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New-York tribune. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, July 30, 1917, Image 9

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The Sinews of War
Soldiers of the Harvest No Longer Ride Beams or
Sleep in Barns?They Ride in Motors, Eat at
Abundant Tables and Earn $5 a Day
LINCOLN". XF.B., July 20.?We were foUowing the advanc?
ing harvest battle front northward. Our conveyance was
one of those formidable looking, cigar-shaped steel motor
coaches that some Western roads use instead of steam trains for
local and branch line runs. They have ports instea-d of windows
4nd look like a cross between a Pullman and a submarine, How?
ler fonnidable they may look, riding in one of them gives von an
intimacy with the country that you never fee] in a locomotive-*
?i train.
Up from the valley of the Republican and Great Smoky and
?he Kiw?names loaded with the romance of the Indian fighting
days- we followed the sadly misnamed Blue River. It is as
Iced as a snake going through cane, and our northbound track
ggs just as crooked. The water is of the color of chocolate. Sub?
stitute chocolate for honey, and you might say this is a land flow?
ing with milk and chocolate. It was early, and many a farm hand
was milking near the track as we passed. These our jovial coach
lull of migrating harvest hands chaffed right merrily?for be it
known that a harvest hand is not to be confused with a "hired
man." Some social gulf!
Wheat and corn, oats and alfalfa, potatoes and milo, fat
porkers, beef steers as round as barrels, confortable dairy cattle,
occasionally sheep and always poultry?the whole land literally
covered with some form of foodstuff. It was a realized dream of
plenty?riotous, all-pervading plenty.
"But how do all these people make a living?"
It was a yellow corded soldier from The Bronx in the next
icat, talking to another from Pittsburgh?cavalrymen who had
jiever bestridden a horse?city boys who were innocent of the
"Ah nevah like to interrupt conversation, geminen," sweetly
drawled the keen-eyed harvester from Corpus Christi, "but you
all ah right now in the durndest biggest factory in the world."
"Factory ?" asked the rookie from The Bronx as he scanned
the horizon for smokestacks.
"Yessuh, this is where they make what you eat. Honest now,
did you evah see such a big factory before?" and the Texan made
a gesture that swept the horizon.
The Texan was right.
Confronted by such a colossal food factory, it is hard to think
that the world is near the famine line. The harvest hands scoffed
;?t the idea, and from general food the conversation went naturally
to particular food, to the quantity and quality of the "eats" served
to the field laborers. Appetizing word pictures were painted
somewhat in this way :
"Usually the farmer's wife seats four of us at a long table.
That table is stacked high and wide with grub; fresh fruit, canned
irr.it, potatoes, tomatoes, onions, radishes, relishes, patent sauces,
big stacks of bread, blocks ?*>f yellow butter, pitchers <*>f milk, ham
*nd eggs, fresh beef, fried chicken, two or three kinds of pie?.
and a lot of other stuff that 1 can't think of."
"But no hot bread." admitted the Floridian, mournfully.
Three times a day the sturdy soldiers of the harvest valiantly
attack such a bill of fare. Moreover, once in the forenoon an/
??nee in the afternoon comes the farmer's daughter or boy with a
"little lunch" that would last a clerk a week.
Truly, it is a case of all honor to the harvester. He is to-day
the privileged guest of Kansas and Nebraska and all the great food
factory that stretches from the Alleghanies to the Rockies and
irom North Saskatchewan to the Gulf. No more second table
?tuff for him. Xo more sleeping in the barn or in the hay. I;or
him the finest fare at the first table, with mother and daughter
eager to do his bidding; for him the best bed and the guest room.
Yes, and for him rapid transit in the farmer's motor car from
station to farm and back, and $4 or $5 a day cash over and above
- entertainment
Living thus on the fat of the land, the great annual migration
vi harvesters sweeps up from Texas into Canada. Reception
committees made up of our competing best citizens meet them at
the -tarions and bid for their services. When they feel flush and
xn for luxury they pay railway fare and ride at ease. Other
MS they ride tree. On the bumpers or brake rods? Perish the
thought. The tops of freight cars?even sometimes the caboose
for them. The unwritten ' n~ of the West at the time of the
tear tor trainmen is: Lose youf sight going north, but be hawk
?.yed going south.
Once in a while an over-conscientious brakeman remembers
only h's written instructions.
"We were riding the top? the other day," said the man from
Miami, Fla., "and a brakey comes along and tells us to get off.
Xothin* doing. We told him if he was so anxious about us he
might try putting us off."
"T won't now,' he says, 'but when we get out in the country
Hi ?top the train and throw youse off."
