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What Do These German Mutinies
and Resignations Signify? THE mutiny in the German navy, foi-1 lewed by the resignatlon of Ad-' m.ral von Capelle. the Secretary of the Na\y, was widely diseussed in the American press. The newspapers viewsd the affair from vnrying anj-los, but. upon the whole, with a tendency to regard it as a most bopefal indication of devel opmet.ts || (iermar.y. Blight pictures were drawn bv optimistic editors of an rarly break-up of Germany's lighting power. even of the rea'.i-ation at last of thf oft-repeated predictions ol the down fsll of the HohenaoBernfl and the march nstttB StO their nlti mn.e tnumph; hut as a deci.ive foil to this chorus of hope a strong note of cau tion was heard in many editorials. Tho one feature cf the affair that was unani | M a hopeful development was th- reeignatJoa of d.pelle. ln the preaent survey the opt__aiata g^t the ftnt r.ning. "The Baltimoro Ameri? can" fleee la the mutiny a sign that the "Gennan aary li henayeomhed v.i<! I ifl th?' - n disdpllne of Oamany to a | :?." The editor con-, cln.es from the incident itself and its treafjMnt la t itag that "Gm* BBBl Ifl now upon the verge of disir.te-? gra-lon BO I the 5<gr.s of revolt are thfl sure llgttfl of thfl <verthrow of the present regi^ The Seething Unrest in Germany Proclaimcc. Significant | w York Herald** also draws ?ing as foDows: : raoffl of tbe nnaparing -.rrnun - ry, naval, - rilloBI, f.nds Ib the converpir.. - ' 'o :i ' "?* "The New York World" also regards it _n " ? whlci " and . ?"Whaa s-ich a :? r''',' ?*nin headway f wstehfnlaaai ao keea, the raia te whieh the (, :. Itarj machine ia now aub. jected approaehafl tha limit of endorance." .'7;jP \?, ? rl 1" also hints form: "T_ar> ealla ta Raaai *How much m^*. taadf ,. . ? iwend "niy from the Bl _ the Fathtrland hope I Hfe, from th. a German battleehlp, who can say what _M on ?" "The St. Louis Post-Dispatch" sees an Bflaea poin.ir.t- to the e-.d of Kaiserdom, | ? ? leetetlaa with the Rnaeiana la reported , I forces. ns a leas prea ? ' 'jf autocracy could bc Indaced '? other unit. demending democracy anri a .quare ? -n thia ted al ?: I the fall of ? "Tl,, .rh Dispatch" also sees the larii g that bia to brew a mutiny aboai "f '??'?'?"? "hlch ? ra, aotwith* igh authority named, it is rective The Germai ta their loy ? ? . . | : a.iation te i * :ho , rted by the Miniater of henzollern dynas'y is fac - The Sigmficance of the Moderation Toward Mutinerrs cration, from the German stand ? 0f the i oat to 'The Buffalo Ex above. lt a ?...dr ration haHly .? who iiot. *, tha ? paper eonclude? "that thi rown v-tv much ? H r - -r thai wha! iy happen to tlie also ram pera, maintaining I chain bj mail brei ;?- thii in the movement from bondi .-'?. evei li mu_t M-f] ? ? ,- ? notes :hat ? "without .. ? lown of .ierman I " " and con .].J(](. ? taken together ? Germaay '^ atunbling witl '? aa on the flring ." - ? -papers tnke. for the BlOet ' !<*w- "Th'* rds the of the " ' ? ,t "if there wai s i ie deeeiibed H will be followed by ? ?'.?." while admlt le may have baaa right | not Inter u. ,ch(: , | for the outs.de world o accept such :; fiea without mental re ervations." The editor is of the opinion bat the motives of the German loamea, wera "somethinp more deep-aeated than | ? liscontent over their food," and then draws tho conclusion that "on tbe who^e we be . ? ?? thal the mutiny i- symptomatic of Bjideaproed political unrc?t, nnd that both its ir.cep'ion and effect aro tracenble be yond the limit*- of th-' (ierman naval es tablishment. ' "The Dallas News." after mentioninp that the docility and obedience of the Ger? man people hns been dinned Into our enrs by nll writers about Germany. has this to add: "However this may be, the mutiny in the navy, the repeated jx-nce offers, tbe incres* ire -itr.kc-. and riots, aml tlu- prowinp bolil ness of tbe Soruli*'5. flTfl flVidaaeM "f ;i rapicU) incrcasing discor.ter.t that cunnot be . i4o.'. ;i?.(ie ??