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New-York tribune. [volume] (New York [N.Y.]) 1866-1924, September 02, 1917, Image 41

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83030214/1917-09-02/ed-2/seq-41/

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Xhe Conscription
of Labor
rpV not include industrial eon-1
rt j;r:r>10T1":,vks H**?M G< Meajt.
\f ;on r- "The North American'
Of BOjoal importance with mili
p^-tiOBB, r H?l?*? ,ho wtitar, i>
F^aBie tjkohilization of the \a.-t b>
* **"?rrr.y of the governmaait, to the
Wr. twf productiva rnergy cf the Ba>
P* , be h-.h le to sci ve the nccessities |
** [Trathar than the interests of peace.
8<**r,.on.e 0f the ?4ar. he bel-.eves, will
?! ai V*Tr'?>' ?' t'"'C Way '" wh'?n thc
*fr'";'' rfsouvecs are organi.cd. And
z^a-ith co-.c.r:is himself with tbe
|| ?'_'[ u . rial raohilization ia of
5-gLgtaa ?? wn>' aaaauld not the eotm.
P ? M-'-'.ption of mdustry as
irr rr^*"
1" W BJ !r-e:' ?
",/y. ? BM the requirement.s
JJ, gttaal - '?!';it 'hrro arc
'^ftegpsahiea, nanely, ships, raani-j
*r-'(",Q <r era, and that the
v^m, u te BUPPly these in the shortest
..> time- He examinea the twa
^'? vrs cf r ;: c tione or only a
P?*".,",?-* lahlea atid increasir.g
Pajaai ?r'd r' 'cy of workera to a
?tdbtrt they would produce in rni
f good needed for
noeded for peace as well.
JLj'terr.a".vf- ha rejOCta ar in the main
H*:.frt and
je-V* Tliird Alternative
j Mu?t Be Adopted
r., rh:rd la, therefore. the only altrr
. t cencludes.
. paevjtablv mean* that labor and
?V.y,, be ih.ftfd from the places that
r..I 7eant ? i -'^ thiit dr> cpunt in !
?"."'i -?- .-? nndertakln*. 1* means that
con
are
Laajl Bfl Bffl BI artaklBg. It means
?..j" ar.d Bshei : 8w being naed la
*.... Ti. -?... that ...
aatncoirad for wai purj sea must bo trana
? "... (0I -? ? faetoriea that
[Irw. ?,? ; -aring munitions
SaBaSBB - " ? ' - at factories:
1 now being used for
LajLasiactBre of apenaable comnai . ? a
aajl te (vhera | aiblel m^dr over into
? . 4- , - nufacturi India
?-.:.? ' r' *' ,aC"
.,. ? - ; for war | ?
. iborera,
J erviea thal i
'"? that we
? com
.... mnifn
'%. ? ? a I .th do
Pjg ... war. But
^',.??;??-- '???' ned by the gOV
mmgxx w, -ate the most heroic
r!tr.' :? a?- laak wi
p-- M
hasalton implies that money alone
aaajlsst effect industrial mobilization,
Bjj iV^i.
*JBflflBkt fldeed auceeed ag the
rjWJXIO.OOO of revenue that has been
? , -. . . teen, thal ia o:.'y the
....._. Even
rth coffirs f.V.ti to
BBaaaiBBai arill to ^a:t indef telj
for aejBafflBBl :"?d 'f
tha raejBM ?? : "t devi.ted
to tteir piaeacl ai old bbj ng that
?? bbbbI bbj thing liBg; lt
ajcit is tr.e ? ' I thal which
d*' r.ot n ? rss the re
paai aartl \ Wa alwaya come
:, ith thal we can
eni rgy 'r> th;:.gs
Bj . ? | urposes and de
ajj ?- ? ~, prodaction of
BBBtBgl :.ry.'
bjectors Asked to Remember
Germany's Labor Conscription
0
liflflBLiiajBjg ? ? tiona to mohili
p:" cf :?.-. ? . ?:. the machinery
Ibbi ? ? riter concludes that ex
r ? . price cor.trol atid
l^aaafii as usual" inter to the
apd reorjra' . f industry; and he
aasththe r.at.nn to remember that Ger
Ifll ra-. .v in tiie war, fol
HUa r ? ndustrial eonscrip
*M, larp. ;. i -mail. are of fre
'?''' - | in the acrgregate
Bflaaauy affecl ? ? led output.
