Kero gork STribune
1 ir>i to Last?the Truth: New*?Editorials?
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-.VEDNESIIA1. N<>\ IMBKR 28. 1917
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The Italian Situation
l ive weeks ago to-day the German blow
upon Italy fell. Out of the obscurity of
that moment certain facts are now begin?
ning to emerge. We know, for example.
that the Italian General Staff were not
the victims of a hurprise attack. Cadorna
knew and ha.l reported to his allies that
the attack was coming.
Quite as clear now is the fa.t that the
main disaster was not due to the number
cf German men or German guns concen
trated upon the Upper Isonzo River. It
was due primarily to treachery. It was
due to the fact that certain Italian brigade
commanders ordered their men to sur
render, and this order was due to a two
fold propagandu of treason, the propa?
ganda of Italiaji Socialists and Italian
Clericals, one operating among the soldiera
the other among the officer..
The Austrian and German kaisers
have promised the Pope that the restora
tion.of the temporal power of the Papacy
shall be one of the first fruit- of their
triumph. E\*ery Clerical influence has
been exerted to break down the morale of
the Italian soldiers and to weaken the alle
giance of the Italian forces. Since the Pope
made his peace gesture a few months
ago Italian troops have been encouraged
to cheer for the Pope and for peace until
the terms are becoming synonymous. What
the Bolsheviki did in Petrograd the Cleri?
cals and the Italian Socialists have done
Beyond this, M. Clemenceau, the French
Prime Minister. in his newspaper, has
?iven to us the explanation of the extent
of the disaster. As far bpck as the Battle
of the Dunajec all military men have
been familiar with the fact that the only
guarantee against a supreme disaster has
been the preparation of adequate lines of
defence in the rear. Had Dimitrieff pre?
pared lines of defence along the several
rivers in his rear before the Battle of the
Dunajec the great disaster of the Galician
campaign mipht have been avoided. The
deadliest peril in the Verdun episode grew
out of the fact that at Verdun no adequate
support lines had been prepared. Not
withstanding all this, Clemenceau tells ua
through his paper that no Italian second
line had been prepared at the Taglia?
mento, at the Livenza or at the Piave.
Italy had taken no precaution against an
Austro-German counter offensive, and her
supplies and munitions had been concen
traied so near her front that they fell at
the first German advance.
Fmally we have the testimony of Gen?
eral Maurice, Director of Military Opera
tione of the Briti.h army, on his return
from Italy, that no huge German force
had been used against Italy, that the re
doubtable Mackensen was not "in the
show," but only the relatively obscure
Below. We are then bound to conclude
that the Italian disaster waa not due to
any neglect of Italy l.y her allies, or to
t any aupreme military genius on the part
of the Germans. Rather it resembles the
collapse in Galicia in June of this year,
k when Brusiloff's victorious army ran away
I from the troops they had defeated. Now
that Italy haa suffered deeply there ia no
dUpoaition on the part of her allies and
her frienda to criticise her mistakes or
her miafortunes, but, on the other hand,
it is eseenti-i that all the Allied publics
ahould recognize the fact that the causes
of tha diaaster are to be found in Italy
herself and not in the negiect of her allies.
To-day Iha Italian rally in the Venetian
Plain and along the Asiago i'luteau ia
beginning to take on the character of the
French reeistance at Verdun. If the Ital?
ian troop* can hold the invadera on the
mat line they will deeerve to rank with
I'.tain'a troopa, who mada good the proud
?, "They ahall not pa*-," on the hillr.
<? the Meuw. At all events, Itaiian
?.ance is apparently atrengthened and
"< 'ad to auch a point that the p--ril nf
apreme disaater ia over.
I bl arnval of British and French rein
? i-iAv. is rb*|(ini-M( iad it would aeetn
now that there is the very great proba
bility that the Austro-German invasion
will be stopped at the Piave or that any
future advance will oj>en thc way to an
Allied counter offensive. The situation in
Italy, then, secrns well in hand, so far as
it is a military situation. So far as it is
a moral situation, there has been an un
mistakable rcbound of tho Italian spirit.
Invaded Italy has returned to the fight tfl
something <>f the spirit of that defeated
Franca which took tha offensive; at th
Hut c.en lf a supreme disaster has heen
aacapad in Italy it is essential that no
Allied statesman and no Allied patriot
ahoald mistake the lesson thero written.
