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-Xetrj ttork (Tribune
I iral to l.a.t-|hf TrUh: New.-Edltori.H Advertlsenient. ??Baa. ** aa. * '' BBifl-a *' OUma***** MONDAY, OCTOWb, *% *W . a******o*m.* . . t ),*-.. , Mfl ra" ** nuu-na ? r .. I ?-??? 1 ra-V ., 4 * ie a ? -? lAM ' I ... tae* ti? ?>* ? , | ., .- .., a. S- ? 74 . Ja... ? ? ?? mt la th* ... , 44. , - . ' *? "?*? MKV ? ip naai 7^ ,. ? enUtJ.<! a"*i* '"' ? ? ~l ?" >? '* "*, ? . '.ort. ne-**> o. ' ". ***** ?*...? herrfn *** ? Getting Ahead 'j-(,r . *- iaigtariiig tho aa? lt far toward brina* ?nj, r.r ? chaoa. Tho tirst call for cevweripta waa an expenment, pare and r. We had no experience of our owr. laid e.xeept thfl Civil ?1 n melar.choly flaxla. , had to be Impnnriflad Our military organ i7.*?tior. was tor. imper r.-".irces, with Bg 10,000,000 ntizens | nnd qualifylrg ? rfoni to the training camrs. , baal that the Federal government ... | tO prepare the camps la tin national ? l the burden rai to the itatflfl a,ui . t? povernment, over ? .-. ? ng their aid, con , M Federal raceiving nd pay for their ser The draft law was net enforced in Um way ln which Federal law- are usually tkroufh the i wwkera opinion. ? unataneea it wai no empioyad were ? to conatant volamino ioaaadl ?rom fVaallingtOB were conflicting and ? confufled. The volunteer board* had to . ut their own salvation for the mo.st With inadequato direction and ma l oniiplished marvels. A I t of the lahOT put upon them Hut they never shirked. t for What they . _ bitiona than theirs .., tha way ol gener iblk service. | drafl was completed the ? ? BM ohvious. indoubtedly done ln .nmenUlly, pportu , ,per Btandardi of ex (.mption ? - ?? :' election. The flnrt draft .. vagv.e W?y, and the great ly, not only ln (jja/, ? in diflferenl diviaiona .te. i ba mada) ? principle. Aceor.I ?? hkh are being . result of consnltations be *'! boards nnd the pro ;il general of the army, the rai air.i: i* eligibles are to be classitied be they are examined. That will save ' the labor of elimination nndai ti.e original system, It will lift from ' a j'l'ier* of the distriet exami | burden of OBBaaia clerical lt will vastly aimpHfy the exemp ,.n.bli-ms with which the boards have -. , deal. And it will conserve the war imcy of the nation by sorting out in man who, on eronomical i-foun'!*. ouf t to bo the last to go, be ?? ? BB 1 mmber of the ,iepet i Mnd and baetuae Ini s? in war indu.trie*. \\. at ij' ;i condition of onpre] oaai whieh un i.rdly appre tiate. We had ni *ax given the problem-* of universal i4%ne of We had no ?yrtem .inillg for the youth, and ?tnit man balow the age of twen ty-c ? rMtiott ir. our hasty plans for ronscnptio:.. We have done ti.e best wa eoaM to a tizen army. Hut tha pro i M arill bevome easuer for ua ns it I ? liar. Brentoally iv? iball creata the i a conacrip tive i: ral control, to re trlace the amateor volunteer ma'*hine which ira are BMBB u*ir;;-. gflflflllllfllly. also. we j-hall ?r:*\>roe umverval military training, thus pt*oai(ling tniatad mater.al fur lirst litM aon \ee, ^ \ ? h c:m be sumnoned to the ? ? U without dalay or frirtion whasorar the I improvements t flltan plated in the ery prove that we are Wo are proflting by c\ Thinga that o'-r faint-h4Bartad : h .M .tr BfO OI t\so JlflTrtl fanttstk bei*au?e they were repjgiiant to Ameriean - dona nowadaya as ? ma*. ? ?? ? I.: atataataV mtojudgad Tha people l.a\e learned and ^ ruora quickly lhan their IwdMl Tliry are willing to fro to any j hmit to win the wnr and to secure America | for thc future. All they a_k is leader. hip - m a par with their own aggreaslveness and j .ietermination. That is our greatest mili? tary aiset to-day; for all th_U ia now need? ed to win the war is the full devclopnicnt | of all our potential military energy. Another War Tragedy If it |g Um extra lump of surar in your < t?a that the war steps in and deprives you Bf, what could loom larger? lt il human j nature to lament luxuries far more than , r.eces.ities. Amerieans are net starving' or frcezing yet. lille--! there is nppalling maladministration and _.ltishn..s they! are not likely to do either. Bul already |MM are begmning to upri^e at the lirst nip of neccssity. picking at the pet lux? uries we have all become accu.tomed to. I.ate. t on the list is the poor director'? gold pieve. A true tragedy thi... The bur? den falls not on the director, to be sure, but his wife. At least so runs the tradl tion and the practice of Hich directors as it has been our privilege t<> 1 now. Thc direetor's gold piece. like the cWgyman's marriage.ee, beeomes pin money byvirtue of one of tho*?e unwritten laws which aie far stronger than any mere legislation. Therefore in rutting down on gold for cir? culation and insisting upon paper money for direcVors' fees the banks are hitting direetly at one of thc pri/.ed luxuries of directors' wrvaa the country over. The difflculty il tlie perer.nial one oT realizing that you are at wai when all you rio is to go about your job as us ual and road of trenche. and drum tire and train ? .ampa foi mmm one elac. No one In a training camp il ki< king about gold pieces r r .ugar or anything cl. e. The business ln hand is one of life and death, of inten lifi training and OttOT -.a.rifice looking toward onc goal and ideal. In such an atmosphere the petty luxuries ani coni forta and habits opoil which we have all ied -cem very