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for Better or For Worse-the New German Government
?I flie Crisis in Teutonic Affairs Is Recog? nized as Grave by the Foreign Press \? ANXIOUS curiosity pervades 4 j-urope, \vhich awaits the disck?* \ ? s hand by the new Ger ,-t, Bcthmann-HoUvreg is out; Georg M'chiu'Hs is m- Suc^ wa* *-^e * -??ujticn that obtained, but which __>n^. every day to become a different tmOMM. Vot lirvce *-??* ni"y Em***?eror "dropped the ? ??? Bismarck, has any change of min ^??a Germany been laden with so much -icsnee- ^:a? -i*n** ?* m&n Ml ?-he ? ?lot, il??*" bureaucratic Michaelis who reed frrTT' ? :.'-:**:*' mediocrity to the ?j, | ,wcr in Middle Ku ?-?iT.d up'"? '-?'??'m perhaps, depend the ____ of miHinn< of persons within tlie ^?eand without! ?_? -gor ' iire ?aaaWJO a&SOC?at?*5, ct Bn?k>-or(T*rkantzau' tne neTr For" c-cjttary? *??" ? '"'-her aristocrats who rJpj_-?_tcd the Zimmermanns and the ??a?* Doe? it all bode ill or well for de v/nee in Germany? ? HAT MANNT. R OK MAN ? ML MK'i-VEI.IS* I1:, Georg Mirh.ie'is, successor to Bis-I MMa\ Hohenlohc, Biilow and Bet>_mann- , ;:r.?rrz, comes out of Fru&sia with a. rep? lias for efficiency in home organization,! h fact? his fini assurances are for -.-?yir.d internal cooperation and a eon ?-jr.ee ?*f the Central Europ*2an alii-1 ??.?a." London alfocti I o see in him a ? ?PPaaWa But Bethn^wi-Hollweg was ! i -?promise, a skilful procrastinator, a | pufbi poc f? Ctowt? Pr nee, leader of the junker ' xiooaries', liir.icnburg, champion of ] a ?*?_tarists, and Ludendorff attended' h fett of this new Chancellor. Beth-' MiBalle*i 1' Y-sional compromiser' :.r the imperial .-er\ ce, was outworn, and :r# professional compromiser and prc - of-promises had to ?'. ;jjiOTerei lir_** few personal acts of Michaelis I .# by at this distance, the American ;**3*tll$ back unavoidably upon specific Irren opinion as to the nature of the Cera upheaval, pausing only to restate tvr.ich has been broached by in-, rai American commentators. Accord-1 haha theory, "a peace pro^amme ?3 out by France, England and MMSJ,' the essential factor in the prog? 's of which is to be "the apparent demo TTaiti'jn of Germany." Germany now ?rh the form of reduction to i*S?a*atary government and probably ian "peace without] ??aatiem'' programme in the expectation P<aaa1 it has to offer on such a parlia ??aaTy basis may be acceptable. jaaMll. ntOM lat? SID' - ?'* (mud ? epted explanation, - Jr**'*"?, is that Germany has felt a good mal pr-"***\?re for reform trtimu lated by the Russian Revolution, by Aus? trian desire for peace and by the Wilson lan and the Lloyd George demands for democratization, and that sho hopes, by making a cheap shift, to sop the mal? contents and "push all such nonsense aside" for another year. From London comes this suggestion of compromise: "Though in some quarters there is a ten? dency to interpret the resignation of von Bethmann-Hollweg as a victory for the Pan Germans, it is generally agreed that Michaelis really represents a compromise party rather than the extremist? of either faction." From France's comment one derives a faint hope. The "Temps" thinks Dr. Michaelis superior to his predecessor on two points?he has been successful and has character. His success has been shown in his position as Food Commissioner, his character is shown by his speech last March in the Prussian Chamber, from which the "Temps" quotes the following: "No one shall make me swerve. I would not accept an office which would be but an rdgc lesa sword." The "Journal des D?bats" says edi? torially: "The importance of the change does not consist in the substitution of persons, but in the cause which made it impossible to retain the retiring Chancellor." The "Petit Parisien" is one of the news? papers that are not optimistic over the de? velopment, saying: "Though the Chancellor changes, the Ger? man masters remain the same. Rethmann Hollweg -would never have been disavowed had the hopes of his masters been realized by victory. He who gets his portfolio will inherit his burden