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All the Outstanding Events of the
War, Briefly Sketched THE following is a chronological table covering all the most important events in the Great War. It has heen prepared mainly from material tahu lated month hy month in the "Review of Reviews": June, 19U Jl'NE 28 Archduke Franz Ferdinand fheir to the throne of Austria-Hungary I atad his ?rife are shot and killed by a Bosnian at Sara jcvo, Bosnia; the assassination is believed to have been the result of a political con? spiracy. Jl'NE 29?Many anti-Serbian outbreaks oe :ur in the vicinity of Sarajevo, Serbians be? ing popularly held responsible for the as? sassination of the Austrian Crown Prince. July, 19M Jl'LY 23 Austria demands of Serbia the punishment of accomplices in the murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the suppression 5f anti-Austriar* societies in Bo?nia and the official d ?avowal of Serbian connection with anti-Austrian propaganda; an answer fs de? manded by 6 P. If. on July 25. Jl'LY 2."i Serbia agrees to all the lie mands of Austria-Hungary except that which ?tipulated that Austro-Hungaria:* officials ?hould participate in the inquiries; the re? ply is rejected as insufficient. The Russian government icts it become ?nown that it will not permit Austria-Hun tary to make war upon Serbia on a pretext. JL'LY 2t> A semi-official statement ut Ber? lin indicates that Germany has warned other powers lot to interfere with Austro-Hun rarian plans to discipline Serbia. Jl'LY 28?Austria declares war upon -rbia. Jl'LY 29- The Czar of Russia issues an imperial ukase ordering a partial mobiliza? tion of reservists. Austria begins hostilities against Serbia by bombarding Belgrade. JL'LY 31?Germany peremptorily de? mands that Russia cease its menacing mobil? ization. An imperial decree proclaims a state of war throughout the German Empire. August, 1914 AUGUST 1?Germany declares war on Russia, following the refusal of the Rus? sian government to stop mobilizing its re- i terree. Germany asks to know immediately the in? tentions of France in the event of war be- : iween Germany and Russia. The French Cabinet council orders a gen? eral mobilization of the French army. The Italian government notifies the Ger- ? man Ambassador at Rome that it does not ' tegard its obligations, a: a member of the Triple Alliance, as compelling it to assist , Austria-Hungary and Germany under the i ?ircumstance?. which brought on the present I .onflict. AUGUST 2 German troops enter the neu :ral Duchy of Luxemburg and advanceil tor? ard the French frontier. Germany demands to know whether Bel? gium would permit the free passage of troops across Belgian territory; Belgium permission, and declares that she will de? fend her neutrali'.\. \l GIST :t Official announcemcr.' Berlin state that Germany is at war with Russia because of a Russian attack on Ger? man territory, and that France's unsatisfac _orv reply to Germany'.? note, together with Hie mobilization of the French army, make the outbreak of war between Germany and Frame imminent. The French Premier states that French roops had been withdrawn ten kilometres from the German frontier, and that the fact ?f German aggression on French territory is ncontestable. Germany informs Belgium that she will :arry out by force her plans to approach the t rench frontier through Belgian territory; Cierman troops enter Belgium at Yerviers. King Albert of Belgium appeals to King George of England for diplomatic interven? tion to safeguard the neutrality of Bei ^ | um. Bj \l?.l >r 1 i.reat Britain declares war on V .iermany upon the summary rejection of the demand that (Iermany re.-pect the neu ;rality of Belgium. The German Ambast-ador at Brussels in? forms the Belgian government that a state ?ar exists between Germany and Bel (ium. President Wilson signs a formal proclama? tion of neutrality on the part of the United States. AUGUST 3 The German army begins an attack on the fortifications of Li?ge, Bel fium. \l l?I > T 6 Austria-Hungary' formally arar on Rni AUGUST 7 Montenegro declare?; wa? on Au-.. AUGUST - ;-r -? ? British troops are land. | rench coast, for the relief of tn? Bel| as Army at Li?ge. The Portuguese government announces .*. will acti.ely support Great Britain, IkB accordance with an old treaty. M GIST I] (?reat Britain severs diplo ? rela With Austna-Hungary, and declares that a state of war exists. The Frenen Wer OSes announces that French and German troops are in tontac* along almo't the entire front o' M*. miles, from Holland to Switzerland. AUGUST lb Japan demands tha* Ger? many shall immediately withdraw he- war? ships from Japanese and Chinese waters, ind deliver to Japan, without condition or .ompenaation, the German possessions of liai-chai, w,'h a view to their eventual :eatorat>?.