small and far away. !? r.ot an easy leMOO that the rest of us must leam, but it is one that wa must knuckle down to in earnest. We are at ? rt only the few men who are fight? ing hut every last one of us. men, women, children. We must woiry not OVOT petty luxuries, but the stern business of helping in every possible way with the last ounce of energy and .elf-denial and OOurOfC nt OUT command. - Citizemhip Transcends Regularity The New York Kepuhl.can (lub and the Republican County Committee of The Rronx have met squarely and frankly the bogus issue of "party regularity" in this campaign. They have indorsed thc can? didacy Of Mayor Mitchel and the Fusion ticket for good and mflcient roaaoni. "This ia no time for parti.an.hip which would result in placing the rafoty of life and property in the tirst city of America in the hands of inexperienced. ineompotent and weak men," says the Republican Club, "or for intrusting offlcial power to those who. whatever their attitude. are support-, ed by every dangerous. . inister and un patriotic influence." Still another reason is emphasi/ed by Um Bronx Ropublicana: "The onpar allclod atcoanpHahmrnti of the present Fusion municipal offlcers warrant the ap? proval of the electorato of thc city and their retention in oflice." Kcpublican voters have got to decide this yrar whether they care more for the of Tammany Hall and the well being of this city tha-; they do for I party emblem. nn empty -ymbol in a campaign kh not one party principle ia in volved. It may help them to remember, thal GoTornor Whitman. who ia usuatly ? ?ied a pietty |.d party man. aayi that no question of regularity" ir- now in* volved, but if it were, thc duty of good citizenship should transcend it. Tho duty of good litizenship this year is to keep Hearat'- candidate and Mur phy's out of City Hall. ? ? , A Surpriae in the North Sea The offlcial aceounts of the disaater that befell a oonvoy in the North Sea on Wednea- j | day laat are not sufficient to jnstify gen-! eral conclusions respectlng tho methods : used at present to protect commeree at 1. ea. It la clear, however, that we have | I here an example of one of thi greatest ; oangers of the convoy system. and this should be home in nund by those who have elamored for it and wera too ready to be ' lieve that if it had been put ln force three yeara ago suppo.ing it eould 'iave bet; the tonnage problem would nol be ao dia* ouieting as it is to-day. A great deal remains to be explained, and it would be idle at preoen! tx. attempt to riccnle where the responaibility for the unfortanate event liea, or whether the tree dom en.ioyed by the raiders ia nn.perly ar tnbutabla to ar.y laek of watchfulneas on .he part of tho Uockading squadrons. Thus much ia eertain, that they evaded their watchers, destroyed the COttTOy, or the greater part of it, and returned into port, at leveral hur.dred miles distanee,' without loss or damagc. What CTUiaora were engaged in this ?'..rlng Itroke we are not told. either ln the (ierman or the British reporti; but, ac? cording to the latter, there were only tWO ' I, "very I'a.-t ai.d hea.ily armrd." I that ore know nothing. ? ? i ability they were able quickly to di.pose of the two deetroyora eeeerting the mer-' chantmen. for, under moat condition*. they would be no match for their beavily armed uniagonists. HavmR sunk them, the raid 010 apparently proeeeded without more ado . to destroy the unarmed nv.rehant ships. firing on the crowa as they were endeavoi - iag to escape, and then made good their own escape without the slight.-t effort to reecue the rarriTora. lt was a bold. it' nol an hotoic exploit,1 nnd it would be folly to expe.t chiralry oi Gormaa aeamen. tfter three year- of .-ubmarine warftere laving livi - to be a part of the German saiior's oblifp tions eren in anch caaea as thh Fon tho exepae araa that aubmarines could no' aoconaaodate the crewa of annken ihlpe, but now no excuae 11 tu nudered r.eccaiary | for slaughter at sea, and it waa not to be ?oppoaed thal ? (ierman commnnder under any drcomataneia would hesitate to take UM livcs at unarmed seamen. Ruthless ness will in future be the rule in all war fare on commeree. whether by submarines or other vesseis. There is still some doubt about the force guarding tbe merchant ships. Tho Oa*** man statement is thnt "the protecting ves .els, including the deatroyers. were de? stroyed." 1 ut. according to the British Admiralty's rommurique. this is "untnie." Are we to concludo that there were other eseorting .0000*1 or not? Be that, how? ever. a? it may, it is evident that the es.ort Wai intend.d only to provide against suh marine attack, the a-ssumption being that the enemy's surface cruisers were entirely; masked. Il WM a reasonable assumption j hased on 'ong experience, nor is it unlikely that the relative success of anti-submarlne ( measures impelled the Germ-.ns to at? tempt a feat which, though it did prove l rucrcssful, was evtraordinarily dangerous. Convoy would evidently bc a more doubt ful poliey if such feats could often be re neated. for it is clear that unless the force guarding tha merchant ships is capable of defeating ary force likely to oppose it the whole convoy runs the risk of destruction, while -.hips sailing singly can only be sunk . ingly. ThOTi are further objeetions, such as the ncce*?ity of reducing the speed of all the shins to thc alowest, and the diffl? culty that merchant seamen generaily find in handlin;: their ships in company. There is no doubt that in the early days of the, war merchants, ship ownen and under-! writors were agreed in objectlng to the .ystem. and it is very probable that their objeetions will be revived by the event of Wednesday. Nothing, however, could be more mistaken than to eondemn it on this score alono. for manifostly, as appUe.1 on this oceasion, the protection afforded was only againsi submarines. Thc danger of meeting a coupie of formida! le cruisers between Norway an.l the Shetland Islands waa supposed to 1 ?