and the same insurmount? able difficulties." Representatives of the Berlin press were received on Saturday by General Luden? dorff, who discussed the military situation. He said the situation on all fronts was fa? vorable. The Pan-German Independent League met and adopted a resolution of protest against the proposed peace action of the Reichstag majority, declaring the adoption of the majority programme wpuld result in the indefinite continuance of the war and the political and economic ruin of the Ger? mans. In the "Vossische Zeitung" Georg Bern? hard openly accuses Dr. von Bethmann Hollweg and his foreign secretary, Dr. Zimmermann, of having played a double game with Washington, making war in? evitable by attempts to deceive and mis? lead President Wilson in regard to the policy and intentions of Germany. WILL THE AMERICAN "STATE OF WAR" BE RECOGNIZED NOW? Hen* Bernhard intimates that the sub? marine policy, if managed skilfully, might not have led to war with the. United States had not these diplomats artificially in? creased the danger and destroyed every chance of avoiding a break. Count BrockdorfT-Rantzau, the new For? eign Secretary, who is a cousin of Count von Bernstorff, is an aristocrat born, and his induction into office probably means a return of the aristocratic tradition in the i German service. He has been the German Ambassador to Coper.hagcn and is about the only diplomat in Germany whose course has been approved by practically all ? the critics. In some quarters the appoint? ment is taken as a repudiation of the Zim? mermann policy, which helped bring the United States into the war when the Ger? man intrigue with Mexico was discovered. However, it is said that Count Brockdorff i Rantzau will be prompt to recognize the j state of war with the United States, which ! has hitherto been officially ignored in Ger? many. The Reichstag's proposed peace resolu i tion, which, according to the Berlin "Tage Iblatt," the majority bloc of the Centre, | Radicals and Socialists decided to intro I ' duce unchanged upon the reassembling of the Reichstag, rears, in part, as follows: "As on August 4,1914, so on the threshold of the fourth year of the war the German peo? ple stand upon the assurance of the speech from the throne: 'We are driven by no lust of ? conquest.' "Germany took up arm? in defence of its liberty and independence and for the inte? rity of its territories. The Reich-tag labors for peace and a mutual understanding ?in.I lasting reconciliation among the BStiot . Forced acquisitions of territory and political, i economic and financial violations are incom ; patible with such a peace. "The Reichstag rejects all plans aiming at ? an economic blockade and the stirring up of enmity among the. peoples after the war. The freedom of the seas must be assur?*'i. Only an economic peace can prepare the ground for the friendly association of the rtoples. "So long, however, as the enemy govern ment..-, do not accept such a peace; so long a? ?*n Germany and her allies with eonqutst and violation, the German peopi? "?ether as one man." The Austrian Reichsrat was thrown inte an uproar when the former Czech Minis? ter, Herr Pruschek, declared on Saturday the hat;' of the entire world was now rtt? rtjeted against Germany and that Austria should detach herself from her ally, says a Vie a dispel i. He added: Haw trt Wt to obtain peace if we cling to the German sido'' Must we continue to sac? rifice i ur interests to the expansion of Ger * continue to submit to the German militarism that has drawn us into trarf Meanwhile, just to show that her army is ?tiil on the firing line. Germany made a drive toward Calais. The capture of 1,880 British prisoners at Nieuport, Belgium, was the result. The Imperial Frown An interesting sidelight on the Hollweg exit is obtained in a subjunctive sort of prophecy written a short time ago by Ed? ward Lyell Fox in his book, "Wilhelm Hoher.zollern & Co.": "One of the Kaiser's prerogative? ia that he holds the supreme command of the Gtr trun army and the German navy. Incident? ally, the