:? flflaaal ef a engil era or elec
??BBeften paralyzea an industry, mine
c:!r'; \ a -tr:ke among
*&aati rk ahipbaildinf
Jl-"t: flBaiti ? . to tie up essential COBr
r- li all this there is little lack
r":i" "-.? ? "Matallargy and
C:c;:t. Engii il the American ,
J*bbi faila ? . ui derstand the full
?' ?" I when engaging in
''' ? time. It auggeeta,
'?aaltttioi j labor:
. ":- thil g, bas come
P 88J - M*J with war.
Dg c.\ ;1 law. A con
w laplaeei a inteer. I'rice tix.r.g
J1**!! ? ? ;., and demand.
l***;'.(l(t' adeqaate outpat
*Ww ca- even a i mraandeered factory
rj** bbbi ithout workaaeBl ll
g i nraeat is not to
j ?' ' ? ttion, which
k.lr'*s> readv for adoption,
laeaafi .
Jbujourr.a: believea, furthermore, that
cr*?t-,on of a compulsory industrial
"?TBcuid be a very aixnple matter. And
JJ iri army, it a serts, would have a
"^t.d mora! as well r.s material effect
P^trat bint of labor trouble. Unani
7*euld be iropoesible and the workers
-?.
not aaait, . bort of treat>on."
PI an Army Is Keasible and
^ould Operate Powerfully
'"8 Bost?n Journal" deplor-s "labor
?? ir> time of war." and a.1 k: !
c J ot aa.* , ; .,, | KV(. (iur NOUng men'a
Kj*aaeri?ted, our wealth eeaacriBted a"d
a,^!3*^ ataj at homi refasfl te perform
ft ixcept on ti., |i owb t< im-'.'"
/*^cb already has one rxample of
jj^!svry work law, that ia the State of
Xkaai "Ti.e Brockton KnterpriM',"
"?H Of.U, >;.\ ?
mStu^ thls CO!,'Pu'HOry W0,'K s(,heme
Ja4j,*?k "'J M-ry good. Suppose it ?P
.l ^*Haehu?etts and Brockton. But
*rrnv ihoea * ^rreat number of in
titizens of Brockton would be
Is Democraey Safe for the Negro?
IB Democraey safe for the negro? This
is a question which the colored man
has heen asking of late. Is Houston
r.n BfjaaBff (<? Baet st. Louiit This. in
tuni, ia a counter query which may de
velop into greal aignifleaaea.
To say that the negro problem trans
cends nl! others in the South is merely to
state a truism. hut many competent ob
srrvers are of the opinion that the colored
raccs arill present the next great problem
r.fter the war. not only in America but
thrOUghoul Ihe civilired world. For the
Kthiopian ia inercasing ui numbers,
wealth and wij-dom. And in this material
world . man of property may not be
ignored. No lotagar is he eonteat to be a.
type for rheap "volvcel" actors in cari
cature, or to aupply the fuel fr.*- a Bouth.
rrn (or Northern I illumination?at once,
0 buhToon and a bonftre,
According to Kly's "Outlines of Kcono
mics." the number of black farmers in the
South has increased more rapidly than han
that of the whites during the last rensus
decade; the acreage of land operated
hy the latter has aetually decreased, while
that worfced by the blackl has increased.
i orresponding differenres ;.re shown in
\alues of land and buildlngs. In corn-'
merce and Hldustry the negro al-n rela
tivcly i> moring faster than his white
1 rother.
Thr South May Yet Face a
Rrversal of the Question
The South seems not to have been very ?
auceasaful in dealing with the problem of
the negro and some are of the opinion,
that the ominous question of the future,
may he: "Is the South safe for the
whttes?" The learned Dr. Mencken,
editor of "Smart Set," and himself I
Southernrr. believes not, and says "that
the completeness of its (the South'si|
failure (to solve the problem" is growing
more, vi<-ible day hy day." And further:
When that mnrn the day of the black '
. I
dawns?