(' inconsiderable. The Drinker'a Outlook It ia prodictod by the president of the Wholesale Liquor Dealerr-,' Association that the principal results of the increased taxation of alcoholic beverages will be, i.r.t, a . adden and marked reduction in the amount consumed, and, aecond, a ?reat decrease in the number of retail dealers and the virtual elimination of the more disreputable sort of saloons. These lonsequcnces, which can only be regarded ns benefldal, "ire even now in some meas :;,? perceptible, and no manifeetly cvil effecta of "high prices arc as yet apparent. Among the latter. according tO the same nathority, we mu-t expOCt an increase m Inging, moonshinini' nnd smuggling. The retailera, naturally, laok at tho fut-1 nre with some awreheniion. for it was admitted Ml all hands ai the annual meet- i ing that many would be obliged to go out: of buaineaa. On thc other hand, tho con* sumer was warned that he would bo' an early sufferer, for as the wholesalera j Will paaa the new tax on to the retailera, I ao the retailera will inevitaWy paaauit on t?. their cuatomora. Indeed, it was freely foretold thnt within the next three years the priee of whiskey over the bar would run up to oO cents a glass, or maybe even , a dollar. lt may be that in this manner. by do-? fjaa, . men will be persuaded to temper-, ai ea aa they have not ahraya been by cx prriments in dr.vtic prohihition. If the expectatkm of the wholeaalera is well fonnded, namely, that one of the earlioat resnlta will be the abolition cf troating. then it is very likely that execssive drin!: ing will before long he ehacked to a eon? uidetable degree. Thc high coet of in-l toxieanta in (ireat Britain has doobtlesa mueh tn do With the decline in thc C0n? sumption of . pirit.?. but it is agreed hy ull inteful obeorvora that nothing has con? tributed more to temperance than the pro? hihition of inatiut'. At nny rate, it is i?ertiin that under the conditions prevail :ng now there hns heen ? vast reduction ln the gross abuse of strong drink. All effcrts toward temperance must be determined more or leas by referenca to local custom. The English problem ls not on all fours wlth ours, and the Frencb have a problem of their own, as was shown by thc steps taken in the early days of the I war for th^auppreision of abainthc. The] late eminent cliniclnn Landcuzy, who held that abstention was "n seier.titlc, economic . and historical heresy." insiited that it waa ; particularly so in France, and would by j no means allow that the ronsumptrn of and unadulterated French wine was in any way comparable to the use of -nirits. He was largely inatrumenta! in -hing the regular ration of wine for the French soldier and thought every I renchman waa the better for a reaaon* able allowance. Be that as il may, our problem ia dif? ferent, and if the prediction of the whole* aalera is folfllled there will be few in three yeara' time who can afford to drink to exeess. _ Academic Freedom . -i v he i-o kb i tamrmal Academic freedom i? a very muoh over-| r_ted privilfje, If it mar be ealled that. Wa ' wenld gattt thal II would .'ump even the itrongeil prefciaed ?uppnrter? of thi?* | lega to defiae it preeiaely. And we would ?oo. thai thei| i* not aaa of theaaj who would not t:\ ? limit to this itrangt "freedoin" nr.oirj v.l.ich no man could Pttp I it e/Tending hin aol o.' sil mea-ure. Vel thtra ii nol a doubt tha* a very coneid amblc (trooy ei human beinf. could bt found who would ..ilouily and honeetly cry out' thal "aeoittaXt fmedoaa" wis being hivaded If mi effort wn? made to stop tho offender talking beyond that limit. Ir may be tha' ronditions a1 Columbia, Univeraity as r,_pact_ manafemer.'. by a] <mall elemen' of truatees are a* Profeesnr Heard say , bat that ia for Columbia to cor-| Ihe alumni of the L'alveraity of ' Poaaaflvaaia . *ir way in?o the .\>ar ing case and hava rorrected, they believe, I what grievaooei . .nted. (olumbia alumni lar course without a doubt. Bat lot Colaml ti alumni .ettl" their own affa'rs ia their owt; aray. I?on't let u* ' ? ly talh .ihout. an ir- I I wl i obedj can pre finr for wholljr natmfactory prartreal apph | catior.. i Professor Cattell's Defence When a I a< ulty Committee \n Nat a Faculty Committee. EtC To the Kditor of The Tribune. Slrj T should think that the KaW Taft newspapers would b. a. tired of me ai I am of them As, howtver. you har. d.?oted An? other editorial articl. to Columbia l.'niveriity aml tfl my ca<e, I b.fj permlssion to state cer? tain faeta. My ralatiaafl with the univeraity were not conaidor.'