"That's just what we want.' "
Lven the brakeman perceived the humor of attempting to
JJuni?h a harvester by putting him off opposite a job.
Movie Stars Appear
In "First Reel" for
New Qubhouse Fund
Hitchcock Master of Ceremonies
at Benefit in the Casino
"Ak?-r! I.?vj>? and gtntlemen, w*
**** with us to-night Alles Brady.
Mat father is a famous man, -and ont
*Bf e\l.eg ?g'.-j to hm: 'Fathar, I want
? ?*? famous, too,' and he neld: "Au"**,
**** gri right ??n end ?*>? famous,' and
?iSt*, Oa'.ng an obadiant child, did, snd
??*?"? ?ha In, and aim's go in if to t'ng
Mt I'm"
?*?>**-'?? guaaa*-d it. Tb?, apaaksr is
***** otbor than Raymond HlVehrocVc,
***** BitcJaj- ths Grast, who is M
???m i',r hit i"urt_in aptachta a*
????all t,tT its ukulalaa. Arid ha wat
?^'?duelng U><* "tal??nt" at tha Fir-t
**? *t tha Surtan floh In th* ?"'?sino
***atr?, Thirty-ninth ItMal and
?*C-a?j?a.y, I?,,, ?.j,,*,
**?? ?***>?ij Club'? Tir?t Real wstn't
???a? st all. It was s glorifiai* ?sudt
*"*"-*? th-rw. I? me* *?o bad that tha
*?*** that sio??J ?n ?vtmlng outtid*
MU, _?*'"*' ?<-okin-g longingly at tha
"i*****-"**-? poturt whleh announced
*"?*? Jayea, htraalf," snd Franela X.
Bushman and Reverley Bayn? an
Jean Sothtrn didn't all have ticket
For there were enough film favorite
on the bill to gladden the heart <i
even the most insatiable movie fan.
Alice Brady sang the "Marsei'.'aiae
and the house stood up and cheerer
Than Miss Brady made a face at Ttay
mond Hitchcock, who was makin
faces at her from behind the flies, jura
a? he had been doing to all the per
formers all evening, and left the stage
Temperament, you know.
Thvn Hitchcock interrupted the pro
grarnrn?' long enough to ask: "Is Roa
coe 'Fatty* Arbuckle in th* house
No? Well I didn't think sc. for th'
house don't look crowded." Hitchcocl
"The n?xt number is the Five Ma
icttis. I don't know what Mazotti* are
But they're lawfully nice looking chaps
and from looking at them I susprci
tuipect, mmrl you that they're geltl*
to do an acrobatic turn."
J,mn Sothern came next and sang a
Jot ijf funny SOBfS. She mad? * hit
too. Then there wa? John Davidson
Virginia Pearson, M'-ntagu Ixave. Ilahol
Taliafsrro Slid One Edwarda, whose
Springtime Revus the Servan Club
"borrowed" for the evening. Then Hal
Crane, a mere legit, put on a sketch.
Edward C. Whit? waa the general man?
ager of the reel, which waa tha fire?.
?tap toward raising a fund ol 1500,000
for the parp?se of building a n?w club
house aoinewhere in th? vicinity of
Times Square.
Leave for General Gonzalez
Mesieo City, July 26. -General Tablo
Gonzales, commander of the Division
of th? East, haa b?an grsnUd two
month?' leave of abeenoe, and will go
to hi? horn? in the northern part of
th? republic ?and probably also will
visit th? United States.
15 Motherless
Children Need
Fresh Air Help
Father Is a Longshoreman
and His Wages Are
Pitifully Smal.
Never Saw the Country
Tribune Readers Asked to
Give Hungry Brood a
Real Outing
Longshoreman fifteen motherless
children-low wages high cost of liv?
ing: the elements of a pitiful story. If
you can spare $8 or any multiple of
six up to fifteen times that sum, read
the story. Otherwise, don't; it will
only pull your heartstrings to no avail.
The Tribune Fresh Air Fund has
been asked to give vacations with
food! to Marie and some of her
brothers and sisters, but the Tribune
Fresh Air Fund is only a name if it
have not the public's money.
Girl Had "Beanitts"
Here is the story in full as told by
the nurse who cared for Mari? when
she was sick:
"Marie came to us suffering from
what the doctor feared was appendi?
citis. She had a temoerature of 103
degrees and was suffering great pain.
"Questioning as to what she had
been doing during the few days pre?
ceding her coming developed the fact
that ??he had be?n at *% picnic given by
a settlement, at which \he children had
been given beans for dinner?'Baked
beans, home-baked beans, and very
good!' as Marie put it.