By every influence that she can exert Ger?
many is attacking behind the lines and in
the ranks of her enemies. The Anarchists,
the Socialists, the Clericals. thc intellect
tial and the ignorant, the vi.Monary think'r
and thc man without thought?all ai
seized upon by her. The Utopian i_aal
of some, thc selfish cowardice of others?
these are the lines through which Ger?
many operates for tha destruction of her
enemies and the dissolution of the na?
tional unity of the countries wh<> are
Allied armie., have now come to the sup?
port of Italy. We may hope that Venice
is safe and thc crest of the invasion is
passed, but tmlaaa we recogaize that the
same forces which induced the Italian dis?
aster are operating in France, in England
and here at home in the United States we
shall have at no dlstant date to confront
another crash, another collapse like that
which has taken place in Russia in total ity
and in Italy in part. Germany has lost
the war so far as it is a military ques?
tion. She cannot defeat the armies of her
enemies. She can win only by corrupting
the people behind the armies and portions
of the armies themselves. Russian and
Italian events should serve' the greater
end; they should be final evidences of the
way, and the one way, that the war may
be lost If they do not serve this end
they may yet prove a beginning of defeat
rather than the high viter marks of the
latest and most dangerous of all German
On the Way to Safety
Secretary McAdoo has issued an order
rirecting the liquidation of the German
and enemy-ally fire, marine and casualty
insurance concerns operating in this coun?
try. Life insurance companies are to be
aliowed to continue in business because
their business ls small and is disconnected
with war activitles.
This deeision comes late. It was
one the necessity for which has been
recognized for many months. There was a
conspicuous lack of prudence and ration
ality in permitting enemy companies to
insure or reinsure docks, munitions plants,
mills, storage warehouses and other struct
ures ln which war preparations were
going on. After much delay German
marine insurance was put under the ban.
Fut only the concerted pleas of American
insurance men able to comprehend and
present the peril of enemy participation
in risks on our war industries availed to
shake the government out of ts languid
attitude of tolerance.
We have trusted to luck largely to
escape paying toll to German incen
diarism and sabotage. So far we have
been fairly lucky. But it is time to back
up our luck with a little more healthy dis
trust and a little more vigilance. German
agents here are still uncowed. We are Just
beginning to ticket them and to circum
.cribe their liberty. But we have given
their allies?Austrians, Hungariana, Bul
garians and Turks?as free hand now as
we gave them before the war. If enemy
ally insurance companies are as much a
menace as German insuranco companies
are?and Mr. McAdoo concedes this in
principle?then we ought to begin at once
to ticket the enemy-ally nationals here
and to limit their opportunities to betray
and injure us.
Let us hope that there will be some
genuine rostraint impos.d before long on
the enemy aliens within our borders?a
restraint which does not reside in verbal
proclamations and Department of Justice
surveillance, but in the peremptory use of
Declaring that there are in N'ew York
City more than half a million adults who
neither read, write nor understand the
English language, the committee on com?
mercial education of the Chamber of
Commerce uy*es the members of that or?
ganization to cooperate in the Americani
zation campaign of the Mayor's Commit?
tee on National Defence. It suggests that
employers encourage their workers to at?
tend the evening schools; that they offer
better wages and other advantages to
those who will attend the evening schools;
that they arrange classes in Knglish in
factorie. and shops; that they hold meet?
ings on citizenship at suitable times; that
they require the ahility to speak English
of new employes wherever possible.
These are good recommendation. , and it
ir-. Ui ba hoped the members of that big and
powerful organization will earry them out.
Ah this report of its committee well say\
"this great body of aliens la out of touch
with American ideals and is not properly
informed of the dutics, liabilitici. and
privilegea of citizens of this country."
Thi* ih a nore spot in our institutions
which bai loritf cxihted, but which the war
wan required to disclos, in all its poten
tialitiei. of danger. Now it has been recog?
nized, the way to the cure is comparativa
ly simple. It ia lurgely tha fault of
Americans that these immigrants, here be?
cause they recognized that this country
offered ad/antages over the lands; of their
birth, have not been brought also to real
izc that for the benefits obtained they
owed duties and assumed responsibilities.
The right way to begin is to make them
English speakers. All the agencies for this
exist. Their lives will be richer and bet?
ter if they are urged. even forced, just
now to take this first step toward amal
gamation with thc other people of the
country they have cho_en to live in. And
the country will bc better off and safer
because -of the breaking down <>f thi"
barrier which has preventcd thc-c pe'>p'.->
from understanding their neighbor- and
appreciating the full value <>f what
America is giving to them. So long as
they stay here they shoulc' be Americans
?they must be Americ.ns. All good
Americans should join in helping them to
hecome inteliigent, loyal citizens, in urg
Ing them to that courae, if neeeaaary.
A Check on Charity Fairs
1 bougtl it ia locking thr door after thc
" '-<? araa atoten, thc paaagc by the Board
of Aldermen of the ordinance for the lirens
ing of all charity fairs or bazaars, save
those given by churches or fraternities, is
an excellcnt proceeding, nevertheless. ln
the case which demonstrated beyond per
adventure the necessity for such regula?
tion the piosecuting authorities are busy,
and it is to be assumed that whatever pun
isbnient. i.^ de.-erved will he handed cut.
But, there are fairs .ind there will be fairs
li 1- one war charity and another for
months to come, and the public is entitled
to the assurance that the money it con
tribntea will go for war relief rather than
for the enrichment of professional man
agers and advertising and contributions
solicitors. That assurance this ordinance
wil! give, so far as it can be given by
iegislation and offieial scrutinyof the back
ers and organi.'.ers of any such enterprise.