.l by the departmmt. or faculty of which l was a member, or, contraty to your statement, hy any faculty commltt.e. At a meeting of the Columbia truit.es on Mareh 5 n resolution was inuoduced r.tiring rn. on nccount fif n frivolou. but truthful r.m.rk that I BBd avadfl eonc.rning the president of | tho university in a confldential letter to mem- | ter.s of the Kaculty Club. At tli? ?.m. meet? ing oi' the trustees a committee wa. appointed tn Hscertnin whether doctrine. contrary to the Constitution nnd the law. wer. being t.ught or ilifscminated at Columbia. This latter resolution raited a storm of protest. tho faculty of palitleal scu-nce vot? ing that it "hetray. a profound misconc.ption Af thl true function of a univeraity in the ad \iiM.-imen; ?f learnmg." After p.ssing res? olutions of proteat, th. council, ttself prima rily an administrative body, appointed a com ?Itiflfl flf flinfl te defend the Interests of aca Bflflflifl fiee.lom. This was nota committ.e of i the faculty. but a Butlrr-.SeligmBn committee, I containing six de.ns, who .re .ppointed by thfl preudent, and, according to the statutes flf thfl university, milat "act in subordination ] to tho president." From this committee Pro faaaar Dewey ha. recently resigned as n pro? test flgaifl I thfl general situation. A ( ondltional Apology Thfl resoiution retiring me was referred to the committee, which unanlmously reeom niendeil that no action be taken. They. how? ever, flflhed mo for .n apology for my ironir.l reniark about tiie preaident, and I signed the stati-mrnt which Professor j-'eligruaii wrote, on the fllflaranefl that this would be of great ?er vire to tho committee in maintaining* the rights of tho faculty and of freedom ot , speech, and BB th. promise that it would BB ! ?hoWfl ta no one except the committee on in quiflitioB af the trustees, and only to them if I Dflcaaaary. When tha apology was sent. out hy Prafflaaar BelitrasaB to officers of the aaivar* flity and pirnted in the new.p.pers 1 wrote a letter to members of thfl Faculty Club tfllliag how th.- flpalflgy had been obtained. I thought I owed this to them, as many had approved of my remark about tha president. one profes? sor, for example, having written; "Lat tne ?:rst of all thank >ou for saying so well some nt th-' thing- thnt l and many others dare not say for fear our familics would he left with? out support if flrfl did say them." Trofessor SflliffBiafl then wrote a letter to ?fl, copies of which he sent out by the hufl- ; ?Ireil, itatiag that I did not "respeet the ordi trnry deeflBCifll of intercourse among gentle? men" ard that my "usefulness in the univer? sity has come tfl an end." As 1 understand it, F'rofessor Scligman claims that he only broke the promiae of fl fentleman atid I had no right to KVflal the fact. I hold that it ?n the promisi. of thfl aetinir dean of the gradu ate faealtlflfl and of the ch.irman of the com- I mittoc of nitlfl flf the council, made ofrtrially ifl the donn's flflefl, and that secret d'plomary i should hava no place in a university. I pholdlng Academic Freedom Whatever may be the rights and WTOBga ef thifl aatty flfljaabblfl, seven of the nine mem bfllfl of thfl Butler Scligman committee on ?June IS recommended th.t I be retired from active s.rvice with the pension due me. The tru?t?:e-, however, chose to dismiss me for maintair.ing fleadflB*i( freedom in the classical IflBBB, BBl for resisting academic slavery as it flxifltfl at Columbia. When thfly diimlaaad me nn October 1, with? out a hearing, without paymeii' for the >ear and without t'ne pension due me, it was flfl the ?^ole ground that I had on August U addressed a letter to nirmb.r. of the Congress askiiiff them to suppoit a measure then before the1 Beaatfl and the House to prohilnt iicnding cou tcripti "to tigh*. in Barape agaiaat their will.'' Thflrfl il no laa requirir.g or peruiitt ing tire President to send "conscientious objeetors" to light in Kurope. To do this, according to an opinion prepared by the Al'orney (ieneral of the Ualtfld Btatflfl for the President in 1112, flroald bfl iineon titutional. It is also against th'* iinifiirm policy of the nation. It would provide u ir- I ttVicient army and might tBBflfl disordcr at hom.\ Tlie Britiflh go\ - i nm>-ti*. doei not rcqnire "caBflciflatioBi ebjaetarfl*' to i.ght, aad doe* not force n.nm i iption on Ire? land. 1 only exereited the eotut:tutional | ripht and lulfilled the duty of a citizen ia i petitior.ing the government to enact legisla tion which I beli.v. to be in the interest of ; the nation. By a curious trony the eommit tafl ef the trusteei appointed to guard the I Constitution recommended my dismisi.l for | using the method whieh th. Conititution j states shall not b? abridged In a letter writ? ten to members of th. Congress asking them ', to re?pect the Constitution. If the president and the trustees could har* ' found in anythinf else th.t I have ..id or done anything th.t by any possible pervcr- , slon could have been m?d. to .ppe.r unpatri- j otic they would have been only too glad to havo flddaeed It Ai it il, they have hid be? hind the flag tfl asiasslnate, relying on the ? prejudice and blind patriotistn of var. Thfly tnigiit Iiave letired ma for BaBabordiBation, I and there would hav. been no pahlfc protest; but they appurently wanted to rn.iure m. and diseredit lay efforti for university reform. i-y may have been able to do, but only hy cansinf ?( the same time far gr.ater in-j jury to the university. I favor peaee on the Ku?*ian tfll-flsfl, practi eally fldoptfld hy the Ptes.dent in his r.