- the mere sporaihc outbursts of a pei.ple wbo nre for tbe moit part obe- i dient and contented." "The ChariootOB (S. C.) News and Cou- ,' ,jp:" MOI the importance of the event in rt that "it upsets | ther.ry which has i?een exploited cor.tinuously from the ? reek of the war. the theory that the Genaaa aoldier and the German sailor had been so thoroughly disciplined and was M aheolutely a part of a machine that any MOellioa apainst authority simply could! not happen." Cdutioua Skcpticism Marka Comment in the Northeast Newspapers in the northeastern part of the country handle the mutiny. for the most part, with a cautious skeptici'm. The N'ew York Tribune thinks it wise tfl trent it with coniiderablfl reserve, and holds that if the affair had been of any military sipniticance tbe German cenMri would never have permitted the news of it to be put upon the cable.-s. The followinp pregnaal paeeage: ?'The frnp of the autocnicy 1." flrmer now thsr, i; waa befora the EGrxbaifar paaea dem probably ftnafli ts-day than lt wafl bfll - ' VVilhe'.mshaven mutiny. Lflt ? a victorj Gflnaany throagfa a revolt of the Geraan .- thfl Garmaa army. The time is not ? h proletariaii revalatloB in (ier; i There Ifl no Kerer.s'r.y yet in light on the br.nks of the Spree." "The Brooklyn Daily Eaple" also wanis Bgainat exaggereting the importeace of hen adds: "All oatward ilgna of revolt must han ? foM the d-t.-ii's of the mutiny ? read before the empire aad thl W01 I . . . - jj' Dl the whole affair, Inelfldiag thr BaflflBtfl. lt la clear that the junker bttrcaaera v- been provvh-d with a new whirh to belabor the whole trib. .; oateata who are prowinf* inerea. rlag." "The New York Sun" declines to draw any optimistic conclusions, in view of the publication of the affair by the German authorities themselves. and fhen proceeds as fu'.lows: ? e Bl we may like lt, we must cor. ?>.?. that daapite Matiaeftd rererMa and prodi* ffious MerlflCfll the German army r*mfl I perfect Aghtiag machine. Not in any iateraal irithiB the German firrhtinf. force ? ? tbe po-'.-r of our own rr.cn and our I e mu't trust to end the Tentor.ic tenor." "The Now York Times" is exceedinply akeptieal, opining a "political dodge" in the f.act that tbe povernment ltM.1 out the news; itill, it fldmitfl that there eitaia facts that make for the belief that thii time lonething may be really poinp on in Germany." ? Tirnc.*" ftnally s-immarizes its "Two t.ilnri we Xnow. The *-ov*rnment ? ? leaat a part of ita navy I] aad tha head of tbe Navy . ? r [Bl .r.inediately after that !t aroald be prrrr:a"ir.' te form arv |, ? _?!___ from the little we ^n0W| | inatic to te that all thii may be the txginninr of im? portant -Vi T hr Effectfl of the Russian Revolution Upon Germany "The Springfield Republican" draw at n to thc fact ti.at the RuflfliaB revo i hai aad two dieerse effeeta in Ger? many: "The aprlre floodl ln Rniala have tattaMj ? _. n.-v- di ft teflrard <!. mocracy in tha aame tim. the. ..-".ion to that Jrlft ..--.. f Rassiaa aatae raey let thr Teutonic autocrat* to aborinc - worked edvereely to raey." The writer i_ further of the opinion ihlleation of the mntiny ta Ger many "was timed to tiamage the I: -From rhe St. Louis Paat-Ditpateh 1 tag conlltlon in support of peace, and that probably the government exaggerated its importance prccin-ly to accomplish that end, by giving the country a scare." But "Th" Rcpnl " not whofly ikeptieal; it admit.-i a ray of hope in the admisflfem '.hat "from other reliablfl lOUreefl wc know tl a-. the mutiny in the fleet is hlghly symp tonatic of u temppr in l.ermany which miehr rapidly grow, under favoriible con? ditions, into a formidable menace to Kai <or:sm." "The ProvHonce .lournal" minimi_.e_ the I affair, Sl f< ilo-.vs: "lt Ifl a mi t.-.V.e. however, to hall the ir.cl , dent at Klel a? h siern thnt Hohenzoll. rni. m r The bovine submi. sion of tl,c i. laaaa U thal ? Ki i ia not te ln- in pired to deflaace of the . eh it has slwayi ie ? ; ;....