"She had eaten three helpings, each
one to judge from her own description
a meal in itself. When I asked why
the had been so greedy, she replied
" 'I was hungry.'
"She says she gets enough to eat at
home. Maybe she does, but the wasted
fcrm that I bathed with alcohol to rc
auce her temperature belied her words
Marie Is Undernourished
"In a family of fifteen children she
l? next to trie oldest, i This is her own
account of the famaly circle.) She is
tourteen years of age and looks about
ten. She" is undeveloped and under?
"Her mother is dead died when the
rsby was three months old. It is seven
months now. Her father is a long?
shoreman and his mother tries to take
care of the fifteen children.
"Imagine having to feed, clothe and
house seventeen people on a longsore
man's wagOS in these days of 1'2-eent
milk and 15-rent bread! Do you won?
der that Marie ate three plates of beans
while sho had a chance? If ahe could
have had them, she would probably have
eaten six and been glad to get them!
"She did not have appendicitis
'only beanitli-,' the doctor said. In three
days she was all right, and went back
to her sixteen relatives.
Never Had a Real Meal
"This girl has never been in the
country, nor has any one of her broth?
ers and Ristera. Beyond that, they
have probably never had a good, square
meal in all their lives except Marie
on the bean?. How could thev have
"If some of these children could be
sent to the country I wouldn't ask it
for all of them; just the older ones
it would be a godsend not only to the
ones that did go, but to the smaller
ones at home. For two weeks they
would have that much more to cat and
so much more room to sleep in.
"And the father and the grand?
mother! If only out of pity for them,
let some of the children go."
What need be added to the plea of
th? nurse except this: Whyshouldonly
"some" of the children get a country
fortnight? Why should not all of them
go. and the grandmother, for the sec?
ond time doing her "bit" as a family
raiser, too?
Who wants to pay the expense of the
undertaking, or any part of it?
OOStTHM T?o.**.'.*? tu thi* tiuiii ne fhe.su
A1H, PX-M)
rr?*Tl?a?i?'.T ?.?kno??!-?lB**d.IM.7M *70
Mr?. Charla?? Ja??*?>ii. IS CO
In lorlng m-iii'.r? of my rr.ca.H-r ... is 00
Mr? n <ir-?.'. 1100
In m?marrv ..!* AHfe. 12 00
M I H . 10.00
.lull? tat W'-l'.alon . 1000
? P ( .
Mr?. G. M r*hr?aUa-i. ' *"'
Mr?. J??-i.!i r n?lv. 5.0?
lain IUm bait. 5 *?
Howard Maji?flelfl. f..00
Z. la C. 5 H
tWf-aoi rf-ifff-*. 8 oo
Mr? II <; Turner. ttt
W. T K.?r? . LM
Mr?. F. Lud'.am. 2 o?
ImllT W a*a***-**aad. 1 O"
11 Saailra.. 1 *"'
Mita I??ra?1 Thermon. 1 eft
John W?Viv Matata . *0
Itora-rt ft hm'.'li. J?
Mr? I.'.IH- Wolf. M
C A WV.etn. .50
Ancm-ma??!? . 10
AnonyirK.ua .
Trial July V. 1?".Ill ?II 50
Contributions, preferably by check
or money order, should be sent to The
Tribune Fresh Air Fund, The Tribune,
New York.
3,000 Negroes Demand
State and City Rights
Mass Meeting Resolutions Ask
Representation in Legislature
and Board of Aldermen
Three thouaand negroes held a mas?
meeting In the I'alace Casino, at Madi
aon Avenue and 125th Street, yesterday
and adopted reaolutiona demanding
representation in the State Assembly
and Board of Aldermen, that negro po?
licemen an?! firemen be appointed in
New York, and that a bathhouse be pro?
vided lor the use of negroes exclu?
The meeting wa? held under the au?
spices of the I'nited Civic League.
John Kojal. founder of that organiz??
la,n, said the denial of political equal- .
ity and the repression of induatrlal
opportunities made It imperative **St
negroes take action demanding "their
rights." The ?eicregation of BOfTOOl
to certain realdential dlatricta, and
taxation without representation, ho j
said, were conditions that must bi :
Another meeting will be held on Sep.
tember 2*, and meantime negro
churches, lodges and societies are urged
to prosecute a campaign for the reali?
zation of their alms.
The Useless Excise Law
In a fight in a lager beer saloon at
.",71 Fast Hot?taan Street early yeater
day I Sunday ; morning between Ernest
Meyer and John M?ller, the latter waa
badly cut with a shoemaker's knife by
th? former, who was arrested.
*j ?m?etwmme a Um?mmeeQ, N v.