*i ... ( hina; an answer is demanded St lltaM than noon on August 2*5. AUGUST 1U The Rus.? mn General Staff announces that the general mobihzal.on ha? LOM and that the advance has oegun. AUGUST 1? Louvain, lying between Liege and Bruasels, is occupied by German troops. AL'GL'ST 2S Brussels, the capital of Bel? gium, is occupied by ?ierman? without re ??stance. AUGUST 22 The German line paaae? Gbent and approaches Ostend; the main body beg.ns a siege of the strongly forti fied city of Namur. At'M HT 21 Japan declares war on Ger many. AUGUST 24 The French War (tffir, ?d mata that the general offenaive movement ?'f tac Allies has (ailed, and that the French I the German port of Kiau-chau. t nina, AUGUST .'?1 A Russian imperial decre change.? the name of the capital from St Petersburg to Petrograd. September, 1914 SEPTEMBER 1 The German governmen leports a victory over the Russian army ol on at Allens?ein, Prussia, which re suited in the rout of 120,000 Russians anc i the capture of 70,000 prisoners; the Rus , sian government admits a defeat. After a battle lasting seven days, the I Russian army in Austria, under General Ruzsky, takes the strongly fortified posi? tions around Lemberg, the most important city in Galicia, and inflicts a decisive defeat upon the Austrian Brmy. SEPTEMBER I As the German army of invasion arrivai within striking distance of i'ai.s, the scat of the Preach government is transferred to Bordeaux, near the western ? oast. SEPTEMBER I Khcim?, a strongly forti? fied city in the second French line of de? fence, is occupied by German troops with ou* resistance. SEPTEMBER 7 The gradual but steady retreat of the French and British forces be fore the German attack, begun at Mons on August. u:i, Il halted on a lino extending from a point slightly north of Paris to Ver? dun, and a strong offensive movement by the Allies" centre and left is begun. Russia formally annexes Galicia, the largest province of Austria; it is estimated that i*?2,000 Austrian soldiers have been captured by the Russian army. SEPTEMBER 10 The retreat of the Ger? man right wing, under pressure fiom the strong offensive movement of the Allies ..now believed to be in superior numbers), becomes more pronounced and rapid. SEPTEMBER 13 General Joffre, com? mander in chief of the French forces, re? ports that a five-day battle with the Ger? man right and centre, in the vicinity of the River Marne, has ended in an undeniable victory. SEPTEMBER 21 The end of the fourth ! week of the German invasion of France, through Belgium, finds the German army from thirty to fifty miles back from its furthest point of advance, on September 7. SEPTEMBER 22 Thru* British armored cruisers the Aboukir. the ('ressy, and the Hogue, aro sunk in the North Sea by the German submarine l'-it; 1,450 lives are lost. | SEPTEMBER 28 Japanese troops com- ! pl?*tely invest Tsing-tau, the fortified portion ? and seat of government of Kiau-chau. October, 1914 OCTOBER ."> The end of the second ! month of the war finds the German armies on the defensive in France and Russia, and on the offensive in Belgium; German forces, occupy more than half of Belgium and a large portion of northeastern France, but j no hostile armies are on German soil. m TOBER 9 Aatwerp is surrendered to' the German attacking force. King Albert and most of the Belgian army escape to A Russian official statement of the occupa? tion of Lyck marks the beginning of the ! second Russian attempt to invade East ' Prussia. OCTOBER 1*?The seat of the Belgian government is moved again, from Ostend to ? Havre, France. OCTOBER M The trial (at Sarajevo, Bos? nia! of Gavrio Prinzip and twenty-three ac? complices in the assassination of the Aus? trian Archduke Fraai Ferdinand and his wife ends in a verdict of guilty. November, 1914 NOVEMBER :. Great Britain and France I make formal declaration of war on Turkey, ? because of hostile acts and the refusal of Turkey to dismiss German navnl officers. NOVEMBER 7 Tsing-tau is surrender d to t?-. ? and British force?. NOVEMBER 21 Thru great Russian ar imies are engaged in battle* of utmost im ' portancc. In the north, the Russians con- ' tinue to gain ground in East Prussia; in the south, the siege of the great Austrian strong? hold of Craeow has bagan; and in the centre, j the Russians claim to have checked the Ger ' man offensive movement in Poland. NOVEMBER 24 Russia officially reports 1 that the German army invading Poland has begun a retreat. December, 1914 DECEMBER <"> One of the German armies The Conquerors This drawing by Fritcl, copyrighted by Braun ?