-,.. [| \4r, ild be barborlag a fallmej tha I ling to naki fair - .american people and their . te d**pen<J on a German revo'utiori ? than a GerBUUI defeat for viciory m I the pre ? " ?? . -le." "The Colnmbm Dispatch" "takes no etock ln tha stories sbout coniideTable numbers of Germans having deserted," and adds that "thero la not the remotest pos sibility of a mutiny eucceeding in either tho German army or navy. Individuals may rebel, and be promptly shot, but there eannot bo any concerted action of great numbors." And the following from "The Savannah Morning News" shows that Southern edi tori are not wholly carried sway with optimism: "Let It not be ?upp<fled that thia outbreak of a handful of aallora meana that the Ho h.-nzollems are going to be overtumed imme? diately by a great revolution. Thia family ll Koinic to die hard. It made Germany grrat in prace, a fact that will not bc forjrotten by many Germana, oven if It ls rornemb.red that, the Hoheniollem ambltion bas causcij her to lose tremendoualy in war.1* The U-Boats' Failure to Accomplish Big Things Not a few of the editors discuss the mutiny and von Capelle's resignation in their bearings upon thc submarine cam? paign, and usually from tho viewpoint that both cvents aro a recognition of the failure of the U-Boats to accomplish the big things promised when ruthless war fare was adopted last February. Thus "The Brooklyn Daily Eagle" infers that the flghters on the submarines "do not .hare the oflicial German view that the submarines are winning the war or have a chance of doing so." And "The Portland (Me.l Press" hesi tates to accept Capelle's explanation of the mutiny a* an oute^o-wth of tha Boe slan revolution; on the other hand, it writea, "for the real explanation we muat po much deeper, and it ia not unllkely that it is to be found in the ruthlena ftaaV marlne warfare which Germany haa bean wapinp." Thia ia baaed upon tha aa Humption that the German loaaas of aub* marines have become ao eevere that the fear of being improaaed for eubmarine 4-ervice has apread terror among the "*" men. In thia atraln "The Springfleld Repub? lican" also writea: "The mutiny mijht thu. b. tak.n aa indl entinc* that German submarln. lonaa . ? atCtt been exceedingly h.?vy. Yet lt ia not impossibl. that the very conc.alment of them by the Germans has been a prave mlitake or.d that mmors spreadtng* among th. MM sailois at Klel, bas.d upon the dii.pp.arance of familiar faces, bave made th. leaa.a appear greater than they actvally are." isaffection in the Ka/vy Behind The U-Boat Wane D "The Buffalo Expresn" alao thinka thifl is a plauaibie explanation, whereaa "The New York World," revereing thia line of thoupht, holds that the decline in aubma rine aetivity is due to disaffection in tha navy. "The New York Evening Sun," after enumerating varioua cauaea for the mutiny, holds that aversion to aubmarine duty can hardly have been the chief cause for the behavior of the mutineers; "but the irritation on ita aide," the editor con? tinue?, "is bound to decreaae the efficiency of the U-boats by making it more diffi The Conspirators -From The New York Evening Potrt iNews of German War Conditions in Small Packages Based on Accounts in Dutch Papers Which Have Just Reaehed This Country "Hail, You Crowned With the Victor's Wreath!" PHIMPP SCHEIDEMANN, leader of the BO-called majority Social Dem ocrate, lias openly joined the mon larchliti and dafenden of the Hohensol When he was chosen 'emporary Vice-President of the Reiehstag ta 1912 he refused to be presented to tlie Kai ? hii republican principle, and . for this n was not r. en the Pre. ident and Vi.-e-Presidents j ..? were chosen four weeks ? i con-j iliit mass meet intrs when he ws country dnrlngl the autumn of 1913. ? timei changed, an.l so did Sehaida* i: ann ar.d hii folloWBTS. | of the Her'in gove-n mental Socialists." says the "Volkszei- | t-.ir.ir." of Leipsie, "Scheidemarn at'. ed tO uistify himself and the other mem-j kjority) Sociali-t Bxeen* imtntttee who had been received by ing; ?..'.