*ply to the Pope. Bnt both before and jince our ; ?ntry mto the wsr I have done everything in my power tfl promote national efficieney. I ?BBBl .< largfl part of the week h.fore I w.s -.'ii drawiag up for tha W.r Depart plBBfl for th* scientiftc Melection of a\iators. My older-t ion, with my approval ar .1 flflflifltaaea, was one of the tirst to enlist ifl tire army ar.d go to France, wliere he is in clraige of snmtat.on in *he Har-ard hoapital recently hombed by Oerman avators. J. M'KKKN CATTKM.. 1.afl. on-on-Hr.idson. N. Y., Oet. 19_ 1917. Coal Srurcity flf The Tribune. rhl pr.srnt coal situat.on can. to a large extflnt, be reli.ved if at this time and, if ? . lessaty, during the p.riod of the war all fllfletrifl s.pi; a.lveiti.ing is stupped. lt ?ronld save milliona of tona of coal. ll would be patriotic ?nd appreciat.d by the pnblic A ftimiantivfl ?ign could be put up on largfl sign and word.d as falloira. "Th- liffl ? net being u?ed because of the -caic.ty ot' co.l." Boeh a >igr, would creat. soni. talk and would really help the auvertiser. Kea Vork. Oct, lf, Itl7. 11. ff, ROOP9. C rais va. Prendergast To thfl Edltor of The Tribaaa. I natiefl 'hat Mr. t.rarg. who is run M to Controller F'rendergaaJ, pabl ely statei that the latter'. 191)1 flnd ? nf short-t.rm notfli n Enropfl egal. ?I Mi i *a g BtaBtiaa thfl *? ? ? i i". r that be baaoi upo-? si IWART BROWNI N.w York, Oet 1?, li'IT. Cruisers and Their_Varied Dulies A General RecieW oj Thei, Serokal fa Ihe Pa*l,With Particular Rejerence lo Amtikan Cruhcn in Ihe Warof the Revolution and the Cicil War By Gherardi Dacis Tor tha propojed new bat?le-eruiaer? of our MVy there have been aelerted auch exrellent names as the I onatitution, the Constellatlon, tbe Saratoga, the I.exington and tbe Ranger, namea each of which la a.sociated with a ship ?hat won fame for itself and honor for our flag. The lirst two in particular, wholly apart from their glorious rocords and con.idered mtrely as vesseis, wera aa tine ahipa a* any that sailed on blue water. The French had .-. wonderful knack of building fast leMiBg ships, and many B im- Knglt-h war veOOOl ii the aifbteenth nnd early ninoteenth centurie. waa eriginalty designed and built in a French government shipyard and atill bore ber French name when Lghting under Fngli.h colora. Wo were quite as skilful as tho French, and some of our Down Faat ship huildera wero even more adept at turning out frigatea and slnops-of-w *r which were fast on the wind, the nio?t valuable of al! pnints of sailing, Rt any boy know. who has aailed a race in a ratboat or a jib and muinsail craft, no matter how small. Puring the War ef the Revolution, thc war with FrOBCa I for in 1798 and 1T9. we carried on a war with France, although it w.s not offlcially recogni/.ed a_ _uoii, one ot tlioao de farto but not de jure. jconditions about which lawyer- .Ifl^-ht in splitting hairs., tho war with the Parbary piratts in th' Bl ll years of the nir.cteenth century and in the u?r with Kngland il 1812 we sent many a cruiser to sea. Thr Ranger, a small cruivr, WOI I'aul .fonea's lir.t ahip, and I believe _be win the f'rst American warahip that rarried the Star.. and S'ripe.. into Britiah WOtOll 00 0 hootila errand. Frigatea and Sloop_-of*War After tba Revolution and in the last yeara nfA* eighteenth century we launch?d 10V* eraT frigate., among them the I'nited .Statei*. the Conatitution and tha C011.tella.40n, and vi built _ome sloops of-war. A frigate was h warahip v\ith guns on two decks, that is, on thi run or main deck and thc _par or upper deck. Meat fngates bad a raised forecastle aml poop, a method of ronstructing a ihip which onginated before the days of ColllM* bua, when tha forecastle wa_ ?o named be CaOM it was built, among other things, to enabl. the crrw to tight against an enemy which bad got upon tha ship's deck or waiat A .loop-of-war was only such in n.me and not in rig. She hsd her guns on the _par deek and was what is known as flush-dcek"d; that is, her deck was one clear space from bow to _Wn, without poop or fore? castle. Again 1 am writing for laymen: sailormen who read this do not need such explanations. Those v.ho have doti" me thc honor of reauir.? my previous articles 111 The Tribune will remember tha*. the.e deeig nationa of warahipa lasted down to the days of the Civil Wur. Tha Colorado waa a frigate; tbe Hartford and the Kearsarge were sloopa-of-v/nr. New, cruisers in the early days were sail ir.gwarabips. often sent out singly on a roving rornmiiiion, und most frequently they were frigrates because of their excellent sailing qualltie*, and especially their ipeed aad good batteries, qualifiea which to-day, lt will ap? pear later, apply to a modern cruiser. They were sent to prey on an enemy'*, commeree and to capture smaller vesseis. They alao were gent to _cnu. t'or tbe enemy's f.ets and to report to their own superior officers 011 the movement of ?uch fleet. , trusting to their ewn rovtil and handinesa not to be captured Bl d'-?tro>ed. If la deseribinf enga|_e<iients between fleet* in tho?e da\_ we must ret'er to the Knglish and French navies, lloc? we 1 aMoaaod "o loet of line-of-battle ship_, whoa it eomes to tbe OSploita o. crui_ers, we, too, h.ave a |00g and apler.did record from the Bongor down to the Kuex. I do not intend to write a history of the.e glorious ships, but 1 do intet.d to refer briefly to several event-* of Whiffh we have good iea-011 to be prnnd. Ihe victory of the Hon Honime Ricbard, the .hip Paul Jooea got from the French aftei he cieaaed tbe ocean 111 the Ranger i and a VOry poor ahlp the new one was), over the Seranis is the preatest event at sea of the Amer.can Re. olutionary Navy. The Bon Heaaaaa Ritherd a*aa alae ? aroiaer, ln the war with the French Republic it Cooperation Needed Dairymen and Milk Users Should Get Together fo tha t'ditor of The Tribune. 