$ Co., of Paris, and the original of which is onned by John Wanamaler, was widely circul?t :d (hiring the earl g months of the rear. It illustrates quite strikingly the attitude of perhaps a majorif// of Americans during the first phases, when the very fact itself of rear obliterated', to a large extent, meditation upon sp?cifie rights and wrongs. ing the American flap as a protection agai German submarine attack. FEBRUARY 10 The United States g ernmrnt sends notes to Germany and Gr Britain lelative to American shipping in war 7*nne; Germany is advised that it wo he a serious and unprecedented breach in iules of naval warfare if a merchant ves should be destroyed without first certai determining its belligerent nationality or contraband character of its cargo; Gr Britain is warned of the serious con quences that may result to American VOOt and citizens if the practice of us.ng I American Ulf on British vessels is contint generally. FEBRUARY 16 Germany offers to wi draw her intention to war against Rriti merchant vessels if Great Britain will p. mit the free movement if foodstuffs to t civil population of Germany. PEBSUABY -V' The fleet of British a French warships resumes its attempt to foi the Dardanelles, and completely reduces t four forts at the entrance. March, 1915 MARCH t The Russian army occupi Stanislan, in Galicia. MUM H 6 Premier Venizelos. of Gree< ; his programme for entering the *M on the side of the Allie- was opposed 1 King ?'onstantine. MABCB 'J The British army, supporta by French heavy arti'lery, makes an ir portant advance against the Germans, ca turing the village of Neuve Chapelle, Northern Fiar.ir-. MARCH 22 The great Austrian fortre cf PrSSliysl, in Galicia, is surrendered the Russian army under General Dmitrie after a siege berrun in the early weeks the war. April, 1915 APRIL 17 British forces make importai advances j-outheast. of Ypres, in Belgium. APRIL 25 -The Allied forces renew the attack upon the forts protecting Constant riople. APRIL 26 The French. English and Be gian armies around Ypres check the (> man offensive and recapture some of tr ground lost. May, 1915 MAY 1 - The American oil-carrying stean er Gulflight, bound for a French port, is sun off the Scilly Islands with a lo*s of thre lives; the crew declared that the ship wa torpedoed by a German submarine. MAY 2 AlStriu and German troop 1 Inder General von Mackensen force back th Russian line along the entire front is em Galicia. MAY i Italy denounces the Triple Alii anee iwith Germany and Austrr MAY 7 The I.usitania is torpedoed an ; sunk by a German submarine, without warn , ing. off the southern coast of Ireland; 1,1;? 'persons lose their lives (including more thai 10U Americans i, and 7?i7 are rescued. MAY 13 The capital of German South West Africa, Windhoek, is occupied by L'nioi , of South Africa forces under General Botha MAY 1.1 The Ulited States protests t? Germany against her submarine policy. Th? ' note states that the I'nited States expect? (iermany to disavow the sinking of the I.u-; ; tania and take steps to pre"?nt the recur : rence of such acts. It de. lares that th? I'nited States will not omit any word or acl , necessary to maintain the rights of 11 ' zens. Germany declares that more than 100.00C Russians were maale prisoners during th? recent battles and pursuit in Westen Galicia MAY 23 Italy formally declares that s state of war with Austria-Hungary will ex? ist from May to. June, 1915 Jl'NE .1 The continued Austro-German offensive in Galicia results in the recapture I of the Austrian stronghold of Przemysl, the Rum?.an army retreating toward I.emberg. Jl'NE 8 The Ameiican Secretary of State, William J. Bryan, resigns his. office rather 1 than join in sending to Germany the -econd note of protest, prepared by President Wil? son, relating to submarine attacks without warning on merchant ships of American own? ership or carrying American passengers. JUNI 9 The United States replies to Ger? many's note of May 2S, maintaining that the ?inking of passenger ships by German sub? marines, without warning, violates principles of humanity and of law; it asks for assur? ances that measures will he adopted to safe? guard American lives and American ships. Jl'NE 11 Italian troops, after several days of fighting, occupy Monfalcope. thereby severing one ol two isilway lines running to Trieste. j JL'NE II ? A German Zeppel.n airship makes a second night raid on th?? nort east coast of England, sixteen persons beii killed by bombs. Jl NE 22 The Austro-Gorman drive Galicia forces the Russians out of Lei borg. July, 1915 JULY I The gnat Austro dorm?n offe sive in Galicia, against the Russian?, appa cntly cornea to an end, having blocked tl threatened invasion of Hungary and forci the Rusaiaaa almost entirely out of Au.