> are neithcr ruf ftanfl nor wild negroee, Beiag well man men, ?? accepted BB invitation ex 'o ns.1" At a meeting arranged ty Dr Kaemp'. Pi. - laal of the Ratehetag, on August i te commemorate the paflflBgB of the ? ar loan bill by the imperial German Parliament, Scheidemai n joined enthnsi* .":v in the BOBg, "Heil, Pir im Sieger i-Hriii. yea crowned with the vic wreath"), the German national aa* Iheea ihapeodisiag tho Hobenaollerns. War Widows offlcial Marriagfl Bnreaa has been ihed ai atagde tha govern ? f the Pnissian Province of Saxony. ireau, wh af all ?e of Sax* | to bring togather widows and young men. eepecially vetemos of the present war, permanently disabled for military lervice. Conserving Leather The ; ? ( D tjir.ee, Baden, amation by the , city administration to gobarefooteddnriag apring, bocBOM "it is the i duty of every German not BT, which is very scarce." ,i the people wear straw fchoes. Leather ihOM cannot be obtained, and irooden ahoM are now too ozpeneive y of the population. A pair of straw sb ea, arhieh, of eourse, are not weatherprcof, eoetl three marlcs (75 cents at the normaJ rate of exchanpe), and is. verv ooon wera out. Selling at Cost To ? I of the poor tho r I-'runkfort-cn hfain Mld frnit at cost In July laat cherrk'> so!d at GO pfennip (15 cents) ' per pound. peas at 45 pfennip, cucumbers iat 40 pfennig per pound; cauliflower cost fennlg per head. These prices must be considered prohibltive, in consideration of the feet that tho averape workman does ? : n more thi.n live marks (SL26) per day. Getting On Without Matches BetanM they cannot afford to buy matchei the ranatry people of Germany ara oeing flint. iteel aad tinder to lipht a fire, ; ' did in the arere unknown. A Hunger Strike A [Mndotarn battelien was called out to ?npprOM disor.vr.* arisinp in connec? tion with I strike of more tban twenty ?id workers of the Schichau Bhia building Yard, at Elhiag. The men rtrack ?? to do the hard work den andi 1 >f tl nnderfed. A pei ' ?: fer a larper allowance of bread M meat had been unsuccessful. The strikers were forced back to their workshop by tho wrnrnandlng general of Pantzic, who threatened to court mart'.al for treaaoB those refnsing to wrk. Arrested for Propaganda .-?;. men and women w.re arrested in Dresdei iscaaafl they had distributed Icati'-tJ calling up.oi the working people to strike and to rise in re Ingenious Interpretations Tlio n i ?? etjout the food -hortage in Germany grows tiie morf* inge.-iious nro the interpretations of the law to punir-'h t the "patriotic cpirit dic ? the f'?id re.gulation," ev?n if they keep withia the wording of the law. An engineer named ir W, of Perlin, was sentenced to leven weekl i'i prison on a charge of racelving stolen goodfl because he had aeeepvd from a friend a bread card which bad been daly l.sucd to the doOOT and was r.ot . t.den at all. Twenty-five Cents an Egg Wealthy [x-ople who went for a rest to the Black Porest olfered the farmers ex orbitant prices for food. At Schoenwald a lady was wiliing to pay one mark (25 cents) for one egg, but was driven from thfl house by the farmer. As thfl popula? tion of the Black Forest is starv.ng, the town of Neaatadt offered ? reward of live marks to ar.y oae DOtifyiag the poliee of -..: offer " f< r '? id of any kind. Rolling Stock Shortage The State Bai.: . r i enmiseion (Eieea bahnrat) af the Kingdom of Saxony de? cided to add another increase to the pas senger rates because the railroads are Oaablfl to handlc the tratlic in spite of its large decrease owing to th" shortage of -, locomotives, cars and coal. The harbor <-f Mannheim, the greate I tnlaad port ef Germaay! ifl ahaoat d - _erted because impvrtations from Hol? land have practically ceascd. Paasenjfer boats are not running at alL Change of Linen Even in hotolfl the bed aheatl must be used at leawt seven aightl before they ma1, be changed, no matter whether the bed ia used by the samo person for the week, or niphtly by different people. Kot more than one towel is allowed to any one person each day. The use of table cloths and napkins is forbidden. Pistol Justice Because ho was "kuy at work and other wise renitent and refractory" a Baafiaa prisor.er of wnr w.as shot dead by a -en? try in the prison camp ut Scliwandheim. The sentry was not even arrested, but was praised by his immediate laperiori and honorably mentioned in an order of the day. Lung Diseases The death rate from phthisiu. pneumonia and other lunp troubles is rapidly increas inp in Berlin. accordinp