Miss Dorothy Thorp sold balloons at the "Garden of Delight" at Wood
manse, the estate of Mrs. Edward W. l'arkard. The proceeds will ho
devoted to the fatherless children of France and to local war relief
On the Screen
Florence Reed in "To-day"
Depicts Interesting Phase
of Modern Life
Florence Roed, in "To-day," is the
feature picture at the Strand this,
week. Miss Reed does the bent work
of her career in this picture, which is !
a vastly interesting, if not particularly
wholesome, druma of modern life.
Of course, it it not a surpriie t3 find
Miss Rre,J giving an artistic perform?
ance, for one feels sure after seeing
her recent "Titha" that she could not '
do anythir.-r bad if she tried. Reauty
is not absolutely essential to scree**.
aucce?s, but It is such a great asset,
and Miss Reed is so pleat-ant to look
at. Garbed in the simple frocks which
belonged to the four-room flat of 'on'ii
and-out days, or robed in the gtitta**?
lag garb which wns th?' bail;:.' ?if her
rise to prosperity and her fall from
morality, she was always n thin? of
beauty and a joy forever. Miss nata
is a very beautiful woman and ?he '
screens remarkably Wall' also her face
betrays her every emotion and her
simple work is restful ami delightful.
W| believe that, although there are j
plenty of persons who plead for the ar- ,
tistic ending as opposed to the happy
ending, in their hearts most persons
wish to see a happy ending. For them
there is devised a happy ending to this j
picture, Bnd it occurs after all seems
chaos. It is much nicer for the author
to lift his characters out of the slough
of despond, whpn he can do it so easily,
than to abandon them in their hour of
Frank Mills, as Fred Morton, the
adoring and deluded husband, is re?
markably well cast. Gu8 Weinburg and
Alice Gale, as father and mother Mor?
ton, are ?juit? adequate, and the same
might be said of Lenore Harris, as
Marion Garland.
Knt?' Lester, with small chances as
Mrs. Farmgton, is altogether too re?
alistic, "she is decidedly goo-j in the
part and decided'}' disagreeable.
"To-day" is a vastly interesting pict?
ure, with a climax that is one of the
bust thing? that has b?'en done on the
The overture Is Offenbach's "Or?
pheus." Mery Zentay, the violinist,
played "Scherzo-Tarentellu" and "Le
?"anean." She also played an nbbligatn
fei Henri do ("flux's "Agnus Dai." The
cuinc!y aras i Key-tone called "The
Dangers of a Rride."
One may take liberties with a drest ?
suit that one may not take with a baby;
threfore we believe that "Skinner's
Raby," which was shown at the Rialto ,
yesterday, it not so nice a picture as i
"Skinnor's Pr?s? Suit." although there |
are plenty at people who do not agre
with us. For instance, we should hesi?
tate to write this, only Harry Reau
mont did not hesita'o to put it on the
screen. We shall go no further than
he went; therefore one mny bo in?
formed that, although there were only
two opi*-o?l"s in the existence of "Skin?
ner's Raby" which were not shown on
the screen, those two episodes shall
now bo nameless.
As to Um rast of it, Bryaat Wash
bum and Basal Dal***, t.?o dtli-ghtfal
persons, proved to he much more frank
than one had hitherto suspected. They
formed the story, for. at a matt? r af
fact, th?; baby ?lui not come until the
end of the picture; it was only talked
about. And now for the plunge. As ;
soon as "Honey" found she had a "te- .
cret" the whispered it to Skinner, and
then, to the horror of the sensitive
soult in the front of the theatre. Skin?
ner went downtown the next day and
announced to the office that he had a
In honor of the occasion he gave the
whol? <?:Tiro force a vacation, and when '
the senior partner patted him on the
bsck and asked him if it wat h boy, he
replied, "Certainly." And when he
atk?d its name he said: "Oh, you un-1
derstaml that he isn't born yet, and ,
won't bo for a long time." or wordt to
that effect From that time on the play
it all about "Skinner's baby," which it1
yet in embryo and yet which formt the |
topic of conversation for the commu?
nia fron the telephone op
? to the corner policeman. We
should have thought that two such well
bred persons would rather BATS kept
their secret a secret; but no! Kvery
one knew 11 u i f r? as well as Skinner when
? . I p?*ct that infant, and when he
finally arrived they wore only barra??]
from being present when be r*ia?le his
triumphant entrance mto an sipeetaat
?vorld. When he whs half an hour old
people ga*here?l at his bedside loaded
with presents fei him. Rocking hi
?runs and dfVBM were pilad unon the
bed, and then with quivering lips the
young mother told her secret. William
Henry Bkianar, jr., was ? g'rl and had
to be named Lily. Which, to our no?
tion, was not the only disconcerting
thing in the picture.