German military title for the offlct is 'War Lord.' Holding 'his supreme com? mand, the Kaiser uses it. Our President it commander in chief of the American artsy and navy, but as a rule our presidenta rarely direct the campaign of our army and na*y in t*.m<* of war. Not so with the Kaiser, who has studied military and naval science his entire life and fatuously believes he knows something about it. "He is the supreme arbiter. His chief of staff and his generals eoncei\e the military moves. He studies their plans, suggests changes r.?re and there, and likes his gen? erals when they openly disagree with him?? that :s, if it turns out that they are right. If they trues.? wrong they get on the im? perial blacklist. In a-y case, the Kaiser cccides. lar is hit rsltHos te the navy." The Secretary fur Foreign Affairs ta responsible to the Chancellor "for the effi? ciency of the Foreign Office," and the Chancellor, for his part, is responsible to the Kaiser. Resuming Mr. Fox's rarrtv? tive: "As the army and navy chiefs submit thelf 1 plans tor decision, so. too, does Dr. Theobald von Bethmann-Hollwep. If the Kaiser hlce.S the Chancellor's plan he adopts it. If ho doesn't, the imperial frown is put upon it? One colossal blunder and, like Moltke, KaU kenhayn and Tirnitz, off will go Hethmanna? Hollweg'? official head. For the Kaiser*! chieftain.- publicly assume the responsibility for the moves of imperial Germany. If the moves fail, they ami they alon?* are to hi ?in?, for despite the fact that none of these movet can be m-ide without the Kaiser's indorse? ment of them, Wilhelm IL being the Kaiser, 'can do no wrong."' How the Reichstag Lines Up THERE was a time in the history of the present war when the Kaiser could claim with some degree of justice that he had the support of the German people behind him. There was a time when all of Germany, with the ex? ception of a few radical and daring So? cialists, was willing to submit, with sumo reluctance, it is true, to the Kaiser's plan of war. Of course, the view of the Bunde.-rath ?Federal Council! cannot be cons?deved an expression of the opinion of the German people as a whole, but of the Kaiser and of the titled nobility, the Junker; for the elections of the fifty-eight members of the Federal Council are considerably influ? enced by the Junkers, anil the president : of this body is appointed by the Kaiser, and he is the right hand in the execution of his master's autocratic policy. On the other hand, the Reichstag (Imperial Diet) could more justly be taken to represent a ? great part of the German people, although not all the classes of the German nation. The elections to the Reichstag are held every five years, and ?very 150,000 voters elect one member to the Diet. But not every German can vote. First of all, sol? diers and all men of military age, even if exempted from service, are excluded from the voting privilege; likewise are excluded those who on account of their poverty cannot answer the economical qualifica tions. The members of the Reichstag are "97 in number, and are divided into ten parties: Votes. Socialists . 110 The Centre or Catholic Party. . 91 Radicals . 44 National Liberals-. 44 Conservatives . ?il Independents . 23 Poles . I* Free ("ons-rvutivos. 1*_ Industrial Labor Union. 9 Anti-Semites . 3 Of these, in 11)11, only a few Socialist* dated to oppose the aggresaire policy of the Kaiser, while almost the entire Reichs? tag was in favor o? orar? Whether this stand of the Imperial Diet was influenced by the activity of the pan-Germanic press, which has especially enjoyed the favor and support of the (ierman govern? ment, or whether it was due directly to the activity of the Kaiser and his agents is a question. But the fact remains that since Germany's invasion of Belgium more and more members of the Reichstag have been leaving the Kaiser's s'de and becom? ing .