The evil of the recent scandal is that
:nevitahly it has affected worthy endeavors
.?uch as "Hero Land," the fair now being
held by the League of the Allies. That is
unfortunate. In this case precautions have
been taken to make certain that the receipts
will be honestly handled and devoted to
war purposes. What the public gives will
go where it is intended to go, for war relief
and to aid the dependents of American sol?
diers. Devoted men and women are giving
their time to this enterprise, which de
serves success. Its organizers have sur?
rounded it with safeguards of inve.-tiga
tion and publicity regarding its financing.
Il should in no way be confused with its
predecessor^ which so signally lacked those
Human nature l>eing what it is, fre
c.uently it is easier to coax money out of
pockets for some entertainment or social
affair than to obtain straight contributions
for the purpose involved. The fairs, there?
fore, may be expected to continue. The
public's concern is that they should really
dc the work they undertake to do. With
rheir managers and organizers subjected
to the scrutiny of the Commissioner of
Licenses. and financial statements audited
Ly public officials, as the new ordinance
contemplates, there seems slight chance for
a repetition of the "get-rich-quick meth?
ods" which the District Attorney's investi
gation exposed in the one regrettable in?
stance, and which doubtless occurred in
others. It is unfortunate that the ordinance
was not passed when it was proposed last
Keep the Pennies Moving
? From Thr Ve* PodlOtd StanAarn .
Ordinarlly people are very anxlous le fret
rid of one-cent piece?. They pass them when
UtUt they can and accept them in change
with some reluctance. Now just because
there is a shortage of pennies there is a dis?
position to hold on to them.
Hoarding pennies I* not only senseless, but
it will make trouble. More pennies than ever
are needed now because prices of many ar?
ticles have risen less than flve cents or some
sum not a multiple of five. A package of
cigarettes that cost a nickel now costs six
cents; and 10 and 15 cent packages cost 12
ar.d 17 cents, respectively.
Don't hoard pennies. Keep them In circu?
lation. If you have many turn them in to the
banks. Nothing is to be gained by keeping
them, and they are needed to earry on busi?
In Hoc Signo
Beyond all oth-r power to lure,
Great goddess Liberty,
Is thinc, enkindling, puro;
Hut speak thy mighty watehword, free,
And all death's bitterest dregs
Will heroes drink for thee.
The patriot hears thy mandate elear
Above his heart's wild cry?
In tenderner-s austcre
As his who gave by Syrian sea
That godlike test of man,
"Arise and follow me."
Then comes from heaven his altar fire
A white consuming flame
To all earth-born desire;
Upon his forehcad cold he feels
The consecrating touch,
That all his manhood steels.
With newborn t>trength erect he stands,
Thy son, 0 Liberty;
Within his strong young hand
A planet's destiny is held,
The while lie conquers Fate- *
Hy thy warra glance compelled.
In this thy power, we nnd the sign,
That thou by right divine
And thou alone -ihult rule the world,
When fiendish craft of war
To chaos dark is hurled.
I h- bitter cost- youth s-cs it ail
Through veil.d years ta be;
Ba hears the children call
Adown thc silent thwarted years,
Kate gift? within thfll tiMnds
Dr? nm-chil<lrfn *?'en through tears.
Hiit ahaet ba thine, o ajallaat son!
Kor lo, thou farest forth,
Thy greiati .t hattle won
Ii. lha1 atill >'K'<riy af pain
When all the troops of itlf
Hj thy brave might were slain!
KLLLN BtJR.NS SHERMAN.
How It Works
A Specihc Instance of thtf fc-ffect of
Mrs. Humiston's Allegation
io the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: When patriotism started to sweep
thia glorioua country ot ours, back in the
early part of the year. we gladly granted
three members of this organization an in
defiaita leave of absence to enter governmen?
tal service. One is at present a private in the
National Guard cantonment at Spartanburg.
; mother a chief yeoman in the L'nited State*.
navy "soriiewliere at sea," and the other a
second lieutenant Ifl the National Army.
(amp I'pton, Long Island, N. Y. My story
revareee around this last named.
Oaa of thr officers of our compaio ifl a
naUteUt at a small suburb iu New Jersey,
end in view of the fact that he enjoys a ten
year friendship with the lieutenant hc UX
' tended an inviUtion to him to spend Thanks?
giving Day Bt his home, which, of course,
was graciou.lr aecepted. The matter was
then eoaaldarad a closed incident, but the
wife of the aforementioncd resident of the
.lersey suburb happened to men
r ott ?? one ot tho clubs in the town thal
they arere having a lieutenant from Camp
i pton at their home for dinner on Thr.nk
giving Day. The remark was not passed in
any manner other than casual; therefore, she
was surprised when one of the members ex
"Ugh, a loldier from Camp Upton! Aren't
you taking considerable chances? Are you
really safe in entertaining a man from that
place. for surely you have heard what Mrs.