-'r; JULY fi Gi'rmany replies to the Aim rui? n?te of June 10 rogarrling the submarine wi against merchant ships; safety Is pledged 1 Stetes r?esele in tjie war . JULY II Germany formally admit thi the Nebraskan, a United States merchai ship, was damaged without warning by a to peilo from a German submarine. JULY I? Im'ications point to the begii ning of a new offensive against Russia h Germany, with Warsaw as the probable ol jective. JULY 21 The United States sends a thir note to Germany relative to the rights r neutral passengers on merchant ships; th German note of July I Is declared to li "verv unsatisfactory." August, i915 AUGUST ?> German troops occupy War saw, the capital of Russian Poland. AUGUST 18 Ex-Premier Venizelos ac cepts the King'? invitation to form a cabine In Greece. AUGUST 2.') Brest!.itnvsk, the most im portant fortress on RaSSia1 Second line o defence, Is occupied by German tn September, 1915 SEPTEMBER 1 The ?l.plomatic controver ? 'ween the 1'nite 1 States and German approaches a satisfactory conclusion througl I the declarations of the German Ambassado :?? Washington that hereafter liners will no j be sunk by lierman submarines wi'.hou warning. SEPTEMBER 9 ?The United States ask: Austria-Hungary to recall its Ambassador l?r. Dumba, because of his connection w?tl a movement to cripple American munitior ? lies. SEPTEMBER II The German army cap U'ilna. October, 1915 OCTOBER 2 Reports from the Russiar zone indicate that the German offensive ha? slackened all along the line and that the ?, resistance has stiffened. OCTOBER I King i eastaatiae. of Greece, informs Premier Venizelos that he cannot support pro-Ally policy, and the Prouver resigna, OCTOBER 11 Bulgarian armies cross the border into Serbia at several points east of Ni.-h. an?l Bulgaria enters the war as an ally of Germany, Aastria-Haagary ??i*.?1 Turkey. OCTOBER 17 The French and British troops lamled on Greek soil are reported to have entered Bulgarian territory and at? tacked the fortified town of Strumit^a. OCTOBER 24 The Bulgarian army cap? tures Uakab, in central Serbia. November, 1915 NOVEMBER 19 It is estimated that four fifths of Serbia Is occupied by the invading Austro-Geiman and Bulgarian armies. NOVEMBER 29 The Austrian War Office reparte progress in an inva: ion of Montene? gro from the north p.nd west. December, 1915 DECEMBER 14 Bulgarian report? indi? cate that the Serbian and Anglo-French ar? mies have been driven entirely out of Serbia, January, 1916 JANUARY 1 A Russian offensive against the Austro-Hunganan forces in Galicia and Bakowiaa gains headway. JANUARY 17 It is reported that Monte* negro has ?urrendered unconditionally to the Au-tro-Hunganan armies of invasion, thus becoming the first of the belligerents to withdraw from the war. JAM'ARY 26 The compulsory service measure passet its final reading in the Brit? ish House of Lords. February, 1916 FERRl ARY 10 Germany and Austria an? nounce that after February 29 they will treat armed merchant ships of enemy countries as , war eoooole, March, 1916 MARCH H Germany declares war on Port? ugal heraus?? of the seizure of German mer- ; | chant ships In Portuguese harbors, as the! climax of a long series of breaches of ne trality. MARCH II Grand Admiral von Tirpitz r sign?, as German Minister of Marine; he succeeded by Admiral von Capelle. April, 1916 APRIL I The official French report of t ?inking of the torpedoed unarmed China steamer Sussex is made public. APRIL If) Germany replies to the Ame ?can government's inquiries regarding t) sinking of the Sussex; the note denies th; the Teasel whs sunk by a German submarin APRIL 22 An attempt to land arms ar ammunition in Ireland by a German sixilifil cruiser and a submarine is thwarted by tl British naval patrol. APRIL 21 A revolution breaks out in Dul lin, led by armed members of the Sinn F?i society. May, 1916 MAY 1 It is officially announced that a the rebels in Dublin have surrendered an that those in the country districts are fo! lowing suit. M \\ I Germany's reply to the America rote of April IS regarding the conduct