to officiai sta tistics for the months of Mareh, Aprii and May of 1916 and. 1917. Daring thOM months there died this year from phthilil 1,006, from pneumonia 1,009 and from other lunp troubles '.YM persons, as apainst 1,032, 62'J and 190 from the same di durinp the same period of the precedinp year. The increase of the death rate from lunp truu':>!r--i is BaCTahed to insuf ficient nourishment. Newspaper Trouble* German rrewspapers had not only to reduce their size, but must also get rid of a part of their subscribers. The "Rheinische Zeitunp," of Colopne. and the 'Volkszeitunp," of Leipsic, asked their subscribers that several of them combine, buy together one copy daily, and exchanpe it. It must be k.'pt in mind that news papers which make this appeal are ar.tl povernment publications. Their circula? tion increased enormously. Governmental newipapera are not iu ao extreme want of I print paper. That tends to show the sen? timent of the masses. Nettle Cloth }'??< ple with fat pocketbooks are not yet forced to wear paper undergannents, al ihoueh they eannot buy linen or cotton. Thirty years ago a Dresden manufaetur? ing concern attempted to manufacture nettle cloth, but failed. Recently the ex perimenti have been taken up again, and earried to a successful end. The cheap ? ? .jiality of nettle cloth costs over five mtrks ($1.25) per metre (a little more than one yard). Silent Belfries Tho chureh tower clocks are silent. The hells which struck the hour9 have been seized by the government, to be used In the manufacture of cannon. In the poor districts only a relatively few own a clock or a watch, and, therefore, are at a loss to know the time since the tower clocks ceased to announce the hours. In several communities the bells were replaced by worn-out railroad rails, the voice of which is less melodious than that of the belli, hut. anyhow, was heard throughout the re cpective villages. Recently even those "clock rails" were confiscated; they ara needed by the War Department. Suffrage Thousands of striking women assembled in front of the City Hall of Hamburg to demand equal suffrage; they were dis persed by the police and the military. The women had quit work to force the Constitutional Committee. appointed by the Senate and the Assembly of the Re? public of Hamburg to draw a new con stitution, to act favorably on a petition submttted hy the Woman Suffrage Asso ciation of Hamburg and Altona. The pe? tition demanded that the vote be given to, the women of the Republio ef Hamborg, , cult to flnd relleble men for tha erawi** Capelle's resignarion, too, la ia ama* eeflefl attributed to the failure of tbe U-boata, rather than to hia abortfvfl ?&. tack apon the minority Socialista. "Tb* Pittaburgh Diapatch" aaya that "tha II boat ia practically admitted to ba a faii. ure whan Ita chief ehampion is eomp?lM(J to re?ign.'* But tha political fligniflcanee of tha reaignation la aeen in othar directiooa. "The Naehville TennoBaeean" Interpreta g aa probably meaning "compieta diaruptiM of the German fighting machine. It u the ftrat raal atep in tha dlrection of a r*. volt apainst the Kaiaer'a policy of cor.tina. ing tha war when everything ia agaiaat him. It means that the Kaiaer'a support by hia offlcial family ia going to plecei, and that the people are no longer oith him." An adranee in tha pow?r of tbe Reieh*. tag and a atep ln the dlrection of parll*. mentary government are seen by BevenU newapapera. Thua "Tha St Louia Poit Diapatch" draws from the reflipnarleo. the inference that "the Relchstag, withoat conatitutional poweT to hold imperial raiiv iatera to reaponsibility, ia alowly but frteiad ily aaaerting Ita real power as the only organized political body in the government which representa the people." And it adda that "the reason is not far to seek. It is the old atory of the growth of democ racy and of popular control of povernment in all deapotisma. The deceptive formi of democracy, designed to deceive and lull the people, assume in a time of storm and disaster and popular discontent impor tance and vital power." "The New Orleans Times-Picayune** ef. fcrs aimilar