The overtur?' was the always popu?
lar "Light Cavalry," with S. L.
Rothop'el conducting. Helen-? Hasch?
medt sang "Kathleen Mavourneen" in a
wonderfully sympathetic voice, and
Desere La Sallo rendered the "Tores
dor Song" from "Carmen."
Th?- comedy was "Their Hurglar,"
which was presented by Mr. aid Mrs.
Sidney Drew. _
It is impossible to classify "Wife
Number Two," in which Vale-T.ca Suratt
is appearing at the Academy this week.
It is neither fish, flesh, nor fowl, for,
while it la intende?! for melodrama, it
is at times unconsciously humorous
and at other tunes it is downright
farce. , .
Mill Suratt cannot advantageously
let down her hair and don spnng-heel
slippers. When she does so she is
funny, whether she wills or no. She
needs her slick hairdressing and her
magnificent gowns, and her followers
wish to see her so groomed.
No woman of Mis? Suratt'? construc?
tion may arrar.go her hair after the
manner of a Fiji Islander and put on
a short gingham frock and still retain
the sympathy of ?he audience. It sim?
ply can't be done. So Miss Suratt
started otf under a big handicap.
Wo wondi-rod how she ever was go?
ing to sseape from her aordid life to
become the queen of fashion, which
each picture demands that she should
become, and then ?o were introduced
to a French modisto who happened to
be exiled in Valoska's home town and
who, being driven mad by her beauty,
offered to make her wonderful gowim
for nothing.
In ravinent he demanded only her
signature to a number of notes. an?l
later he e??'n offered to destroy these
notes if she would i-a.-t her fate with
bis- , . , .
Several tim-s during the picture
Miss Sura*t threatened to take her own
iifo but she never could be relied upon
?i h??r word, ?.o at last fate had
to take a hand in it and drown her;
and then her husband, who had neg?
lected her at all times, cried out. "Oh!
my durling, I wish I had you bark
again," a sentiment which we lid no'
indorse. _ _ ?'? ' ?
Plays and Players
The schedule of nates for the open?
ing week of the season has again un?
dergone revision, and the plans now
call for the premi?re of "Mar;. '.*.
Ankle." at the Hijou, on August ?";
"Friend Martha," at the Rooth, on the
7th; "Tr.e Inner Man," at the Lyric,
on the 8th, and "The Very Idea," nt
the Astor, on the 9th. Krnest Truex
and Kehard Rennott ar.? now playing
the leading r?les in the last named.
Ton reels ot Italian war pictures,
bearing the stamp of r.pproval of the
Italian government, will begin an en
ragemaai at tha Forty-fourth Street
Theatre on Augu?t 7.
The Charles Frohman Company has
acquired a comedv hy Horace Annesley
Vachell for pro'luction early in the
leaaon. The piece is tentatively called
"Hampty Dumpty."
- ,
Hertha Kalich has obtained the
right? to half a doren plays by the
latl .lai'oh liordin, who wrote "Tha
Kreutzer Sonata," and will presently
be seen in an adaptation of one made
by Georgo Foster Fiat'..
The Theatre Workshop, an organlia
tion which prodaaad a number of un
asnal plays in New York laat season,
trill give a ?cries of performances at
Bar Harbor, Me., beginning on August
Many German Peace Kites
Sent Up in 3 Years of War
Chief Idea Always Has Been to Induce Allies to Declare
Specific Terms?Wilson First to Make
Offer of Good Offices
Almost immediately after the
break of the war peace became a
ject of dlscuaaion. Peace kites, un
of Teuton origin, began to appeal
the world's horizons. Peace propo
peace terms and separate peace rur
have ever since remained as muc
part of the daily history of the wa
the military i!eve!oprnent**.
President Wilson was th? first
come out with a peace offer. In
' first week of August, 191', he tend?
his good offices to the warring nati
This offer ha? never been withdri
although the United States is not?
; self one of the belligerents.
What may be described as the i
German peace balloon appeared in
country immediately after the ba
of the Marne, when the Teuton am
advancing toward Paris were hu:
back by the French. Count von B<
= torff, German Ambassador to
United Stat??; Oscar Straus, Secret
Bryan and James Speyer were all
sponsible in various degrees for a p?
inquiry addressed informally to
Kaiser by the American governm.
Von Bethmann-Hollweg, the Gerr
Chancellor, in reply informed Ambai
dor Gerard that first "the United St?
ought to get proposals of peace fi
the Allies."