o labmarine warfare states that the Germa na\a! forces have been ordered not to sin merchant vessel.; without warning and with mu nTilf lives, Bliese a ship shall attemp to c-cupe or offar resistance; the reply als suggests that the United States will no\ ? tiiar (?real Br.tain observe the rule of international law. MAY R The I'nited States replies to th Orinan note of May ?, accepting the declara tion of abandonment of the submarine wa ?gainst merchant ships, but declaring *ha the new policy cannot be made contingen upon the result of diplomatic negotiation betwrMS the United States and England. M \*i 21 Ti.e thud month of the battl of Verdun opens. MAI IS King George signs the Brit;si compulsory military service bill, applicabl? to all ablebodied men between the ages ol ?? 'ghteen and forty-one. June, 1916 JINK 1 Rnssisn armies under Genera Brnsiloff begin an offensive on a front ol 250 miles, extending from the Pripet River to the Rumanian frontier. JUNE 22 -The Greek government acceder to the densndf of the Entente Powers, in? cluding completa? demobilization of the army, the formation of a UaWW Cabinet without po? litical color, and the dissolution of the Cham? ber, with the subsequent holding of new elec? tions. July, 1916 JULY I Trie Rissill offensive against the Germans and Austrians grows in power and scope. 1ULT 0 A great German commercial sub? marine, the Deutschland, arrives at Baltimore. JULY It The British renew their attick on the second line of German trenches north of the Somme, breaking through a four-mile front. August, 1916 AUGUST 9?Italian troops cross the Isonzo River and occupy the Austrian city of Go rizia. taking more than 10,000 prisoners in three days. AUGUST 27?Rumania enters the war on the fids of ths All.es and begins hostilities against Austria-Hungary. September, 1916 BBPTBMBBB 26 Former Premier Venize lof arrivai at Crete and accepts membership. with Admiral Coundouriot.is, in a provisional government whose object shall be the de? fence of Greek Macedonia from Bulgarians and the joining with the Allies against all their enemies. October, 1916 ?KTOBER 10 The State Department at Washington makes public its reply to identic memoranda from France. Great Britain, Rus? sia and Japan 'dated August it), which had asked neutral governments to exclude bellig? erent submarines from neutral waters; the United States expresses i?I surprise and re? jects the proposal. November, 1916 NOVFMBKR 2 (?reek revolutionists, fol? lowers of Venizelos, occupy Katenna after a short fight with government troops. NOVEMBER 3 A new Kingdom of Poland is proclaimed by the Emperors of Germany und Austria Hungary, confined to territory c/Miquercd from Russia. NOVEMBER 21 Francis Joseph, Emperor j of Austria and King of Hungary, dies Vienna, at the age of eighty-six and in sixty-eighth year of his reign; he is s ceeded by his grandnephew. December, 1916 DECEMBER 1 Greek royalists loyal King Constantine fire upon French marii in Athens; British and Italian sailors landed from the Allied fleet to assist I French. DECEMBER 6-German armies under Fi Marsha! ?on Mackenstn occupy Bucharest DECEMBER 20 The State Department Washington makes public the text of not practically identical, sent by President *A son on December 11 to the belligerent i tions of Europe; he suggests that an ea occasion be sought to call out from the i tions an avowal of their respective views gardirg peace terms; he does not prop, peace and does not offer mediation; the r.< al?o declares that the people of the Unit States stand ready and eager to coopera when the war is over, in measures to seen the futurp peace of the world. DECEMBER 26 Germany replies to Pr ident Wilson's note to the belligerents, h proposes "an immediate meeting of de gates of the belligerent states at a neuti place"; the reply fails, however, to meet t President's suggestion that war aims or pea terms be stated. DECEMBER 27 After a five-day battle Eastern Wallachia, Rumania, the Russia are forced to retreat further north. DECEMBER 30 The reply of the ten E tente Allies to the German peace note r states the efforts of England, France ai Russia to avert war, refers at length to t Belgian invasion and continued sufferir and refuses to "consider a proposal whi is empty and insincere." January, 1917 JANUARY 1 Germany and Austria ha acknowledged the complete Independence Turkey. JANUARY 2 The Russisns are driven e i tirely out of the Dobrudja district, and t Germans make other advances in Ruman proper. JANUARY 10 The Entente governmen replying to President