping Board, and this BOO,. tiOO tonnage is now ready for service. The Administrarlo!! win Iu.x! force the neutral nations to put to use the interned German ships in their harbors under pain of for? feiting United States trade. Thus heroically the Allies bend their re? sources to the policy of feeding the vora? cious submarine, which submarine a!sr has a ghoulish appetite for soldiers ir transport when this delicacy can he bad There are those, however, who feebly er> lor the slaying of the serpent, instead ol 1 roviding as much shipping as he can de our, and more. Types of Airplanes Needed B ECAUSE the ? ttd BUM ? ufacturcrs of aire . '?' Y,sttts\ni the appropriation! which the a) eign aircraft manufacturer- have lac?"' three years, plu - ivi awpmlm stimulant of as long a period of Wp* warfare, is no argument that AtBtvat i.ircraft builders cannot construct re? planes as fast as the best in Eur'**-?"' vided they have the same encourai**** and support. But it is rr.os*. ?*?**** all to say that the aircraf' alr-aij ?"-' cannot be used on the ftghthtf ""? France. Says "The London Times": Coming here one perceives tb? criticising type? sf machines used- ?' more possible to say ??? ,*. :- th of aeroplane than to ?ay which ?I *??* * type of ship, for n*. each MSI it ******* the use to which it is to be put. I injr, scouting, photograph:*.-**, bomSint ?**?' n?.rtr. and for ! " reccr.nc.il**"* diffcrent types are needed, ar.d ai ?***?" always have all ar.d everytkisg ?* ???? there must occasional:.*, be rr.en it * prade machines. There most b? P**"** ? noughts o*' the a:r ? battle and fall among dreaaai there must be light ' "? *? ".?, faster scout?. We should haw b"" "'" ,-? in the air if we used tM I I b?t the '?*** j, plane of each typ?*, and '.re *''%1^\m similarly circumstance! II me ******* same practice. Our pilota are for the most ??**? ^ follows of nineteen or twenty, ft ?? preeatoaable a?re. ar.d we ought not on telling thorn that they have *????K machines even if il we truat entirely to *' e ['?"'?* ''" ' raer? 'han we ! "^ choo<e us a yearling So far aJ * ? can judge. I think that our littfj^ lighting machine il *'*,'?'?*?? t0 ,?lf ?-*?? man, and our need i* for ? gr*a??r _^ of then fa ''rMTX \?**o each with two guns But if ?re c'n(iilto full speed ? "? rr''''mbfr|flir*** must hu\e a new * - the! say such I 'l-jtm**1 ieach our arm*-.? and " " "" fore Mav. LtII ?i .h.iir? ?? . . -? quantitiea. It ia above all thtaij , t to cuitail the tima b?t**eea th? .m preval of a type i ?*' 'n,*?I\a4* hers. Tlu? wear and tear on P->? ^ machine.? la very creaf ' *?** ??* my** plane in France is ret mOM **?? * A pilot require ' '^l^, i*** fore he is mii-h feed, ?nd the ^gg great that few men Staid '?? L" 1, ?, 00 three, aix or nine monthl tr'or'. w,!e? * of all the immeass ilneaWs*** ^*e wttttrly winds have not b"n JJ ,,, ofi airmen fought their **?> ***Vf*\ pit* spring of 1*17, ?nd enabliJ M pS register accurately 13 P? ???? m^o*** tiens e< German batterie? on ? #< y of hatt'e. I think that this ,t,r ^t* eternal credit, and I mi?' "**? ^?rt ** will continue to succeed if ?*' ^ e****** handsomely, and will. In ??*' ^.^t**1 perish gloriously rather than ft* th? air.