This answer of the Chancellor c
tains the chief idea behind the num
ous subsequent peace kites sent up
reutral countries by German age
during the three years of the v.
They were all intended to draw
the Allies to declare their spec
peace terms, und failed. President "fl
son's second attempt ended in hi?
ci.?ion to make no further effo
toward mediation, keeping, howev
( the door of peace always open.
Germany's Overtures
In October, 1914, Germany made pei
overtures to Franco and Russia si
arately. France was offered part of
sace-Lorraine in return for German
retention of a considerable part
Belgium. The proposal was, of cour
aatly rejected. The Czar ?as i
pi-oached next, but h?? answered: "l'e?
?ble only when Russia reacb
the heart of German soil. This is t
unanimous opinion of all Russians."
1 ... year of lilla b?agan with pea
moves in the United States under t
auspices of various public boalia>?. T
Socialista of neutral SOOatrteS ?set
Junuary ut Copenhagen to discus* t
bitratioa of the war. In Amsterdam
Mtltlon was circulated urging ???vie
Wilheimina to mediate. The Pope beg
to manifest interest in the ?juestion
peace, while in England the radie
labor men were clamoring for the end
the war. Mr. Asquith, British Pri-mi?
was compellod early in March to a
nounce that all peace talk was prem
turo. The German Chancellor, in r
sponse to a request of several societi
about the middle of March for permi
sion to debate peace, barred all discu
sion of that subject.
Women Start Movement
At about the same time Mme. Rosil
Schwimmer, the noted Hungarian pac
list, visited the United States ar
launched a campaign for the immedia
conclusion of the war. Her origin:
aim was to induce the United Stati
to call a conference of neutral nation;
in this she failed. But she ?ucceede
in interesting American woman in h<
*)lan, as a result of which fifty wome
chosen at mass meetings throughout th
country left for The Hague to atten
a peace conference, at which man
American and European women wei
pie-ient. But nothing of any practici
effect was accomplished.
At the same time the Pope called r?
peatedly on the belligerent nation? t
make peace. One of hi? strongest mes
sages was published July 30, 1916:
"Why ?hould not a direct or an indi
rect exchange of views be initiated i
an endeavor, if possible, to harmoniz
aspirations so that all should be con
tented? This is our cry for peace, an
we Invite all friends of peace to unit
with us in our desire to terminate thi
war and establish an empire of right
resolving henceforth to ?olve differ
enees, not bv the sword, but by equit;
and justice.
But the most direct attempt to re
store peace In Europe was the expedi
tion organized by Henry Ford in tha
fall of [911, This expedition sailed fo:
Europe on December 8 without am
definite nlan as to the methods whicf
were to be employed for the ending o'
the war. It was hoped that when th?
peace party arrived in Europe it woul?
choose its own manner of procedure tc
accomplish it? object. Rut the fate ol
the Ford peace purty was not different
from that of the women's conference a?
The Hague. It proved the end of all
social efforts to put a stop to the great
Berlin's HI? Offers
At the beginning of 191?5 Germany
came forward with a new peace sugges?
tion. Officially this new attempt on th?
part of the German government to ob?
tain peace wa? repudiated; but there
were sufficient indications to leave no
doubt that the new proposal emanated
directly from the Kaiser and his ad?
visers. The indicated peace terms did
not differ much from the nrecedin?
, ones. They were less liberal and did
not at all meet the French ami Britiah
expoctetiOBS. In only two points wero
they more favorable to the Allies: In
. ng the conquest of Poland and
Serbia and in suggesting a general re?
turn to the territorial statua quo ante.
Belgium was to be evacuateal, but the
ri?"ich territory occupicl was to be
?urr?-ndered only on payment of an la?
ale-iiniiy. Her African colonies Ger?
many wanted restored to her by Great
Britain and France.
Although the new peace offer was re?
jected by the Allies. Germany did not
gi\a. up her at*- mpts. German peace
ST? rturei were again and airain repeat?
ed .luring theftrat half of 1016. Some?
times they carpe 'hrourrh Spain, ?nm
times through Switzerland, sometimes
through Holland. They found an eche
in the United States, and the League
to Enfore Peace, together with otner
organizations favoring an early con?
clusion of the war. made strenuous ef?
forts to bring about peace. A requeat
?*as made to Presid?*nt Wilson by ?ome
of the leading pacifists that he should
, intervene a? a mediator among th? bel
! ligerer.t nations of Europe. Bit he de?
clined to do so. On May 25, 191**, he
I declared intervention by any neutral
] "ould come only after the nations at
' war were ready to admit that neither
1 lide could po??ibly gain a eonclusire
I victory.