Wilson's note of D comber IS, refuse to make peace terms knov ? in detail until the hour of negotiation?, b ! state that they imply in general: the r< ! toration and evacuation of invaded territo .?including Alsace-Lorraine ?. with reparatic j and indemnities; the liberation of Italian . Slavs, Rumanians and Bohemians from Au i trian domination, the expulsion of Turk? i from Europe and the enfranchisement < Turkish populations; Belgium transmits I supplemental reply. JANUARY 22- President Wilson, addres '. Ir.g the Senate of the United States, giv? expression to his views regarding peac? "First of all, it must be a peace without vi< tory": "there should be a united and ind? pendent and autonomous Poland," as a sing! instance of government only by consent o the governed; outlets to the sea should b neutralized; "the paths of the seas mu! alike in law and in fac? be free," and militar as well as naval armaments must be limit? JANUARY 27?British announcement of th new "dangerous zone" in the North Sea extending across the whole of the Germa coast and part of Denmark and Holland?i 'nterpreted as meaning that the area has bet i mined by ihe British as a means of blockin, the exit of submarines and sea raiders. JANUARY II Germany declares tha "from February 1, 1917, sea traffic will b stopped with every available weapon am without further notice" without warning, ii zones around Great Britain, Francp, Italy and in the eastern Mediterranean; America? passengor ships will be undisturbed if the; sail onco a week, bear certain markings, tak a prescribed course, land only at Falmouth arrive on Sumlay and depart on Wednesday and carry no contraband. February, 1917 FEBRUARY 3 The I'nited States sever: diplomatic relations with Germany, on thi ground that the German government's an? nouncement of January 31 withdraws 'he as? surance given on May 4, 1916, that Germany would confine war operations to the fighting forces of the belligerents. The German Ambassador at Washington requests the Swiss Minister, Dr. Paul Ritter, to take charge of German affairs in the United States. FEBRUARY 4 President Wilson expresses to neutral nations his belief that it will make for the peace of the world if they take ac? tion against Germany similar to that taken by the United States. FEBRUARY 12 The British forces on the Tigri?* front make an important advance against the Turkish position west of Kut-el Amara. FEBRUARY 25 The Cunard liner Laconi? is torpedoed and sunk without warning at night, off the Irish coast; 12 persons, in? cluding two American women, are drowned or die from exposure. FEBRUARY 26 President Wilson appears before Congress and asks authority to arm merchant ships; he declares that an "over* act" by German submarine commanders has not yet occurred I the Laconia incident had not become known I, March, 1917 MARCH 6 The United States receives a reply to requests for information regarding extent to which Austria-Hungary will follow the German plan to sink merchant ship? with? out warning; the reply is an argument in justification of the Teutonic claim that neu? tral.? should not use enemy ships and that a general warning is sufficient. MARCH 11 Rioting in Petrograd assumes the proportions of a revolution; the disturb? ances began over temporary shortage of food and continued for three days, with sympa? thetic strikes in munition factories, and : finally with the mutiny of the troops in th? capital. Bagdad, the most important city of Meso? potamia, and terminus of Germany's gr?a". railway project, is captured by British troops. MARCH 12 Ihe Russian Duma meets in defiance of the I zar's decree of dissolution, and assumes direction of the revolutionary movement; it informs the Czar that internal reforms must be granted and the presen? Cabinet dismissed; the new leaders in Rus? sia are those who favor more energetic prose cution of the war, while the old are charged with pro-German leanings. The United States gives formal notice to | the world that it has decided to p?. armed guard on all American mercha*. sels sailing through the area3 barred b? many. MARCH 15 Czar Nicholas II abdicat throne of Russia for himself and hi. favor of his brother, Grand Duke V Alexandrovitch. MARCH 22 The United States ? formal recognition to the new govern? Russia, the first nation thus to set; th ish, French and Italian Ambasssdori ?. rograd later convey official recog...,?0. their governments. MARCH 30 The Russisn governmiB fers to Poland an opportunity to eho? future form of governmen*. preaurashi new indepemlent Poland, formed of ?ii three new separate parts" "bound to sia by a free military union." April, 1*)17 APRIL 2 Preside-! Wllsei asks th? A ican Congress to declare that th* recent of the Imperial German government ?