"1 pray upon both kneea, T ahall be aafe ln
tha Alps. and not helow the Potomae River. j
hurrledly disgui*ed with burnt cork and trv-|
ing te grt out on the high gear. Soon or |
late, I agrre with William Areher, i see hi--,
'Thraagh Afra-Aflaerlea,' iPld.. it will come]
to rOOgh work and perhaps sooner than j
most of u? faney. The Southerrers, even the
i.T.est ot-es, havr botehed the BBaiaCB*.
aboniinably, and unles? Frovidence inter
renea ?with a miraele I suspect that it will
.('.!>? well hoteh the South."
In regard to the world problem iri
volred, "The New Haven Journal
Courier" comments editorially:
?'To the world it the negro problem") is of
graver import than the negro problem ll to
the 1 r.ited States, pointed though that ia by
t.rgro violence throughout the South. . . ?
For it ia the probl. m ef * continent. Af nca
is the contincnt whose untold re^ourees are
loaf.r.g aaleaa some other work than shoe
making was found for them.Vou
can't tir.d orThar.d a n?w trade for a man
who know? only one; you can't provide a
man who has a profession with another over
night; a man who labors for years at a
tatry job may ri-k his very life by try
ing to de eight or nine hours' hard labor a
th pick and shOTCl or even at harveat
ing erapi ln a field under a blazinr IBfl
Arer.'t we just a little bit too anxious to
n'uke law? some time? ?"
Socialism Pricks Cp
Its Ears Sharply
"The N'ew York Call" says there ll
nothing very startllng or original in the
BUggestion for a compujsory ir.dustrial
army, noting that it ia to a very great ex
tent operative in (.iermany and in Eng
land. The Soclalilt paper thinks it
fairly certain that when the nation gets
deeper into the war a i-ompulsory army
here will he a fact. "The Call" charac
teristically refers to the ruling class in
America as the capitalistie class, and as
.sures its readers that. while an industrial
army seems to be inevitable, it will not be
under the domination of eapital, adding:
"An industrial army eontrolled completely
hy eapitsHstS would, from the worker.-'
poial of view. aacaaaarilB mean industrial
alavery of a militarist character; eontrolled
by the working class themselves, it would be
an abominution to the eapitalista, while eon
eaaial enough to the workers."
The alapanese Red Cross
JAPAN has always preserve.d a feeling
of deep gratitude for the kindness
shown by the friendly powers at the'
time of her war with China as well as
during the Russo-Japanese war. She,
therefore, immediately after the outbreak
ot the present war. decided to despateh a
force of Ked Cross nurses and physicians
to aid the wounded among the Allies: the
first detaehment went to Russia, the second
to England, the third to France. They re?
mained in Europe for over a year and
rendered great service.
' All three detachments brought their own
medical instruments ar.d supp'.ies, from
Tokio. They also brought with them money
preaenta, furniahed by the government and
jeople of Japan. The tandages wete
partly preparcd by the hands of Japanese
r,oercesea and princesses.
l-i times of peace, the Japan Red Cross
Society. which dates back to the year
. 1878, is eonitantljr educating and training
r.urses, who are doing regular hospital
work. give first aid in per?onal BOCldcnts
er public ealamhiaa. The training course
is on" of three years.
The present number of Red CroM
Inuraei in Japan ii about 5*000, while the
. number of surgaow available for war
: time exceeda 200, wilh a eorraaponding
DUXober of aaViant pharmacisis and help
! crs of all sorts.
The preeent membership erabrace*
i 1,740,000, leattared all over tl"* Empire,
including Corea, Formoaa ar.d Manchurio.
! The funda of the mother bm-iety amount
to 16.000,000 yen (l J*M nO*9M *hont o0
cents).
fo be rrgaided as one of the prires of thr
prOOCBt wnr."
And more specificially that paper
pomts out just why. in its opinion. a black
lhadOBJ looms up over the world:
"Tn men of the aeven seas the world would
not be a pleaiant place with a haiI at hand,
wh*re the tinal eataelyam would be negroer.
dnlled by Pruiaians. fighting the yellow men
dnlkd by Nippon boys, for supremaey in a
*a eiviliietiea of auBermen.'"