81r: Why not dismlss all other maters pertalnlnj to tha dairy farmer, the disputes 1 between tha eity diitrlbuter and milk pro ducer, and aik only tho vital question: Can mllh bi produced at lei. than 3 cent. to .',:i cents per quart and allow _ per cent or 1 any profit, Instead of 10 to ].. per cent, the eatahllehed p*r cent to manufaeturing con I'TIH.' Wt ).n;,' the statemen's of agricultural institutions, the careful eatimates of many | of the r-tate's best farmers, giving tigures 111 ' tletail for their .atnnatej of cost, which we have not seen controverted. Until l_lf< the dairy farmer was in tlie individualistic cla-? tnd had no opportunity tu present his claims, and it wu only when gathered into | an aaaeeiatiea that he obtained a hearing. For many years the farmer and his wif. 011 a thirty or forty cow dairy have notl raved thi equivalent in wages paid to thei' Ivlp. lt may be well to ask our goveit.niant to itato how many dairy farmers, a.ide - :rom breadura of pedigrea stock, havo oeen ealled upon to pay any income tax. The i.ifflculty to obtaln farm labor compels less acre?e;? Wtdeff the nlough, consequently lower I roductimi and yearly lowering of aoil value and indneement to sell off part of herds. It rvas but a few years bro tbat thera waa a jjreat scareity of winttr made milk. I1 tttbotora n cities uned their itTorta to in duce fainers to havo herds fre.hen in the :all of thc jear rather than in the raei ' natural ?eason of i-pring. Jt rihy b<* well worth while for dairjmen te (,'onsider this very aerioujly and to ac? cept of the wider market for millc produets ba>ed on thc fundatneiital law of aupply and demnnd when at lowest coat for milk pro ' duction. The city distributer would then cfiarge foi winter months to tha uier ftitt l_sed on supply, and fur the luinmer, wIkh ci n?ump't;iin u many times greater, the ?repo-tieoately lower priee the farmer to..u i .1 basi? ot value in butter, cheese, condt naod H .iv, r'c, A? prekent there is no profit in winter produetion. There should bc n._ foreaeee bitween the domestic uier of milk tut) the farmer. Their IntOIOata are tl.e >ara*. Both the u?e of milk. which givei r.ot onl> a complete ration. but also a* MOI !n?rr i. -? ? . thor 1 - - aad largor pro- j I'letion moat be eneourag*d. otherwi?e there' must come a sclling ef cow? and re was the COBfltellatiefl that distinguishe.l h?r ' self, and lh? did somi' very acttve cruising I tn th. West Indies, tapturing the French j ftig.t. Iniurgente, among others. Rut, jusi | as the I.amaater ne\er took, p.rt in the ac t tiona of thfl Civil War, m I have mentioned, j ao the Cotiftellation was being repalred when the War of 1811 broke out, and never went tu iea. Th.n eanif our engagenients with the Har h.ry pirates. These g.ntry for a coniiderabl period of time actually eollect.d tribute from our country, and they even killed Ameriean. on the high leas with impunity. But we linally decided not to subrnit to this Ignominy any longer, and We sent over a squadron of : titiirii size, including the Constitution, thu Philadelphia and the Const.llation, to stop their depred.tiom. We made a pretty neat jab of it, even if w. did los. th. Phil.del phia. She went .ground in the h.tbor of Tripoli, and her crew wer. taken pruoners, but a short time after that we boarded her and bumed her under the pirates' guns. Tbe War of 1812 is a fascinating chapter in our naval history, w.ll told by Cooper and irflaBBTelw, ar.d one is loath to pass it over iu I muit do. It is full of sea lights between our frigat.s nnd t'noie of the Engli.h, and many a eruise la aearch of the enemy did our ahips make. If wo take the names of the ships which I have mentioned at the begin ning of this paper for some of our new battle cruiiers, it is to bc hoped that oth.r. of our new ahipi will bear such name. as I'nited Statei. Hornet, Niagar., Wasp, Kntar pris. and Kssex, every on. of which rec.lli some splendid action by our navy. Of all our ships, however, the Kssex, a ?mall frigate, v.as the one that made th. longest aiii' most gensational eruise; for she ?ail*H all over tho North and South Atlantic Hna around the Horn into the South Pacifk She captured many Knglish merehantmen and did a great deal ef damage before she was 1'nallv herself captured at Valparaiso by the Kngluli in Mareh, 1114. On this eruise Far ragat, a boy of twelve, wai a midshipman, and he distinguished himself by his pluck and nerve. We have r.amed our destroyers after dis tinguuhed BBVBl officers, from I>ale, of the Lexington, down. To read over the list of tbflflfl vessels Ifl to read, amoi.g others, thfl names ol" officers connected with* all the glorious events duiing the period of our naval history to which 1 have just referred. Th.r. ar,. Dale, Paul .Jones, Barry, Truxtun ?of th? CeaaUllatiflJl), Porter i of the Constellation, as a midshipman; of th? Kisex, as a com* manding flfleer . l'rehle, Somers, Hull 14>f the Constitution), Decatur