Humiston has to say about the morals and
phyitcal UBllaaallBaea of the members of
that unt" . , .
Ta BB9 that thia lady was surprised is IB*
d-e.l puttmg it mildly, and it cause.i no Httle
end of disappointment in
1. The intelligence of the woman making
1 The manner ia which the ready %ssent
of her fellow members was voiced, and
3. The morbid ai.d ready acceptance of a
woman's statements who, outside of her abil
itv as a sleuth and criminologist, is attempt
ing to burst forth into the literary world as
? journalist. using a. a chariot the common
people's vehicle nf knowledge the news
P*You might rightfully ask, "What's al'. this
to you?" Well. I'll tell you.
There is so much publieity given to the other
side of hrr "marvellous disclosures." etc,
that I believe that a like share of publieity
should be directed toward her mistakes-at
least in the partieular instance concernmg
Camp Upton-for while I do not claim Camp
I'pton is without its bad (nor one's own
apar-.ment house for tha' matter) I do most
emphatically protest agai .st the attachment
of so horrible a stigma. Believe me when
I say that members of the camp feel its
.Vrs. Humiston nay, in her way, be doing
what she considers good work, but is it
necessarv that twenty-five or thirty thou?
sand members of a Cnited States army unit,
or any other organi/.ation, should have their
character shaded in this manner?
The Brookmire Eeonomic Service.
N'ew York, Nov. 23, 1917.
Deciare War on All!
' To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: 1 have read (I am a conaUnt reader
of the great and patriotic Tribune) your edi
torial of this morning. That'a right; deciare
war on all! Hungarian* and Austrians (ot
German blood) must be treated exactly as
German enemy aliens; they are just as bad,
if not worse; they all work faithfully for
their master, the Kaiser of Berlin. Foreign
ers who do not obey tho law of this country
and do not appreciate the generous hospital?
ity given to them do not deserve any pity
Lock them up. Better still, force them to
work hard for their bread. Send them to
grow potatoes on the farm*.
But there is another foreign-born element
which deserve protection that should be
taken into consideration. i am speaking of
those Slavs, loyal to this country Mike my?
self), Czechs. Pelei and Adriatic BtSTfl
(these Iatter of Serbian blood and speech),
who are unfortunately born Austrian sub?
ject... who fled their motherlands to avoid
military service ai.d the "Kultur" of h_ted
Austria, and migrated to this great and free
republic to enjoy liberty and justice.
These Slavs never sympathized with the;
ityrannica! Hapsburg*. Their attitude in this!
j war, needless to .say, is pro-Amerlean and
pro-Ally. They are heart and soul for their
ndopted country and her brave allies, who
fight so heroically In the cause of liberty and
right and for the liberation of the small,
martyrized and defcncelcss countries, like
their own land of birth, from t'ne barbaric
| Teutonic oppresston. A JUGOSLAV.
New York, Nov. 27, 1917.
Injustice of Wholesale Restrictions
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: In regard to these wholesale restric?
tions of enemy aliens. We are all against
the enemy alien who is a real enemy. We
should all like to see would-bo spies weeded
cut and imprisoned or shot. But we don't
want to injure good friends in doing this,
There are a number of Germans in this
eity who have taken out their first papers
and who are ready and eager to be natural
r_od whenever we'll let them. They came
here to get a4vay from Germany and to make
this their country. They are bringing up
their children to be Americans. They are
Duymg Liberty bonds. They are down oi.
th.- Kaiser and would like to help in his de?
feat. These men have had fo break many
ties to take this stand; they are shunned b>
pro-Kaiser Germans. Life is going to be
hard for them if we, too, go and treat them
as enemies. These wholesale restrictiona
from high buildings, etc, wiU cost aorne their
positions, and they cannot get new onea
easily because people will not dlscriminate.
I submit that we are being pretty harsh to
these future Americans.
New York, Nov. 26, 1917.
Christmas for Belgian Soldiers
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: Every red-bloodcd person is now
thinking about what he tan do for the
holJier's Christmas. Many are also thinking
of the unfortunate people whose homes have
been wiped out by the war.
I beg to call attention to the plight of
the Belgian soldier, who will have no one to
send him any little comfort nnd whose only
thought on Christmas Day will he of the
home that is wiped out and the rela'ives
(whose safety or wh*rraliout* he knows noth?
To thr.se Vind people v.ho would like to
do something for these unfortunate men I
vould Miggest. that they may send playing
cerd-., money, tobarro, pipes, hooks, etc, to
the Helgian I'onsulatc, _'. Mit.li.on Avenue,
New Vork, whrre they may be sure the dona
tioas will get Into most apprrriativa handa.
VICTOR E MEERT
Uew Tork, Nov. 23, HM.