> fact war. The American steamer Astes is mob , out warning. APRIL 6 The Unite,! State? ?ter, war. unon the signing by President W of a joint resolution passed by ('ongren daring that a state of war has been th upon the United State? hy the Imperial man Government. APRIL 11?The Brazilian government ers diplomatic relations with Germsny. APRIL 23 The British resume their o? sive at Arras and Lens. May, 1917 MAY I The Russian Provisions! Got. ment volunteers to the Entente Power? mal assurance that there will be no Hk ening on the part of Russia in the eta struggle of the Allies." MAY 11 The Russian Council of W0 men's and Soldiers' Delegates votes to ta peace conference, to meet in a neutra! ce try, after "an app**al to the people? of world and a special appeal to Sotialnts allied countries." MAT 18 President Wilson signa s hill ating an army of 500,000 men in the l'r. States, under a selective conscription ayst to be called out for training in Septeml he also announces that a division of the | ular army will be sent to France as loo? practicable. MAY 19 The reorganized Provisional ?" err.ment in Rll a declaration policy; it rejects "all thought of a sepa; peace, but welcomes | general peace, w ;'.'*: annexation or indemnity." MAY 21 Premier U ! ?ieorge lays be' Parliament his proposal that all fsctioni the people of Ireland meet in convention i decide upon i turm of gover-IB MAY 24 The Palian otfcfl Austrian lines enters a second | i ing through on the C? ?o Plateau, nortbti ! of Trieste, and resulting in the 9,000 Austrians. June, 1917 JUNE 9 A communication from Pre?iii Wilson to the Provisional Governm?*.' Russia warns againit the propaganda o Germany facing defeat, and states a: America's war aims, which include read.' monts of power tending to secure the ful peace of the world and the welfare of peoples. JUNE 12 King Constantino of Greece dicates in response to the demands of E latid, France and Russia; sil second i Alexander, twenty-four year? a,Id, is se!? to succeed him. JUNE || The American ? isisi to F sia Is welcomed at Petrograd hy the P visional Government. JUNE 17 The Russian DlSSS ??tea favor of "an immediate of- ?? in cloie operation with Russia's lili? JUNE 23?The (?reek Cabinet ot ik ander Zaimis resigns, and e? Premier <* izelos la authorized by the young Kinj A? ander to form a new Mills! The movement against Leif, the Fre* coal city occupied by the GsilllfSS. makes M ??antia! progress; Canadia'i 'roopi sdvan from the southw? t, on a frei ' of s m!e M a half. JUNE 26 The first ro-" Stamm I troops arrive.? at a French port, hating sa.. secretly on June 14; Germ?*. -ab-narire? *? met twice and driven off by naval tmOOtt. JUNE 29 (,r.cce ?. wort ; tions with Germany a-d h't all-' - Greek government cons .. rs Itself st *sr. July, 1917 JULY ! The Russian sr7*.y led is ">*** by Minister of War Keren-ny ?? by General Scott, chief of sturT sf States Army assumes a" off? cia) for the first time since JULY 7 A leading member of * - 'Catholic) party. MlthtlS El ing before the Reichstag Ksis te?mwS\ voices a demand for the ?au-.nation t\ programme of "peace wit!?.at srrexatio'1* which precipitates a crisif in GttaaSS/9*? meetic affair?. JULY 10 The advancing RufSisS ***'** i under General KornilofTi eiptsr? ???****?" important military po;nt in (?a!.cia. JULY 14 Germany's pol.iical crisis hr?? abou' the resignation of Theobald von S* mann-Ho?wet:, lmjerin.1 Chlieeller Ibtmt years; Dr. Alfred Zimmermann Foreign 5* retary, and General von S'.i.r.; Pr *J*** Michaelis. Prussian Food Controller **?> L'nder Secretary of Finance, becomes CE* cellor. JULY 17 Four members ot 'he Ruis'? Cabinet resign, being opposed to bSmtSt concessions establishing autonomy ?<" Ukraine; serious noting occurs il Pe7roff? with lighting between armed members of extreme radical faction and f tr?iops. JULY US Petrograd troops re*.olt. Jl I.V 19 Th- Ml German Chai" " ? Michaelis, in his ad.iros te the declares his adhesion to the submarine cs? paign. JULY 22 The Russian armv ?a ?".a^1? in retreat, as a result of mutiny if '""" regiments. Jl I.V 23- Kerensky is BMafc D ??'?*''t ' Russia. ? The Allied governments agree ?*? j Russian government t.? a meeting for f*"*** discussions of war aims. JULY 21 Re\olt in the Russen st spreads, and the Russians are e*m**t ' Stamslau. an important stronghold in NI eastern Galicia.