sot' the L'nited States i, Biddle (ef the Hornet', Perry, Fat liigut i a boj ish midshipman on the Essex, and of uudying fame iri the Civil War, and many another well known name. Our Achievement. at Sea I cannot resist the temptation occaiionally to boa*t of our navy, and, not being in tha navy, I may be permitted to do so. In all the events I have related or suggested our i.fficers and men ahowed themselvea to be as Baa a lot of sailors as ever trod a warshlp'i deck. Our ships were iuperb!y built, well sparred, beautifully handled and gallantly aml. in rearly every instance, akilfully fought. In the War of 1811 we suffered two aerious losses one, that of the President, was due mainly, it seenis to me, to bfld luck; the other, that of the Chesapeake, was due to our ship going into action with a gre.n, un trsiaed crew. Her tUnbai-a ar. a part of a r.iill near Southampton, Lngland, to-day; Law rence is buried iti Trinity rhurchyard, .nd his tombbtone can be seen t'rom Bro.dway; I.awrenc's famous words, "Don't give up the ahip," have heen painted on the beams flf rnany an Ameriean warship as a charge to our eailera BBTar to be forgotten; and the fate of the Chesapeake has ?ver b.en remem? bered in our na'y, which, as far as I know, r.ever again sent an untrained crew into ac? tion. Our faaaenfl frigates once again .ail.d to the Meditenanean after the War of 1812 to aettle our .ff.irs with Algiers, ar.d w. ended forever my interference with our ship* Ifl that quarter. *\iid here clos.. the history i.f the work of our cruis.r. under ?ail. of whieh we bava erotf reason to be very proud. ?Stfjtm aaw taeh 'he place of sail*. N'o doubt my luymen leadera have thought IA they bavfl gr'iie over these lines that tu turn to the mixed farming of eorlier days. Kncourage the greater use of milk and it., product., give information of itfl food value, !et th. coniumer pay a fair valua for thi. necesiity of lifa based upon th* report of disintereited inve.tigation, and th. public may be .ure of hfl.rty cooperatlon of th. ee.iry farmer. FARMKR. Littla Fall., N. Ti Oet 17. 1917. The Long High School Day Io the Kditor of The Tribune. Sir: A. :? high school man in th. metrop il.s for n.arly a quarter century, l think you err in connecting the high school pupils* oisconteiu with tha long day with the Gary system. It may be that the long day is * corollery to tha effort to spr.ad the tiary system over th. city, but the opposition is difltinet and not an eeho. It i larprialBf thnt in war times such an ixperiment a. th. long high .chool day should be flttemptfld without ihe laaetien ef the Board of Kducation >i tha Board of l.ttimate. At a time when th. atrength flf tha country ij being drawn off to Franc. tor dflfeaaa and increaslng responsibilltie* lortit' on the old and haya, why should the \cry anpill PiaaldflBl Wilson dovres to st.y in school 'be abligadj to cho*oa? between schcol and hone'.' lnstcad of lengthening th. day lt .hould be ihortened to l'.ve hours, so thal th. old.r [ pupils may get out aoon after 1 o'clock ; and help themaelrei and th.lr parent. in i tha increaiing opportunitiei to me.t multi plying flXBSBflaa. At it is, those boys who i i.it year got out a' 12:50 and hurri.d away' to Bork are compelled to fltay till 3:Mf)j o'clock, and thus ar-j pr.v.nted from reach-. .r,% placafl o*' l..j-:ne-s in time to e.rn any-' thinp. Again, the extrr. tfcflJM is .p.nt in large | auditonuma flith deilcient h.at and light, and creaking seats, fllled by hundr.d. of pupil', with so many passing in and out,1 itce-sarily at times, as to interfere with I study. Ih- flSBerimoat has aiready reconciled tha school. to the lesser duadv.ntage. ol' ' the doubl. flflflfliofl plan, under which frst year pupils ar- kept till 5 o'clock. Thu! is net ideali but the three upper years should ire permitted to hn\e their opportunities for '?ork or Itudy according to their horn. clr- ' i-umstaneei; and of a!l times the preient ;-, unfortunate for workmg out an ur.digested rxpaiiaaaal radieally dtrJerent from th. prae tice in moit flactiaaa of th.> country. CHAKLKS S HAKTWKLL | Brooklyn, Oct. 1?, 191T. find a visiel ort thi high leaa in those days must hav? been almost a mlracle. It waa indeed ao. For a captain of a crulssr had ?nroly any means of obtainlng information of en aaeaay'a movements that was not so old n. te br of but little use, unless his iistinct and his j.idgment put him on thi right trick. Ha might aail for weeks in diitant water - and not iee a ship, but if he were lueky he woul-J ; nd what hi wis after and win farr ? , ?| pru# money, or both. On the other hand, as ii quite apparent, if he lailed into the ."riy'i WOtera be would (ind poastbly pri.es . n num. bers, as well aa enemy's ships 'here to d?fe_4 them. As I write these lines there are '. ? . in the papers of another (ierman raidir in tho South Pacifie which it may be quite diflS cult to find, and thia in eplte of eehlei and wirelesa making distance negligible aj far as communication is coneerned. The vast* nisi ef tho ocean, however, never chaagee. Tho Civil War Tba hardest work our ateam cruisers had in the Ci"il War wai following up the Ci'_.. erati raiders. Thc tiavy's great underaking was, cf course, tho blockada ef the ?