The Houston Affair, Briefly
Rehearsed
lt may be recalled that on the night of
August 28, at Houston. Tex., a company
of negro soldiers of the 24th United
States Infantry ran amuck, with the rc
sult that fifteen white men?civilians,
police and members of the National
(iunrd? were killed outright and more
than a score of men, women and children
were injured. Two negro soldiers also
were killed and five injured. The trouhle
started when ?) policeman tried to arrest
a colored woman, and her soldier escort
interfered. The fact that the soldiers
were I'nited States regular troops aggra
vated the ;ncident, and brings up the
Fiownsville riot of lOOti, in which a num
ler r.f whites were killed, and in con
Bequenee of which two companies of the
26th I'nited States colored regulars were
dismisaed, "without honor," hy President
RooaeaaK.
"The Houston Chronicle" Is of the
r.pinion that "the negro temperament is
such as to require absolutism on the part
of those in eommand." Lenient treat
ment "has led negro Boldiers to believe
lhat the government b in sympathy with
their arrogance atid impudence toward
white. people and eivilian authorities, hut
espectally in the South."
Soiithern fditors generally are indined
to be conservative in their utterances.
"The Charleston News and Courier" re-,
marking:
"The problem is not one whieh ean b?
halpad by extended diseusaion in the prraa.
The less discussion ther* ie the-better. But1
i! || to be hoped that Seeretary Paker will
take this warri'tig to heart."
Was It a Case of Race
Reprisal?
"The Chicago Daily News" hints that
the affair might have been a race reprisal
for the East St Louis, 111., killing of |
blacks by whites, and continues: |
"The violence of the outbreak, apparently
without serious special provocation, indicate*.
a1-d.d ihe orgy of murder in Illinois, the diffi
cult nature of the problem presented by the
presencc in the fame eommunity of different
races. Io what pxtent such erimea as that st
East St. Louis had inflamed the minds of
rolored soldiera of the 24th Infantry againat
the whitea and prepared them for that d*m
on.-'retion of fury ia well worthy of investi
gat.cn."
That the future. holds a menace to the
lafety ef the rapubllc if prapar measures
nre not taken, is thn view of "The State
of Cotumbia, s. <'.," which obeirrai:
iu
hat
he
Begfaei b* fnrcrd to th* r^ar during the war,
and that will mean that. they will stay further
iti the rear for yrara lo come than they have
be-'n in th* past."
of Cotumbia, B. < ..' wiudi oboareaa:
"A Jeprtilion of the Houston incirlent wi
eonviilrr the whitea, North and South, thi
tha aaaetp af tha Rapablic roaairei that th
Shortsighted
ft.- v.t.Hm^
'??' ; *^
'? :l- .- -#^,/rl
.'
I ri.iii Tht Chicaeo I rilmnr
"Tlie Newport News" blnmes the
nuthoritics for mohilizing the colored
troops in the South, with the "Rro\vn?
ville affair" still so fresh as a warning.
and observes that the Southern people
"got nlong well enough with the negro
civilians," but asserts that "negrn
soldiers are different." And "The Charles?
ton Observer" thinks that?
"What haa happened in Houaton is likely to
happen in any other Southern eity wh?re no
gro troop.a may be mobilued, and where thil
aaaerthra spint r-hall bc in evidence."
"The Columbia Record" is of the opin
ion that liqur.r may have caused the
trouble, and does not see any danger in
South Carolina negmes being assigned to
Camp Jackson at Columbia. The innate
"cussedness" of the black is suggested by
"The Nashville Tennessean," in this
fashion:
"This lateat uprisinp seema to have beer.
without prOTOCatloa other than the desirc to
show the Mouaton poliee that the nrgroea
will not be amenable to the lawa af that
city."
Thr Officat in Charge Blamed
For Lack of Firmness
"The Savannah Times" harks back to
the lack of adequate punishment meted
out at Brownsville as the contributory
cause; while "The Richmond Times-D.
patch" comes back to date and places the
l.lame largely on the officer in charge of
the offending troops, alleging that he did
not maintain proper discipline. "The
t hicago Herald" somewhat more cautioualy
adopts thi? also as the possible rcason.
Judicioua likewise is the attitude of the
Northern papers in most instances.
"The Philadelphia Public Ledger" is
especially disposed to be fair to the South,
stating that "lt is futile to condemn race
prejudicc; it exists and it must he taken
into account."