The Future of the Torpedo-Plane
By Rear Admiral Bradky A. FUkc, V. S. Nacy
An Aidreu Delivered Before tht Aero Club of _Ve? England
When the Wright brothers made their first
aerial flight in 1903 It flashed across the
consciou.ne.s of every man who combined a
rerception of thc nature of strategy with a
knowledge of thc course which great inver
tions follow that a new tool of war had just
been born. Such a man knew that the effort
of strategy in every case is simply to bring
a destru etive force to bear as quickly as pos?
sible a. some points at wbich the enemy is
opposing or may oppose resistance; that the
greater the force and the greater the speed
the. greater thc effect. and that, therefore.
strategists who appreciatcd the potentiality
Of mechanism had been lahonng s'.renuouslv
t? laetaaaa both the amount af destructive
force that thev could aaa and tba speed with
which thoy could tran-p'.rt it to tha point
wher- they wi*hed to u M lt Such a BSM
knep tbat aaa fraa ?' "' Napoleooa
loccaaaaa am tha ifaad aritli wileb he could
bring hi* destructive forces to bear at etven
poiata. and ba knew. also, .hut. the aeroplane
could transport destructive forces at great
r speed than any other appliance ever be?
fore invented. He nalized these things as a
strategist primanly, while, as a mechanician,
hich every modern strategist must be, he
r:ew that every great invention that bad
ever come before the world, imperfect as it
might have been at first, had always become
practically aaafal ia time if it had satisfied
tw? conditions, one condition being that the
thing attanptod was aaacaaafally aeeaaa
pliched, araa though the aaachaniaai could
not, ftlwajra he reiied upon, and tha second
condition being that there v.us useful work
tor the mechanism to do, if tha Raeehaaiaia
could be made reliable.
Aeronautics Taken Ip Seriously
In IM it became apparent, therefore, to
every strategist that strenuous efforts must
be made by his country to take advantage of
From causes which are somewhat obscure,
11 ?! ,'or which strategist . themselves cannot
n _sonably be blanied, only two governnier.ts
took up aeronautics seriously. One govern?
ment was that cf Germany. The other got'
ernment was that of Italy, and the remark?
able part of it is that Italy took up aero?
nautics before Germany did; that is, in a
erious way. Italy is to-day ahead of.the
rest of the world in powerful wur aeroplanes.
For several years aeronautics stumhled
doubtfully along, as all new arts do, embar
ras-ed mainly by the difficulty of combining
reliability with Iightness, especially in the
.ngrnes needed for propulsion. But by the
summer of 1910 it was elear to all persons
familiar with the way in which the mechanic
arts always have progressed that the main
difficultics had been overcome, and that air
crat't, especially aeroplanes, were entering
upon a career of world-wide usefulncss. In
the following y-rar the Germans and the
French en.plov,<i then offld-lly, and with
'.rficially recopnized success, tn their regular
fn endeavoring to take advantage of aero?
planes for naval purposes the first idea of a
practical kind that occurred to me came ln
1910, and it was to utilize aeroplanes of the
bomb-dropplng type for preventipg invasion
of our coasts, especially in the Philippines.
The idea was that, preliminary to invasion,
an enemy would havo to bring his vessels
near the coast, and ston them there; the" he
would have to get out a large number of
boats; then he would have to fill the boat*
with men. ammunition, food and en,uipincnt:
?hen he would have to tow the boats slowly
ro the shore; then he would have to get out
on the beach all that the boats contrtined
and then he would kut* to form the invadint*
party. Durintr all this long process the boats
nnd the people In them would be almost pe
fectly helnless .eain-t a determined attack
by. sav, five hundred bomb-dronping aero?
planes. I did not succeed in getting serious
onsideration of this plan.
Steerlng by Aeroplane
My nex* idea wa* to utilize aeronlane ? for
raityiag out an invention for whirh 1 hai
?ecur"d the basic patent in October. 1900, fo
arirclaaalj. directing "tnoving raaaala or vehi
etaa." ctrryin'.. ch..rtro-; of hir.li oxplosiv", an
laTeation aaeally ttribntad to another m;m.
The principal difficulty in directincr the ves
rls was not electrical or mechnnieal, bu*
optlral; that la. one could not see them far
enough. It is ohvious, of course, that n man
cannot tell which way to direct a movinf
?essel if he rnnnot see where tt is. To ower
come thts difficulty I worked out a scheme on
? ?r>. r whereby an aeroplane would aceom
Nonsense About Cambrai
The Folly of Sending Masses of Men
Against a Trench System
To the Fditor of The Tribune.
Sir: As you say in to-day _ issue, there is
a "precious lot of nonsense" being written
about the Hattle of Cambrai. Dispatches
from Washington go further than "hint that
General I'ershing was the inventor" of the
Byng idea. A dispatch from Washington ts
authority for the statement that the Gen?
eral Staff is advising the President to insisf
upon a radical departure in form of attack
when we really get into the fight over there.
Said departure is to revert to Infantry on
slaughts as the main dependenco for suc?
cess; big guns to be eubordinated to the use
of overwhelming masses of infantry; in?
fantry to be supported by guns not bigger
than four inches in callbre.