< tha Cenfeeoreey. and it v**s a_arve_looaly *uc crrrful, ev-n though not alwa;s eomyleta, Cradually, however, the United State. forces captured port after port, until, wHh tt fall of Fort Fishcr, Wilmington and all UM '' M p?rta wer" ahiolutely closed. < har iston elone was not cupturod untrl 1*?__, but, rrevir thclcis, was so tightly hlechadod for tl e last two jreeri of tha war a? le be praettcally la? aacoeoiMo, Now, to maintain thia hloehade Used the navy*i i aorei ' ,; lt, and lt araa not possible to aead i aejua vaoeeta like the Rertferd oe Koai i-lri.'' - tn run down such Vi-.<- r. i.!a, the Alabama and thc Iheaand ll ? Il is true .ome shtps wera especially ?? i erraad. Thus. tho Vanderbilt, a faat A I ln, t (with paddle-whoeli and a d.ubi ing-beam engine i.pr. sented to the gotOI for a cruiier, was specially lent to the Caf of (Ji.od Hope, but ahe failed to catch ti A _? bama. This vessel was afterward BU I a sailing ship, ealled the Thrr,. Bl I passengcrs on thc- old Wall Btrool I rr. thllty yrara ago saw her frequently ! | M tho pier just le the west of the Mei ' kgoa Street ferry slip. Other single \<?- r* eqoally unsuceessful, until tha K feund the Alabama at Cherbouig a: her in action. But thc-^c failur-^ WON in i._ amall measure due te tho .trt that ! Colonial harbors svero freely open le th. Confcderate vesseis, eo that beiag ahll to crur*e as ri rule under ?ail, and thui I Of thoir coal, they could, when nece.^r a convenient port for ret'.tting and coaling. Thui they had an opportunity to ,.i-ap? capture unequallcd in the history' of raiders jioasessing no home ports to go to. And yet in tho ead theae ranl^r-, axcoa4 'bf. Sheaaa* doah. all cam>to grlef,-uaually .hrough tht Mtivitiea of th? l'nited States lhi| lt must, however, bc borue in mind thal deetructioa ef merchant ships by theea r. i er3 bad abaolatoly no effect whatovor an tha war, Thc North was not dependen* merchant marine for anything neede | war. and tha war was r.ot leagthened a day rr lt; outcomc in any way aiTect.d 0$ what theae r ilden did. A very ditfercnt conditlon of thingi e_ist> . when a deet v( Germaa aroiacr could they g?t to sea. mighA very aer laterfere with the aoceeea ef thc war. vast numbera ef men wire being MCtltaatfy ttonaported to Europe, even hefore ve en? tered tr,. war; raeh eaonaoaa qoantitiai af . rpplies and ammunitioni arc being MOt to Preaee and Englaadi ?nd so alMmeortanl ; it that thia traiiic of men aid aoppliee b. unintemtOtod, that from the very beR.nning England Mt tO 0 <rk to doatTO) all ti rman wBrsbipa at ?>'3 aad to prgveat oth.rs from getting to sea. As far ae the latter el conccrnid, Fngland has been ?.ngu!arl. si.e* ccssful, the \.ry few raider- that ha\e got out past the hloehade, and tha *-*-1U amaller number that have gol homo again, tolllBg ha'. ter than anything alae how tight hloehade. Her- igain eroieera oro o_oat oae* ful to the Eagiiah, bu* with them an 'i>* nbiqalteua deatroyon ean ara ie. tl im well -whoae dutic r-eem to be BB-dieai | Tn Be Concluded To-tno, Women Who Would Vote A Plain Ans wer to One Who Keara Few Desire the Franchis** To the Fditor of Tha Tribune. Sir; A writar in The Tribune of ths !Ttk declaraa that "he will niver change his _!ae*i opposed to forcing an unwllling and v\tttai nine duty upon women so long as they thsffl _ilves oppoia it in tha ratio of about 'wsnty to one." To ba sure. the gentletnan who ligM thi letter lives in Rhode lslar.d and ?o BUf nor. know that, thera are mon than one milllOB women on record in favor of auffrage ifl N?w Vork State. Rhode Island has rOCOB-lf g'vsn Presidential suffrage to women gad haa the honor of being the first state on tha A lanua seacoast to do so. lt is eviden' th_' t*r? is l strong support of woman suffrage I 'h?: state, a? men are not m the habit of thrust* ing suffragi on an unwil'.ing electora'*. lt is eoriooa how uawillii ..- ta ara to accipt thi fact tbat the majority ct ? nm?n I want to vote. They ignore the .rv-min. that thi original stgnatures with the BO* dresses of the l,Ol:_.M)0 women are OA * *'? state headquarters, _n.t Kifth Avenue. ? ,Jir? open to the inspection of any gne intereilftj Every sheet ii certified to by the can-. *?.r? names and addresses. Instruc le *tt* given in tha beginning that aigneis tho ild b* women who would be qualifted ta roti >*. tha next election. That tha numbtr of women gnrolled I Tiar? than 60 per cent of th_pse qualified to ? < tt ? proved by the fact that the total refiat t'.ion of men at tha last .elei tion wh.ch \ M largest number ever registered Ifl th? Ut was 1.94_,'_4?. Since, according to the of 1.10, there wera Tl?._5_ mme me thaa women of \oting age in the atOte, ll avi dent that the l,013,Mi?0 enrolled womoi are a majority of those who would hfl "? ?'??" to VOU. These eignaturea wera obtained almoal ??? tiraly by voluntaars scattared ll i ',-': ne0m' and corner of thi fifty-seven aooatios, miny of them hein-f obtained whila BOBTrag I ? **f* doing \anous kinds of w.ir ien ee I ?i "ual' bar might easily have heefl loereaaed ***$ larjjely if there had been more timi ' I 'lo 'S as every when the sentiment of womea eoi found lo be overwhelmingly in favoi ?f ?u^" ..__.. When the million mark v.aa reach*! thi aulfraga part> roetod content. becausi ij shovfed that tha majority of worn^ B de wsat to votei Many min hivi said that whin thn I"** jonty want the \ote they should hava it "? count on that promise being made g?oi "** vembcr t. GIKTIUDC POSTEI RROWN. Chairman of Organliati?e? New Vork, Oet. 13, 1017.