-trong opponents of war. Slowly the opponents of the Kaiser were growing in force. First, one after another, the various socialist parties stepped out actively against the govern* ment. And the recent demand of the Centrist party through its spokesman, Herr Er/.berger, upon the Kaiser, asking for a peace without indemnities and an? nexations, aligns the majority of the Reichstag against the policy of the Go*?? man government, sine?* out of the 39? votes of the Diet the Socialists and Cert? trists hive 201 votes. Now, If the German Reichstag does rep? resent the German people, what does thli strong opposition of 'lie largest German representative bod** mean? An?! will the Ksiser succeed in breaking the will of thf Refchstag? w?y////if?f?*?*^*y^^^ T7/7fff/////f/Sf////.'//(""r"""""""""""""'??'?"?".?. The German Press in America Keeps Its Heart True to the Fatherland '- '*?" Sy a Loyal lernuiOyAmeriran \a\IN ar.-? again the -German-lan s"*&*f?* prtai has been exposed for ?he Kaiser and its N-feiMena! r* **.ar.d and even open . Not only the news **b which were always Hohenzollern ' aliens that, like the **-?* "Ar'tT-e.^r-Z'-.tung," when it was J* -7 "Emin Pascha," a disciple of ^F.-:.*.z<!, ? Armer Teufel" ?poor Mosler, fought con N% jta ? and Prussian autoc tdrocates of Kaiserism ??Ik?'.?-: '-he present war. A ?"a M -. r-Zeitung" is not: ?<mpt against this , reproduces also the tOT Kerger, a Ger rhe mounted Pegaf-us to ******** < .. killed in the bloody' a tnd perlshedt . rv f0r d???r Old F>g *'? -<* ' '"-'ration | ?****? ?? Kr.ic'.ar.d. a grava ?????? ta4 shame" ** J"? More Daring than :J*?? ana Goldman F, ?.h??-! by the John Bull SSS?e try*'." \H***t ?hat Emma Goldman a*T0tl ll ??* '? er aaaaeiato Alexan ?J*'?' I In "The Blaat" has Cy* " * difrflanea of the appears in the ' *"?* r ifTtlo "Arbeiter % ?*'-''? a-r? fh-F wtr ?J***" a the war by a? *"? Stiit? its owe country. The government tears ?way from your s your dear ones, your supporter?, and prep coffin? [elsewhere in the same article app the untruthful ?tory circulated by Prus publications that 100,000 coffins Lavo b ordered" which are destined to contain that will remain of them. That meani 'the American government' destroys y family happinees, which to preserve the ( erament pretended to enter the war. It liver? you to ?tre?s and misery from wh to shield you, they said, was the purp9?e the war. "The government lied to you. Keep that mind and act accordingly. Remember fact and le? be dictated the ro::n??l *?i y? ii?*!?r ones, Ngardiag their nt?nd tS eonscr tion, by th?* r?su!t of these deliberation?." The American Government a Mong: Of Democracy and Absolutism The readers of the "Arbeiter-Zeitun are told that the government of the Unit States is an autocracy and guilty of h poerisy. Suys the "'Arbeiter-Zeitung": "Th? repreientative sy?tf-m ?m in t United Statem is no- democracy, but a mo grel of democracy and absolutism? Ah a ru '. wi!! ba th? fig-leaf of auto-rnr-v ?n critic oh???. 4"ongren? did not want th?? brenr-h wi" (?ermany, but permitf?.*?! if. CongTSM did ?< want war against fjermany, l>ul permitted I In fact, the m?tt?*r wa? arranged by on?? rn.a in wh"M h?nd? ?*? much authority ha? bei placed ?hat he can easily ?c?-ulre the c?nilr> of the lawmaker?. The Unite?! State? is no d? riccracy. H?r aaaautitO la thoroughly m??i arehical. Tim ?ecurity of democracy in one u the faine ?logan? on *rv**hlch the war ag-iim? ? ?rrriany 1? wag?-?!. . . . They don't wnnt th dem-x-ratlzatlon of ''?.many, but her eradle? tion a? a competitor for world power end he ?conomie ruin." They Say th** "If" Looms \jsTic in England The "Hrooklyner I r?i?? Presae" in formt it? readers that the situation of the Alliai i? nothing les? than hopeful. In one of its editorials It aaya: "The triumph of th? Aille? or?r their en emie? seern? to depend principally on an ': and les? on their own military ability. ' far as the Allies are concern?