Such nonsense would be merely nonsense
were it not alarming. Such plans, if true,
are dangerous, and tho General Staff should
be curbed. The great success of the Byng
attack at Cambrai has encouraged the Gen?
eral Staff in its belief that almost sole de
pendence should be placed upon infantry.
As you have pointed out, the Byng attack
wae a surprise attack. And thc same sur
prise cannot be sprung every day in the
week. But evidently the General Staff would
outdo some of our inspired editorial writers
who intend to rush the tanks right on to
Herlin. You have pointed out that heavy
guns can step the tanks, as they havo done
when the enemy waa not taken by surprise.
And, as has been pointed out frequently, it
has taken thousands of tons of artillery tire
to reduce trenches and to cut a way through
barbed wire a-ntanglements so that the in?
fantry could pass through.
How, then, are masses of infantry, sup?
ported ln the main merely by small guns,
going to break through? Evtn with heavy
artillery preparation, Germany massed in?
fantry attacks at Verdun and elsewhere. And I
the (ierman masses were massacred. Wiiy ,
emulate useless (ierman sacrifices? Do
the General Staff contemplate lugging their
"camouflage ordnaneo" abroad? Do they
think that they can so scare the Germans
with wooden eannon that our masses of in?
fantry can walk up to broad barbed wire en
tanglements and hurdle them at will? Do
they think that masses of flcsh can accom
plt'h that which onty masses of metal, tons
pany each vessel on its course, and either
' signal back to the transmitting station to
?teer tt to the right or the left, or else to
; s'eer it directly by a tr:?tismi*'ting apparatus
' on the aeroplane itsel**.
A great deal of complexity of vanou* ktnds
vas encountere.l when an attempt was flflade
to work out ihe plan in detail. especially
when it was realized that the problem was
not to steer one vessel, but to steer a great
many, -nd thaUnot only would all the vessels
e moving and all the targets be moving. but
i that all the aeropUuies also would be mov
'ing. In the midst of these perplexities it
suddenly occurred to me that it would be
moch better to devise an apparatus whereby
regular submarine torpedees, which are
thoroughly accurate and reliable weapons.
should be launched directly from the a?ro
planes, and that not only would it be simpler,
.lectrically and mechanically, but that, also,
it would be simpler tactieally. for the rea?
son that destroyers had already worked out
the problem of laaaehiag teryedeea from a
fleet of destroyers. and that aeroplanes could
operate and discharge their torpedoes ac?
cording to the same principles.
Baslc Patent Awarded
1 did not apply for a patent on this scheme
for a year or more, supposing that so obvi
, scheme must already have been pat
ented. Finally I applicd in April. 1912. I
had no difflculty with the Patent Offlce, be
eaaae mo one had anticipated my idea, and i
Braa <hle to secure the basic patent in July,
Itl-, to my intensr- amazemer.t
\>, yon doubtless know, the iuvent;on at
tracted a good deal of attention from the
papers and magazines here and in Europe.
The British began e\perimenting with it [B
the autumn of 1.13, and they have been pro
gressing with it ever since. ln August, 1915,
! r British navy lieutenant made several
flights from the Mediterranean into the Sea
of Marmora, carrying torpedoes weighing
about 730 pounds each, and he sank four
i Turkish ships. Many reports have been re
' ceived that the British have been using
torpedo-planes in considerable numbers ever
liaee, but exactly how much is not stated.
Ihe Italians. under the leadership of Captain
".leeeaadre Guidoni, of the Italian navy.
mude many successful experiment. with
torpedo-planes in 1914, but how much they
have used them in the present war is not
detinitely known. The Germans sank the
: British steamer Gena near the English coast
on M:iy 1, 1917, but we do not know of any
further use they have made of- torpedo
planes, except that, on one occasion, a Ger?
man torpedo-plane di-eharged h torpedo into
\ the mouth of an English harbor. The tor?
pedo did no harm. however. because it ran
into a sandbank. This sandbank had recent?
ly been formed there throu.h the foresight
and prompt action of the inhabitants, hy the
limple oxpe.lient of dumping several barge
loedfl of sand.
It is my hor-e thal the Uaited St.-.tes gov?
ernment will also develop the torpedo-plane.
It seems to have two fields of uscfulnes* -
one for operations from the water and the
other for operations from the land.
Advantage of Water-Borne Planes
For operating from the water the condl
, tions are more difficult than from the land,
| for the reasons that the pontoons needed for
| resting on the water ereigfe more than do
the wheels used for restinj,' on ihe land, and
also oppose more friction to forward motion,
-o that the difiealtj of rising is increased.
Waterborne terta lo-planes have the ad
? vantacc, how* hat, if the enemy i.s at a
eoBfllderablfl from our shores, and
f water suffic ei'ly mooth can be found to
rest on. the to'pe.lo-planes can take on sup?
plies of fuel nearer to the target. Further?
more, they can return to the water, just as
n seabird does, and get new supplies of fuel
with whirh to renrosecute their flight.