reflections: "Th. reslpr.tlon of th* flflal BH if Ma? rine and the predicted rctipne'ron of tkt Chancellor indicate that oceans of w-ater U paBslnp beneath the mill of Germar. politlei. For there was a time, by no BMeai n-rnou, 'when neither Admiral von Capelle ror Dr. Micha.lis woald have bothen*-! hii heid about th. hubbub in the Reiehsthg." "The Pittaburgh Dispatch" sees the same slgnificance in Capelle's resipnation; it writes: "The all-powerful dorr |nation of the Kaiser in the government of the em? pire ia challenged when his Minister of Marine ia forced to resign because of tha indignation of a majority in the Reichstag. . . The aacriflce of von Capelle showi that the imperial government understand! the people can be pushed just so far and that they are getting mighty near tha ' limit." Huns Strafe the Fish GERMANY-S lateet effort at auekinf dry every inch ef tha invaded regiona of France before ahe is obliged to evacuate them haa juat come to light in the diacovery that the canala and rivers of Northern Frar.ee are bein/ drained tifeleea of every eatable fish, it clares a writer in "The London Gloa." While this lateat barbarity mipht be tt* plained in part by the critical food situ? ation of the Germana. there ls evddenca, ! it ia polnted out. that this is m-'. the sole motive. Says this writer: "The ta.k of le.vinp th. French rirers u<t eanolrt nshless ln beinjr punued with th* siai ! BVBtematlc thoroughn.-aa and at'-r.von tt } detail tbat characterir.ed the eifcrta of th? ! Germans preceding their retreat of last ' Mareh to leave behind them a desol.tB wild** 1 nesv in which the French might not flnd i either a mou?hful of food or an oar.ee of material that wou'.J be of MITMa to them. "The neces>slty of drainlng dry ? ir.y of th? canali ard portiona of river bedfl r*nd?r?d unusable by the Germans haa brourht tt light nuroeroui flah trapa, aein.s, barriin and other appllance. oi?d by th* i.rraiBi In order to catch av.ry flih. Fcr^tnUj th* can.li and rlven were dlvided aith barrttri ln order to render imposaible thfl .??cap* tt a single nah. Evidence hai alao been found of the uie of exDlosives for itBBI r.f th? W and bringing them to the surfac. where they were raked in with hand-nets. "Th. one ld?a domtnating thfl tMBflBBl appears to hava been to a'cnra for bBBB immediate use all the fih ?... ifllfl, ?t MJ ?am. time rendering it eertalfl that aftal their ev.cu.tion it woald be ytart b'fori the French would .g.in be able to rtstock the river. and canal* to their formtr pl?nU* fulneaa. "The depree to which the eaaala .nd tittn have been selned dry Is being d-mon-trital in another way. During therr re'reat ti* Germans dynami'ed 1001-00 of l.r'djrei, ?"' I of them huge steel .nd concrete .'Ta ra, wbiei j fell into the river or canal bed.. Many if the.e weighed from twenty to one h'ladrw tona or mora. "Before the Germans' derasta'lor. and f** treat. the exploslon necessary to breot i? one of theBe bndgc* row lying on tha rifir j beds would have atunr.ed aml bl-BUgfll '? *9 aurface hundredi of huge river fi?h tor has | dreds of yards in both d:r- ??' ??<? an explo.ion bring* to the larfBce nrobiWj h.lf a doien. What has bf"i loaa by ?* Germans ln this respect in tbe UrfsMf 'aiready evaenated ir* preiumably bfliag ?* tinu^l in all tho remainder flf Pia M Bal which they are yet to b. ea*Bel.od" Thessalonicu In the days when St. Paul addre^d hh | Epiatlea to the Thessaloniana S.ionica waa not modern, for it was huilt abwj 315 B. C. on the site of an older city COJj Therme, and waa named by Ita found* after hie wife, a flister of A!ex?: ier th* Great. It haa alwaya been a place of i* portance, aa it is the chief haroor of **' cedonia, and waa a point on the itr.citf highway from Rome to the F.ast. ^lta a few fine buildinga, like the . 11 MOagM which had l>4?en in turn a temple of \etkw and a Christian church, it has alwaya be* a colleetion of houaea largely of wood, aa* therefore, hlghly inflammable in tha9 treme continuous heat of aimm?r. conflagration which hai juat iwept aaU the main part of it is not by very naw the fir?t experience of the kind tory, the 1890.