"The New York World," without ex
cusing the negroes, places some of the
llame on the poliee, as follows:
"There. can be no excuse or defenee for tho
condurt of the riotmp troops. ll is evldenl.j
of eourpe, that. the polir* of Houston, bv;l
th*ir stunid and arbitrary eonduet. d*liber
Btely invited trouble, but poliee are often 1
stupid and arbitrary, no matter whom they j
are dealine; with, and poliee stupidity never
ean justify a mutmy on th* part of armed I
troops, whether white men or negroes."
"The New York Run" has a good word
for the colored soldier and intimates that;
the civil population was not wholly blame- |
Iess. adding that "the kind of treatment
given to enlisted men by the civilians
among whom th"y serve has a great in
fluence on their behavior."
No Provoration for the Crimes of
"Mutinous Negro Soldiers"
Diffarent again is the interpretation of
"The New York Evening Post," which
can see no provocation that could "justify
tht crimes rommitted by the mutinous
t.egro flaMfers."
It. has remained for "The Albany
Knickerbocker Press" to make the most
BCathing arraignment of Southerners,
particularly Texans, for their general
treatment of blacks. It declares:
"The South*rn apirit, particularly vfrulcnt
in Trxas, where burning negroes alive is a
before breakfa.-t sport, is to blame.
"The Southern feeling that it is an insul*
to n white human being to permit ? blacx
human balag to wear a badjje of honor, such
as the Uaited States umform, is to blame.
"Th* BOBthera eonviction that it ia a virt
! uous deed, admitting one to heaven, to per
form an act of cruelty upon a negro who re
! spectn himself, Is to blam*.
"The atatfl of mind of the Houston poliee,
' raaalrlBg officers of that foree to abuse, beat,
kirk and BhOOt negroes in uniform, who ask
eivil questions, is to blame."
As added eauses this paper speaks of
lack of loyalty and discipline, and also
the folly of the War Department in send
: mg colored troops to Texas, knowing "the
1 temper and lack of civilization which
characterizes Texans" and which char
ucterizes negro soldiers also. A good word
is put in for the black people generally
, by "The Chieago Tribune," thus:
"Immediately upon our declaration of war
German spies attempted to start a. negro re?
bellion in the South. Kverywhere negroes
l.ooted the spies.
"The draft came, and nejrroes stood up to
it like men. There were anti-draft commo
tiona among I. W. W'.'g, Indiana, allena. and
Americans of native stoek, but none amorr
r.egroe*. Of many races, the black was the
v/hitest."
w
hat the Colored Preas Thinks
About It All
As a sidelight on the situation may
advantageouflly be noted the feeling gen
erally exhibited by the colored press in
regard to the East St. Louis affair. "The
(N, Y.l Amsterdam Newa" in a leading
editorial ?peaks reproachfully of Presi?
dent Wilson's failure to return a satis?
factory answer to a committee from the
silent protest parade in New York City.
nrganized as a protest against the East
Bt I.ouis lynchings. "The. New York
Age," also a negro organ, speaking prior
to the Houston affair, said:
"There haa been tco much disertmination
on account of color in the army already. I*
more of it is to be attempted in the effort
to cater to the South, it can only be produe
tive of evil results. There would be no raee
problem to solve at the varioua camps if a
?quar? deal wis given and discipline main
lalaad **
Interesting and instructive aa an inter
pretation of the black man's point of
view is a letter to "The Richmond Planet"
(colored), which says in part:
"I h?g, also, tn inform you that T am atill
loyal to the American flag, notwithstandinj
th* faet ?hat I hv.e refused steadfastly tl j
\olunteer to tight for a 'world democraev.' |
b*eause I wanted to be convineed that it
would include black men as well as white
men."
And another letter aaserts:
"I am willing to aacriflce my life that Ger?
man au'ocracy and Prussian militariam might
be brought to an end that America as well
as the rest of tho world might be made aafe
for humanity and democraev; that juatiee
Bfllght be enjoyed by the Armeniana, the
Poles, the Belgiana and the Jewi across the
gea, and that a 'world-w-ide democracy,' of
whieh Trosident Woodrow WiUon is cham- [
pion, might include within its embraces black !
men of America as well aa white men of Fu- |
rope."
Ia Germany Back of the
Negro Trouble?
A sinister touch to the whole situation
in given by a bulletin issued by the
Patriotic Education Society at Washing
t88J, warning the public that the Germans'
are conducting a propaganda in this.
country to cause an uprising of negroes.