Tbe original idea in inventing the torpedo
plane and i's predecessor, the wireless-con
trolled torpedo, was to supplement the work
of our fleet in defending our own coast. It
?.vas clear that, in case we became involved
:.n war "Htll ' foreign naval power
vhich ?"ould send Itfl fleet to our coast. o-ir
fleet could i .' be al al! narfc of the coast at
"he same time. and that. by reason of the
"real length of our coast. exfenr'incr on th"
It'antie freiB V .ine "o T"xa?. ead on the
Pacific from Lo4ver California to Alaska, and
| including, also, the Panama Canal, our fleet
rr.tgh' not he renr the point at '.vhich the
en-"my fleet would strike. Tt seemed that
nothing could he more etfective for coast de?
fence in the absence of the fleet, or for as
sisting the fl-et if It were present, than some
means of firing torpedoes at the enemy's
of explosives, squadrons of tanks have been
able to accomplish? "A wooden horse, a
?vooden cannon, a wooden machine gun, a
dummy hand grenade such are the tools of
our army in training." The observer quotes
Glendon Allvine in The Tribune to-day. For
three years the observer has waited in vain
to learn that the War Department had amassed
vast quantities ot* heavy ordnance and rifles
to which Mr. Bryan's million men were to
spring overnight. We have the million men,
all right?and more. But why send them
against the Germans to be swatted down
like flies? Give them a chance to sell their
lives dearly. Make Germany pay with the
greater human sacrifice.
The situation may be very serious. It
may bs?this is merely surmise?that polit?
ical delay and bureaucratic inefficiency have
procrastinated until the War Department
now finds that heavy ordnance cannot be
got reariv and transported la time. It
is fair to surmise -if we are to believe dis
patches from Washington?that the above ts
the reason why the General Staff contem
plate throwing masses of American sol-1
dicrs, practically unsupported, against a
deluge of shells and slaughtering m_c_ine
If such plans have emanated from the
General Staff the situation is grave. And |
The Tribune should add to its list of patri?
otic performancee by instigatlng a public
investigat ion to prevent a horrible blunder.
EDWARD G. LONGMAN.
Brooklyn, Nov. 24, 1917.
Jupiter on Exhibition
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: At this present time the big and
bright planet Jupiter rises from the east*
ward a short while after the sun that lights
it has set to the westward. Of course, we
should not look for Jupiter until several
hours after Vunset, because it will not rise
above tre*s and buildings before at least 9
p. m., and in the city 10 p. m. is a still bet?
ter time. Just now, and for many months to
come, thia big and bright pUnet is shining
against the background of the constellation
of Taurus, u> that Jupiter, the cluster of the
lM'inde- ana the ruddy aun Aldebaran are
on tlrmamental exhibition rather cloaa to?
gether. We should not forget to gaie at
and admire golden Jupiter, not only on ac?
count of its spectacular appaarance, but also
because it ia the largest of tho aatalli.es
that rev.rlve around our sun.
rifAHl.KS NEVERS HOLMKS.
'Newton, Mass., Nov. 23, 1.17.
ships, because the most effective blow that
can be dealt a ship is to hit her below t_?
watcrlinc with a torpedo. Such a blow doaa
not insure daatmction necessarily. but it
uoes insure diaablcncat, and disabltaMai u
a ship on our coas'.s whose home is in En.
rope or Asia would prevent r.vr employmeat
arain*?t us for a Ion;. time, altnot aa otTtttB.
ally as would her complct. destruction.
This idea seemed esp.-cially good in regar.
to defence of the most important part of **.,
coast, which is thc part between Cape Ca.
on the north and ( ape Henry on the soutk.,
distance of about 500 miles. "Ihis would U
an inviting region for attack, because then
are situatcd the great ports of Boston, N?r
York, Philadelphia. Baltimore an.1 Norfolk.
To naval officers the danger iti this .ectlon
does not come necessarily from invasion, be
cause it comes, also, from blockade, and *?
think that, if the navy can prevent bloek.
ade, it will thereby prevent invasioif. aad aa
also think that blockade. while no". so plctt
iue a danger as invasion, could do .ilmott
as much injury to the country practteaQy,
We feel that if an enemy could make an ef?
fective blockade of our northern roa.% _ap.
plemented by a somewhat less sernus effort
against our southern coast, incluiirg the
Gulf of Mexico, ha eould in time reduce ui
to the condition of an Isolated and -nalnly
agricultural nation. even if he cou d not
bring us to absolute subtnission, and that he
eou'd so reduce our ocemi commerce _?, to
<Kstroy all just e'aims on our. part b beiny
, onsidered one ot th? imner'_' _ i Uom of
l)estro>in(_ a Blorkade
Now, a foreign fleei, hi oruer tu blockade
our coast, must Arat evade .;? destroy oor
fleet. No nation would attempt to bWkade
our coj^st that did not feel sure in advance
that it was powerful enough to do ?o. Ai
nere seemed little probability pf our beiof
able to get a navy large enough to protect
our coast, without the asaiatanca of som.