An attempt to create a ground for
rapprochement between the warring al
I liance? was made by the President on j
I December 18, 1916. In s not? ?ent on
?hat date the President neither pro
I poaed peaco nor offered mediation, but
I suggeated that "an early occaaion be
sought to cal? out from the nations an
avowal of tneir respective views re
gardiaj -rm?." It furthermore
expressed the readiness of the United
States -o cooperate n securing the fut?
ure peace of the world.
This note was enthusiastically ac
ee*pted by Germany as a forerunner of
peace. And enly a week after the re?
ceipt of the President's message Ger?
many came forward with a reply, in
?\hich siie tat*) heartily indorsed tha
American peace note, and even M nt so'
'"ar as to laggast the means by which '
'he tir*.t steps 7?) p?ace could be made,
"by an immediate meeting of delegate?
of the belligerent states at a neutral
place." Rut in spit? of her joyful ac?
ceptance of the peace messag?* Ger?
many cleverly evaded a reply to the
main question in the President's note,
that of stating war aims or peace
terms. This most important question
Germany left entirety unanswered, de?
siring hrst to hear the Allied peace
On th" other hand, the Entente govern?
ments received the note very coolly. The
fact that the United States wat ?xpress
ing its ignorance of the war aims of the
Allies made many people in Allied
countries hostile to the Wilson note.
The reply of the Allied governments
was a general statement of poaee
terms, postponing a detailed etatomont
until the hour of negotiations. Their
terms implied "the restoration and
evacuntion of invaded territory (in?
cluding Alsace-Lorraine), with repa?
ration an?l indemnities; the liberation
of Italian?. Slavs, Rumanians and '*o
hemians from Austrian domination,
the expulsion of Turkey from Kurop-i
and the enfranchisement of Turkish
Thus the President's note failed,
but, undismayed, he made ? tecond
and last effort to bring about pene?.
In a message to Congress he proposed
a peace without victory, a peace in
which neither side was to be the win?
ner or the loser, ? peace between
equals he.ied unon the following prin?
ciples: Kvery great people ahould be
assured a direct outlet to the tea;
there must bo a limitation of both
land snd naval srmaments; no distinc?
tion between the rights of big nations
and of ?mall ones; peace must be based
upon the principle that governments
derive all their just powers from the
consent of the governed.
This message met with little en?
couragement and much ridicule in the
Allied countries. It was expected that
the Central powers would avail tVm
solvfs of it, but Germany had already
decided by that tune to launch her
ruthless Ittbsoa war. Announcement
to that effect was made toward the end
of January lest, and caused consterna?
tion in all pacifist circles.
At the same time reports of R sep?
arate peace between the Kaiser and th??
Czar grew in relama It was taken
for granted that Rumia would not long
remain in the Allied camp, and the
Teutons were looking toward an early
conclusion of ths ?'ruggle. Rut the
Russiun revolution, which broke out in
March, for a while checked all talk of
Then Germany made an effort to ne?
gotiate a separate peace with Russia's
?-??tremists, reeortiac to all kinds of
tricks. Thus, the Bulgarian diplomat,
Rizow, made several attempt? to arrive
at an understanding with Maxim
Gorky, but the latter exposed his
scheming. The German commander in
chief ever, wired to the Russian Coun?
cil of Workmen and Soldiers an in?
vitation to conclude an armistice, but
wis not answered. The overwhelming
majority of Russians rejected the idea
Of ? senarat3 peace.
The Russian revolution also brought
about the movement to restore the
Socialist Internationale. At the ini?
tiative of the German Socialist? an
international conference was to meet
at Stockholm to discuss peace, but it
never materialized. Then the Russian
Socialists is?ued an invitation to a
similar gathering, announcing at the
same time lh.it the New Russia stood
for no annexations and no indemnities.
To prove this a crisis waa caused in
the Provisional Government, the result
of which was that a Cabinet subscrib?
ing to this doctrine was set up. To?
day Rust?a is the chief exponent cf
this formula, which many regard at
the only possible basis for a quick and
durable peace. The Allies have agreed
to the demand of the Russian govern?
ment to hold a conference for the pur?
pose of revising the Allied war aims
and restating their peace terms. This
conference is expected to bring peace
much nearer realization than ever be?
fore during the last three years.