The two first paragraphs read:
"Information has reached the responsibla
officers of this society of a widespread Ger?
man propngar.da, urging the negToes ot
America to arise against the whites. and ,
promisir.g German aid and money to finance
the insurrection.
"The ignorant negro Is being told that
when Germany rules in America the blacks
will hav? equal righta with the whites. In
Germany. these credulous people are informei,
the color line does not exiit?the black ls as
good as the white."
Draft Exemption Difficulties Still Puzzle
Her Boya
-I-'rom 7/i<* rTaaaflB/lea 7ime*
NO PHASE of the selectlve draft law
offers wider range for debate
among the newspapers than the
qustion whether or not married men with
dependent families should be taken in the
first drawing. Public opinion, based on
its usual mixture of reason and sentiment
would appear to be leaning to the side
that would send the young unmarried men
first. The issue is complicated in indus?
trial centres by alien immunity and in
cthers by the imminent need of farm labor.
Attempting to show practical reasons
why the married should be left behind
until a greater need arises, "The Atlanta
Constitution" reminds its public that if a
married man seeks voluntary enlistment
he is usaally met with prompt refusal and
that if he insiste there is a whole reel of
red tape to be unwound. Since it is at
least partly the state of a man's mind on
the firing line that makes him a good
soldier or a bad one. "The I.os Angeles
Times" points out that it would be folly to
ignore the psychology of the married.
The meaning of "dependents" is discussed
by this paper, which vouehes for the
The Inaect
\ vjmi
???_ \ I //,*. -- :
VVH>
-brom Ihf JUnHpnrque M<>rnin:i Jvurml
statement that in one distriet men with
large families are being drafted, despite
their claims, if their wives are able to
work. This is a severe te.-t. says the
r.aper, for?
"It tries the fourdation of a man's soul to
know that hia wife must go into the "hop.a
because he must bear arma; and such loyalty
is above lip tribute. But in two other dis
I tricts, the fashionable distriets of large in
comes and -malier families, several sons of
\o\y wealthy men have asked for and been
granted exemptian an the grounds of de
pendent. wives. In one case one of these
wives ;s herself the daughter of a millionaire.
In another case a husband was granted ex
emption for a dependent wife, though she is
an aetreas known to be reeeivinj; a large
lalary."
The Confusion of Fxemption
Rules Makes Trouble
The need for uniform rules in making
exemptions is taken up by many papers.
Speaking for tho city of Spokane, "The
State.-man Review" says:
"As the matter now atands one distriet gen
erally refu.es to exenipt niarned men with
] out ehildrSB, three others make a rule of
1 diseharging al rnarrie.l men, and one board
1 a* been 10 hewiidered by confticting in
atruetiona tha it has suapended operations."
' "I told you he'd bite if you tried to
run!"
? From Hi' Timee-Picaynue, New Orlrans
Papers in all parts of the eountry have
this same ol.jection to make.
The number of claims for exemption is
apitating many editorial minds. On this
point "The New Hampshire Gazette" de
.Mares that a very humiliating eondition
has- been oMseloaad, and argai ?Val """tif
thing I"' done to prevent the raising of an
army by conscription from being turned
into a farce."
ln many pku-es as hiirh as 80 per cent
of the men ealled have filed exemption
claims. "To prant exemptlona on anything
nfic the seale of* reqoests,'* er.mments
"The Taeoma I.edger." "would be to de?
feat the purpo.se of the law. which is to
raise an army of great M/.e ard power."
More rignl constructiotl nf the exemp?
tion ciauic ia demindad by "The Birnnng
ham Age-Herald," to mention only one of
perhaps two score of papers. "The Age
Herald" says: "It is asad commentary on
the state of feeling of the young men of the
eountry that there is a tendency practi
cally everywhere to evade conscription,"
and add?: "This nation is at war and this
is no time to bandy words with men who
are plainly unwilling to serve."
The Slackers Come in For
Excoriation
The married slaeker comes in for ex?
coriation?sometimes amu.sing. A great
Serving One'a Country
?From The Portland Orenonitn
many of the claims for exemption dis
close wonderful fidelity to wives and
mothers. Intense degrees of love and
affection are discovered in so many cases
rnd in so widely separated places that
,everal editors with a turn for philosophi
cal speculation wonder whether the most
perfect family relations that ever existed
, in the world will not ba one of the by
1 productl of the war.