foreign power, the idea of being able to help
our fleet by sendin? orpedoes by aeroplaaei
ainst any enemy fleet a hundre I tnilej du
'ant from our coast seemed i xcetdingljr
good. It is true that we had a number o'
forts on the coast, but the gui I of tho_e
forts could tire only a few mile. out to sea,
a distance so short that a bl ekading fleet
could simply stay outside thnt distance tnd
blockade us with perfect euse. an I therefore,
it seemed to me rhat, If wa could attack ta
?my fleet a hundred miles from our cout
at any time ot day or night hy battleahly
torpedoes, carried by powerful aeroplanes,
which the enemy could not see until they
were close enough to launch the torpedoes,
the security of the United States would Im
If you will look at a map of the United
States and imagine that there is a dtvlsios
of, say, twenty-five large torpedo-planes,
each carrying a battlesh.r. torpedo, located at
Cape Ann, another nt Cape Cod, another at
Block Island. another on thr> southern shore
of I.ong Island, another at Sandy Hook. an?
other at the capes of the Delaware, anotker
at the capes of the Chesapeake, another at
Charleston, another at Key West, and ai
other at N'ew Orleans, and if you will ia
acrine that in the Pacific there is ano'her
div'sion at Panama, another at Ssn Plego,
another at San Francisco, another on thi
Straits of San Juan de Fuca. and another t?
the Philippines, I think you will reallre that
the mere fact of havr'n" these 378 torpedo
planes on il.ry at theaa nlaoes, wlth proper
equipment anl arell drfll ! erawa, tba dlrf
siorrs in each ocran be ng rrltbla c,irrortfnr
d'star.ee of each athar, -ou'.d imm"_.arabJ''
reduce. if not .1 1 alatelj r move, any fear ?f
even blockade oy anv foraign tl**t*. etpe
eially if th? lar^e torpedo-nUnes were rehv
forced with about twlee as many imaller
torpedo-plan, I that carried torpedoes latfe
enoutrh to sink the i**tro*ron and otheti
lightly built craft with whirh ..ny attatklnj
fleet would have to "?? ,.oen .losnied.
Remember that these divisions of torpado
nlanes could be located several mtlei baek
from the coast in simple open fields. whtrt
they would be entirely safe from bombard
men*, and that the only thing w'nich each
torpedo-plane would have to do w.uld be to
_.y out to sea, say, a hundred miles. drop its
torpedo and fly back, get another torpedo,
and return to the attack in three hfurs?and
so on. It is true that the enemy miir'nt brinj
aeron'nnes to h?af them off, but, a' we would
he at home and they several thoo?and mtlei
from home, we could easily pet ten times al
many aeroplanes tnto action as they eonU.
To be continued to-morrow
Very Different From Prohibition, ttd
All That Is Needed
To the Kditor of The Tribune.
Sir: In your news article, "Manhattan e.
the Water W.igon," the riews of Mr. Charlei
Samson, of the Board of Inebriety. are qooted
as showing that "drink doesn't cause porerty
I ?poverty causes drink."
This being the case, it is hard to ae? tha
relevance of your sab-heading, "Work Halpa
Prohibition." What your rep.rUsr evidently
meant was temperance, something very dtf
j ferent from prohibition. There is no prohi
bition in this city, and there is no need of m
Every right-thinking person favors temper?
ance, but the great majority of our eitixens
do not believe that prohibitory laws promote
Elizabeth Tilton, a well known prohibition
advocate, recently visited BaagltT Me., and
in "The Survey" of November 10 fc.vea tha
number of arreste for drunkenness ln that
city, showing the total for the f.ret si*
months of thia year to be 772, a vastly mtfltfl
number in proportion to population thaa l?
:he wet city of .New York. lf after more thaa
sixty years of prohibitory legislatlon the ar
rests for intoxicatlon are far larger proper
tionally in a Maine city than in New Yorka
why pretend that prohibition decrea.ee U'
New York, Nor. 23, 1917.
Why Exempt Women?
To the Editor of The Tribune.
Sir: Would it not be wise for yott to aa
plain why the government excepts weUA*
when it tixea xones for ahen enemi'at
presume it haa no authority, but do not knt*.
It seems ridiculoua to allow alien women P**'
feet freedom, for women in all wars ka-*
proved themselves to ba of great aid to g**'
ernments as spiee. Only a few days ago tka
press gave us the facts except the name?
about a woman stenographer, cartung a salalj
of 12,000 a year, who ga.e information ta -*?
enemy. She waa interned.
Is it possible that our government *.* ??"
able to find a way to immetiiately pro"***
U-elf against injury from women t*****
along our waterfronta and elaewhert **).%
qulring them to regtstar, report to <0*v\
tuted authority and kaap within a raatrK*--*?
araa? W. *?
Naw Yark, Nov. _1, 1117, ? 4m
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