- ., war is ?ti an incalculable speculation and not a scient With a tenacity worthy of recognition th? pull through from failure to failure ?nd di play masterly knowledge of opening up ne ?esources before the old one? aro exhausto . . . It 'the admonition of Porrreroy Burto to do the utmost to defeat Germany] reminc us that the war i? carried on for worl dominion, and we are expected to prevent German world dominion to preserve Rriti? world dominion." The same paper also says: "T-.f Germans have required an *iron fli in thil war, says Berlin. And Kngland hu ?n iron foreh?;id to deny the effect of thi ? iron Bat." A poem reads in part, as follows: ' "Also one city of Poland : I? held (irmly by hin .the Russian's) hind. I Whatever in- gat ri'it stolen j He has burnt. | One see? that the new Russia I? ?till the old empire. It is ?he same in battle. In victory and lying." Gilling Germany'a Enemiea , Juat That?Her tnemiea In another poem entitled "The Sailor'i ; Song" the "Freie Preise" confeases openl* I to feeling absolutely German, calling Ger many's enemies its enemies: ?"But nil the sailor? are on watrh I Tho enemies threaten- day and night I Proudly flouts Germany's flag, To the envy of ??id Kngland. Theref'.rn I inubt leave you So far behind, my love." The "New-Yorker Abend-Herold" re? print? a ?tory that the New York police re fneed to interfere when h w?mnn was | iiiole.ied, and rubis, "A? If all of u? did not know that thifl Is not Germany 1" in? sinuatlng thereby that condition? In this country are leas ?atiafactory than in the | Fatherland. By the "Westliche Post," of St. Loui Maximilian Harden is called "a worth ally of British instigators and calumnir tors." A compliment to our English ally. Americans tre accused of rowdyism b the Philadelphia "Gazette" in an articl devoted to the question whether the Get man-Americans will go back to thei 1 atherland after the war. Says the ai tide: "In the old country those who trill go bac will be regarded tind treated as equals, an not a* tolerated individual? uho may b kicked any time a rowdy or Knownothing like to do so." It cannot be supposed that the autho of this article had the intention to creat Amer.can patriotism in his readers. It i hignif'cant that one of the members o "The Gazette" editorial staff, Herr Ma i Heinrici, who is official press agent qf th i .National German-American Alliance I mailed last year a circular to German American newspapers that reads in part "America would do well not to become toi frenh. Othefa 1st it Bight be that the Ger man Michael come? overnight and whips oh Uncle Sam Just as hoartily as ho deserves." Better to Leave Before The Taxes Go Up The "Gatette" adviset the German i Americans to emigrate to the old countn i because "after the war we will have, prob, ably, to pay more taxes in this land ol plenty than the citizens of any other coun? try, ss soon as the payments of the hill Ions we borrow for the war will begin." The Detroit "Abendpost" attempts to I create the Impression that Germany's U-boat war will finally triumph over the ( Allies. Of course, there applies the Ger [ man saying, "Der Wunsch ist der W.cr des Gedankens" (the wish is the father of I the thought). Economic conditions In America are i jneere?! at by the Detroit "Abendpost" in itht following language i "Only one pereon out of ten in this country, it is said, has i bank account. But even these happy peo pie don't know what the bankers do wit! the deposited money." The Allies are accused of lack of fair neat in the following: "It is said that a; . nations should apply themselves to th? greatest fairness in their relations to eacr ? ^ther. It would he very interesting U learn what excuses the Allies have for th oppression of Greece." In another editorial the same paper pro i tests against granting financial help tc Russia. Then They Accuse NorthclifTe Of ?Striving to Harm America Great Britain is accused of attempting cur ruin. The pre=ence of her official rep? resentative, Lord Northrliffe, is thus com ' merited on by the "New-Yorker Staats* ' Zeitung: "... he is still at large among us, working in the dark with his bigness, his braininess and handsomeness j to our undoing. . . . Where once American newspapers were permitted to voice the sentiments of American? they are to-day confined to the expression of 'Allied wrntimtatt.' . . . The present '?rive' against German-language news ' 1 apers in the United States is but an evi j ?etico of his Lordship's Borgian tactics. . . . Undoubtedly, our persistent cous? ins across the water are anxious to keep us in the dark as long as possiole. They want no peace but a British peace, and their only hope to secure that lies in keep? ing the world blindly fighting their battles for them." Those who want Germany to win the war and the United States to lose it argue against the embargo and voice their grief over the plight of the neutrals adjacent to Germany, or plead openly for German I ata?an and children, working secretly for the commissariat department of the Kai? ser's army, or picture the danger that, threatens this country in case some of the i eutrals should join the Central Powers. I he "California Demokrat," of San Fran? cisco, says in an article entitled "The Double Sided Sword": "There seems to be no necessity to offer to the war Moloch ? lore victims by forcing the few small up to-now neutral nations into the world war." Concerning the Embargo There la Much Apprehenaion Under the headline "New Power Well Applied," the "Abendpost," of Chicago, says editorially: "President Wilson's em bargo pol.cy is intended to cut out all ex perta to Germany except sufficient food for women and children," and thereby pleads with the United States not to cut down the exporta to the Scandinavian countries and Hoiiand so much as to prevent them from -applying "Germany's women and children with sufficient food," thereby making the German harveits available for the military exclusively. The "Waechter und Anzeiger," of Cleve? land, the paper of Waldemar von Nostitz, whom this country interned a? a dangerous alien enemy, contrasts, in an article "The Child in the War," by H. F. Urban (for i. erly of New York and now of Berlin), the German character with that of the Allies, sayin-j: "It [the world] is full of mear.nes-*, baseness, hysteria, lie- and brutality?in short, of wickedness without equal, and we people of German origin have only one comfort in the face of this world, namely, that it is not our own world." Aeroplanes Flew, "but Did Not Hurl Bomba Down" The same country states openly that it regards Germany as ita oountry and the Allies as its enemies by saying: "Enemy reronauts flew, according to an Amster? dam report, over the fortress of Cologne, tut did not hurl bombs down." "The "Illinois "Staats-Zeitung," of Chi? cago, impugns England's motives, saymgl ??When England went into the present war ?he proclaimed from the housetops, ?nd has continued doing so ever since, that it wag to uphold the right? of humanity and to pro* tec*, weak and oppre.-.sed peoples from out? rage and wrong. It was not the first tima ?he went into war steeped to the lips ?nth ' perjury and lies?. And it is not to be sup? 1 posed that it will be the last." German Pseudo-Efficiency THE military history of Pnjasia will have to be rewritten after this war-, with the view of bringing to light the real percentage of warrior's courage, treachery and corruption in victory's com? pound. Vanity of vanities! Everything "ie *?ain," said N.etzsche-Solomon three thou? sand years ago. "'Bluff of bluffs, the greater part of the much-vaunted German efficiency is legend" is the apothegm of an anonymous writer in the last issue of "The Unpopular Review" (New York, Henry Holt & Co.). A pity space larks to reproduce verbatim the charming essay, a collection of pin pricks, stabs and sledgehammer blows. "A people of thinkers?" Good heavens! A couple of ideas derived from <*xperienoo set a-breedir.g until the immense progeny spread it?elf out in the family tree of a metaphysical system. That is about all. Ar.d what has remain, d of all the philo , sophical word structurea from Christian ' Wolff and Leibnitz to Schopenhauer and ' Nietzsche? A melancholic residue of pes* . simif-m and overbearing, bordering OQ lunacy. What will happen to Germany when she faces an aftermath compared ?vith which the ravages of the Thirty Yearo' ? War were sporadic in extent and easilj* | reparable ia beyond conjecture.