Other papers, "The EI Paso Times," to
' quote an instance, writing on these mar
riage slaeker disclosures, contend that
' "the shame of it is galling to every patri?
otic citizen in the United States."
A proposal for an amendment by Con
gress to the draft law calling to the colors
youths of nineteen and twenty and those
who have reaehed the age of tvventy-one
since June S is supported hy Lieutenant
General B. M. B. Young, retired. Immedi
ate action by the House and Senate is
isked on the ground that the present draft
il wholly inadequate to meet the nation's1
military needs. A statistical table. pre
pared by General Young shows that fully
HO per cent of the married men have
elalmed exemption on the ground of mar
<at?e. "The nation mu-t turn to the young
nnmarried men for defenco." ia General
Young*! eoncluiion.
Many Nnrthwestern. Middle Western
and some Southern papers are tirgmg the
government to exempt young farmers.
Will Be There in a Minute
?From Tn- indijnu^itu Otetca
Classes of state labor and of municipal
employes have also claimed exemption.
Writing on the refusal of the Provost
Marshal tleneral to exempt the New York
City poliee and t'.remen, "The New York
Sun"says:
"Such an exception would be, a? General j
Crowder points out, disenrnmatory and eon- ?
trary to the spirit of the conscription law.'
So far as the men themselves are concerned,
we believe that every young policemen and
firemen without dependents will be glad to go
late the army."
New Coal Fields in England!
An interesting example of recent ex-j
plorations of concealed coal fields is that
of the borings carried down into the east
ward extension of the Nottinghamshire j
coal fields toward the Trent Valley. They
bava proved that the easterly dip of the
coal measures is not maintaincd indefi- j
nitely, but that it gives place to an east-1
ward rise and definite limit in that direc
tion where the beds are overlain uncom- j
formably by the newer strata. Even ao
this concealed extension is a notable ad
dition to the visible coal field. though ita
productiveness is still in doubt.
Other cases are those of Denbighshire,
where the aceessibility of the buried east
ern extension depends upon whether the
?teeply dipping coal seams will continue to :
be brought to a higher level by further
faults like those of the visible field. Thb
pppears probable from recent work.
ln the Kent coal tield the coal measures
appear to orcupy a troujh with it.4 axh
ranning from northwest to southeast. Tbe
possible existence of a continuousi belt of
coal measures oecnpyinf the same /one of '
iotense disturbar.ee that traverses Belgium
aad Northern France is considered, and
th?? opinion ia expros'td by exnerts th.-.t '
the gertiy folded K.mt coal measu-es must
be some-.4h.it ofr thi ? line to tbe ItOlth. The
great thickness of BBCOndary strata in tbe
South of Engtaad has hitherto been a bar
to the exploration of this beit of distarb
anca.
Doctors and the
Draft
fl"MIAT non-military nations like Amer
I ica and Kngland conduct the
rarlier enterprises af a war with
much blundering, and that the War De?
partment ruling to draft medical students
?nto the army exceeds moat previous blun
ders, is inferred from the praetically
unanimous opinion of the: editors who
have commented on this special subject,
and from reports iasued by th?> doctors
thomselves. Also this opinion seems
home out hy the unfortunate resulta of
.?imilar action in both Kngland and
r rance, as reported by the pre*'.
Summing up the actual Bntish situa?
tion, an eminent surgeon, Dr. W. W. Keen,
deciarcd:
".Such geniuges aa Rragg ani Moae>
t'ao of the mo?? extraordmary r ?n 1 n phy?
i<-s and rhemiatry in Great Britain men do?
ing work bke that of Sir Humphrey Davy or
Sir William Ramsey. and in their labora
torieii worth a whole hrigade. were soeo
killed. The government waa soon obliged *o
reeall all such men to their txptrt work. We
have had to send our numerous hospital
units, not to work for and with our o?n
tro^pa, but fo mike good the ahortage in the
Rr'tiah and French armiea. Their civil popu
lationa llae are in dire need of more doctors "
The situation so far as it relates to
medical students in America is even more
alarming, Dr. Keen finds, as naturally a
much larger proportion of students falla
within the draft age?over 85 per cent. in
fact. "Fourteen years ago," says the
press report, "when our population was
much less than it is now, there were 2",
81". medical students in the eountry; in
1915 the number had fallen to l.'l,91?, and
last year to 13,121. Yet the exemption
boards have no statutory power to exempt
t.iedical students, whose numbers will nat
i rally diminish at an even greater rate
while the war lasts."