Infant Mortality Cut
40 Per Cent in 10 Years
Infant mortality in New York has
been reduced 40 per cent in the last
ten years, according to a statement
made yesterday by Stephen G. Willisms,
chairman of the New York Milk Com?
mittee, at exercises marking the tenth
anniversary of the founding of that
orgfinliatlon. Tho committee waa or
gaalaad in 1907 as a tubsidlary of the
New York Association for Improving
the Condition of the Poor. Two yeart
later it became an independent orgsnl? j
Bronx .Exposition,
Now Being Erected,
To Be City in Itself
Permanent World's Fair
Will Include 75 Buildings
at Cost of $3,000,000
To Open Next May
Developments in Art. Science
and Industry Will Be Dis?
played Yearly
A "city of wonders" that is to cost
$8,000,000 and la planned to rival the
Panama-Pacific Exposition is being
erected on the William Waldorf Astor
property at Eaat 177th Street and Th*
Bronx Hiver. Practically unknown to
thousands of men and women who pasa
by the twenty-fivo-acre ait? dally, there
is in the proceaa of construction s
group of seventy-ftv? buildings of
steel, concret? and papier-mache that
are to constitute one of the largest
undertakings of it? kind. It la to be
known as The Bronx International Ex?
The entire plant will be ready May,
191?., according to II. F. McUarvi*.
president of the exposition, which ia
being financed by the Realty Trust
Company. The foundation? have al?
ready been laid, and the erection of
several buildings started. The exposi?
tion is to be permanent, and wilt be
modelled after Shepherd'? Bush and
Karl's Court in London. The primary
purpose of the exhibit, ?aid Mr. Mc
QarviOi will be to display the arti.tic,
scientific and industrial accomplish?
ment? of the various nations. Inci?
dentally, The Bronx International Ex?
position will commemorate the 300th
anniversary of the settlement of th?
Swimming Pool a Feature
One of the buildings now going up
is the convention hall, which will af?
ford accommodations for the hundreds
of conventions held in this rity each
season. This hall will seat 1,600 per?
son?. Another of the features of the
exposition Will be a sait water swim?
ming pool, which i? to b'e 300 b?, 3?0
feet, and will have a sand beach .100
feet long by 60 fast wi.ie running the
length of the north end of the pool.
Entirely surrounding the pool will
be a promanad?, elevated slightly
above the iiirfaee of the water. On
tha? south siale of the pool there will
be a miniature Niagara Fall?, 180 f?ei
across and ?1 feet high, which will hi
illumined from within and without by
colored incandescent and flood light?.
Near the pool there Is being construct?
ed a bathing pavilion, with aceommo?
dations for 5,01)0 persons at one time.
A number of exhibit "palace?," In
which will be displayed the Industrial
and artistic products of the nationa,
are now in the process of construction.
These buildings will be known a? the
Palace of Amer!-an Achievement?, th?
Palace of Pan-American Exhibits, the
Palace of Fine Arta, the Palace of
Manufacture? and Liberal Art?, th?
Palace of Varied Industrie?, the Hor?
ticultural and Agricultural Hall, Ma?
chinery Hall, Automobile Salon, etc.
"At each exposition held In this and
other countries it has been the en?
deavor of tho management to surpaas
In beauty of landscape, architectural
design and illuminating effects ?11 of
the accomplishments of their prede?
cessors," said Mr. McGarvie yesterday.
"We are attempting to outdo those
which have gone before us. For thia
purpose we have brought from the Pa?
cific Coast many of the properties that
contributed to the ancceas of the
Panama-Pacific Exposition. W? have
also put at the head of the various de?
partments men who in the past hare
done the biggest and best things at
exposition? held throughout th?
Will Open Eaach Summer
The plans call for rest rooms In each
of the si-venty-five buildings, a club?
house and restaurant, roller skating
rink, dance hall, yachting hi ?tor,
Japanese garden and amusements of
all kinds. A giant aeroseop* will pr??
vido a moving observation tower sev?
eral hundred feet high, whicii will ?af?
ford a view of the eitv, the Jersey
shore and Long Island.
Though the exposition will be "per?
manent, it will be open only from May
.10 to November 1 of ?acb year. Ken?
neth M. Muhchieon, of 101 Park Av??
r?e, Is th? architect.
New Swiss Envoy in Paris
Dr. Alphonse Dunant Succeeds
Dr. Lardy as Minister
Berne, Swltzerlsnd, July 19.?Dr. C?
Lardy, th? Swiss MinlaUr to Pr-aocik,
has askod to bo relieved of his duties
on account of age and family circum?
stances. Dr. Alphonse Dunant. the
leading member of th? Swlsa Foreign
Office, has been appointed to succeed
Dr Lardy.
The retiring mlnliter has been At?
tached to the Swiss Legation at Parie
for forty-eight years. At the time
of the siege of th? French eepiul
he was First Secretary of Legation
and became Minister In 1883.
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