Doctors Cannot Be Manufactured
Overnight
And referring to the prospective short
pge ln dectors in the future, if the War
Department does not change its dpcision,
Dr. Keen goes on to say:
"Fven one year her.ee we ahall ta in great /
need. Doctors cannot be manufactured over- fa
night. Five years are needed for college end \
hoapital. General Crovrder's idea that tak
ing a atudent from hia we'.I-ordered, compre
hensive course af atudy and putt.ng him in
the army will sufflce la abaurd on its very
face. Are we to give over our fincst and be?r
young men to the care of auch 'half-baked'
doctors? God forbid!"
Commenting editorially "The Macon
Daily Telegraph" says:
"A littla foreaight might hare. provided
againat the grave shortage of med.cal prae
titioners and skilled men in other fielda in
Great Britain to-day, and with this obvious
example before us it will ba aeandalous if we
fall into the aama error."
A statement mada by Provost Marshal
General Crowder to the effect that only
about onc-fourteenth of the country's
medical students can be taken in the first
tlraft, arouses "The Journal of the Amer?
ican Medical Association" to this vigorous
reply:
"General Crowder saya that 60 per cent of
those ealled will be exempted. If this is tnie
then it will require 1,750,000 of thoae regis
tered to aupply the 700,000; that is, it will
take 18 per cent, or nearly or.e-ffth of the
total numbf registered, to aupply the firat
call, uaing General Crowder'a figures.
"Let us apply these faets to the medical
atudent problem. Our estimate was that 85.1
per cent of medical studenta 'S.87JH were
within the draft age. Eight?en per cent of
the total number of medical students regis?
tered ia 1,598; this number would be subject
to the first call.
"General Crowder, however, would have us
deduct 60 per cent of this number for exemp
tion. But the 60 per cent exemption is based
on the total regiatrationa; it applies to and
ineludes all classea of tha male population
between twenty-one and thirty-one yeara old;
th* lanie, the halt, the blind, pri?oners, in^
aane, thoae who are engaged in occupations
neeeaaary to the conduct of the war every
male person in the I'nited States between
twenty-one and thirty-one yeara old.
"It ii extremely rare that a medical atu?
dent ia a married man; extremely few are
supporting dependenU. Obvioualy those who
are have independent incomes, or they would
rot be ln tha medical schools
"As to physical defects, there la probably
no group of men who, as a class, are physical
ly better qualified than medical students. Aa
to aliens, our Investigation ahowi that th?
number of aliens is a minor quantity, one
half of 1 per cent.
"We unheaiutingly assert that instead af
there being 60 per cent of exemptions amor.g
medical students, there will b* !e?s than 10
per cent."
Some Hoapitals Are Already
Badly Crippled
According to the Mayor's Committee of
National Defence (New York) 15 per cent
;s a conservative estimate of the propor?
tion of medical studenta included in the
first call.
Reports have heen reeeived that John?
Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore is alread;.
crippled, also the Philadelphia Hospital
Association, the Medical School of the
University of Wisconsin and many other
leading institutions.
Dean Browne of Bellevue Hospital Med?
ical Coliege. as reported in "The New
York World," hkewise takes a whack at
the figures given hy General Crowder, and
Dean Heffron. of Syraeuse, il quoted in
same news item as writititr:
?'[? :s mcomprehensible ta ma that the
Provost Marshal General should ltisist upon
a repetifion of the great blun.W va'nieh Kng?
land and France made."
On the other hand. it has heen noted in
the press that. "doctors and others within
the draft age had all had their opportunity
to offer their services to the government
?i the reserve army before the drat'l be?
gan, and that those who had not availed
themselves of the opportunity were not eu
titled to any >pecial consideration."
Among the papers which expreas ?hem
oelves in favor of exemption for medical
-tudents are: "The Waahuigtotl Poet."
"The Baltimore Sun." "The Virginian
Pilo;." "The Dayton Journal," "The Plula
delphia Puldic I.eJger" and 'The \a>li
ville Trnnessean." Some of the paperj
ilsn ailvocate exemption nf dentiat .

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