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strike of Pacific Coast telephone opera?
tors, the threatened strike of packing ' house workoss in Chicago and the ctreet railway trouble in Minneapolis and St. Paul. The commission resords at length "its search for the "real cause" of tho labor unrest and comes to these con vhisions; "The effective conduct of the war j f uffers needlessly, because of intcrrup- j tion of work, due to actual or threat-! ened strikes, purposed decrease in ?ffi- I eicney through the strike oft- the job, I ?decrease in efficiency due to labor un? rest, and dislocation of the labor sup? ply. "These arc not new conditions in American industry, nor are their causes ! new. The. conditions and their causes 1 have long been familiar and long un corrected. War has only served to in- i ,' tens-ify the old derangements by mak- | ing greater demands upon ? industry x; and by affording the occasion for new ! disturbing factors. I "Among the causes of unrest, famil- j i?r to students of industry, the follow-1 ing stand put with special significance to the industrial needs of war: "Broadly speaking, American indus- j try lacks a healthy basis of relaton ship between managementand men. At bottom, this is due to the insistence by employers upon individual dealings with their men. Direct dealings with ! employes' organizations is- still the mi ? : nority rule in the United States. In the majority of instances there is no joint dealing, and in too many in? stances employers are in active oppo? sition to labor organizations. _ This failure to equalize the parties in ad ; justments of inevitable industrial con? tests is the central cause of our diffi? culties. Task for Leaders of Industry "There is a commendable spirit throughout the country to correct sue cilic evils. The leaders in industry must go further, they must help to correct the state of mind on the part of labor; they must aim for the release ? of normal feelings by enabling labor to take ils place as a co?perator in the i industrial enterprise. In a word, a conscious attempt must be made to gen? erate a new spirit in industry. "Too many labor disturbances are ?lue to tiie absence of disinterested processes to which resort may be had for peaceful settlement. Force be? comes too ready an outlet. We need continuous administrative machinery by which grievances inevitable in in ?lustry may be easily and quickly dis 7'osed of and not allowed to reach the pressure of explosion. "There is a widespread lack of knowledge on the part of capital as to labor's feelings and needs, and.on the part of labor as to problems cf management. This is due primarily to a lack of collective negotiation as the normal process of industry. In addi? tion, there is but little realization*on the part of industry that the so-called labor problem demands not only occa? sional attention but continuous and systematic responsibility, as much so as the technical or financial aspects of industry. "Certain specific grievances, when long uncorrected, not only mean definite hardships; they serve as symbols of the attitude of employers, and thus affect the underlying spirit. Hours and wages are, of course, mostly in issue. On the whole, wage increases are asked for mostly in order to meet the in? creased cost of living, and such de? mands should be met in the light of their economic causes. Again, the de? mand for the eight-hour day is nation? wide, for the workers regard it as expressive of an accepted national policy. "Repressive dealing with manif.^sta tions of labor unrest is the source of much bitterness, turns radical leaders into martyrs, and thus increases theii following, and, worst of all, in the minds of workers tends to implicate , . the government as a partisan in an economic conflict. The problem is a delicate one. "There is no doubt, however, that the Bisbee and Jerome deportations, the Everett incident, the Little hang? ing and similar acts of violence against workers have had a very harmful effect upon labor both in the United States and in some of the Allied countries Such incidents are attempts to deti! with*symptoms rather than causes. Tht 1. W. W. has exercised its strongest hold in those industries and communi ties where employers have most re? sisted the trade union movement ant where some form of protest agains unjust treatment was inevitable. "The derangement of our labor sup ply is one of the great evils in in dustry. The shockingly large amoun of labor turnover and the phenomenoi of migratory labor mean an enormou economic waste and involve an evei greater social cost. These are evil which flow from grievances such a those we have set forth; they are ac centuated by uncontrolled instabilit; of employment. Finally, we hav failed in the full use and wise dime "tion of our labor supply, falsely calle* 'labor shortage,r because we hav failed to establish a vigorous and com petent system of labor distributor However, means and added resource have been recently provided for a bet ter grappling with this problem. Uncorrected Evils 'Tt is, then, to uncorrected specifi ?vils and the absence of a health spirit between capital and labor, du partly to these evils and partly to a unsound industrial structure, that w must attribute industrial diflicultie which we have experienced during th war. Sinister influences and extremis ?ooctrine may have availed themselve of these conditions; they certainl . have not created them. "In fact, the overwhelming mass c . 'the laboring population is in no sens ? disloyal. Before the war labor was, c . course, filled with pacific hopes share , by nearly tho catire country. But, lilt other portions of the citizenship, labe has adjusted itself to the new fad revealed by the European war. Its su fertng and its faith are the sufferiti and the faith of the nation. "With the exception of the sacrifie? of the men in the armed service, tl greatest sacrifices have come fro . ?those at the lower rung of the indu : ?trial ladder. Wage increases respot ? last to the needs of this class of l?bo and. their meagre returns are hard adequate, in view of the increased co . at living, to maintain even their meag Mandnrd of life. It is upon them tl war pressure has borne most severe. Labor at heart is as devoted to tl purposes of the government in tl vroaeeution of this war as any oth part of society. If labor's enthusias is less vocal, and its feelings he and there tepid, we will find the e planation in some of the conditions the industria] environment in whh labor is placed and which in many i stances is its nearest contact with tl activities of the war. "Too often there is a glaring inco sistency between our democratic pu poses in this war abroad and the aut cratic conduct of some of those gui ing industry at home. This inconsit ency is emphasized by such episod as the Bisbee deportations. "Personal bitterness and more i tense industrial strife inevitably rest when the claim of loyalty is falsely r rorted to by employers and their syi puthuers as a means of defeating si cere claim? for social Justice, evi though such claims be asserted in tir of war. "So long as profiteering is not cot prehenslvely prevented to the full e tent that governmental action can pr vent it, just so long will a sense inequality disturb the fullest devotii of labor's contribution to the war." While the unrest in the Pacil Northwest lumber fields focusses < the eight-houi' day. the commissit b Hey??? tho lum^r operators thomaeivt by their unyielding opposition to trade union organization of thoir workmen, have created tho opportunity for the 1. W. W. "This uncompromising fittitudu on the part of the employers has reaped for them an organization of destrue- I tive, rather than constructive, radical? ism." says the report. "The 1. W. W. is tilling the vacuum created by the operation. The red card is carried by large numbers throughout the Paoiflfl Northwest. Membership in the I. W. W. by no means implies belief in or understanding of its philosophy. To a majority of the members it is a bond of fellowship. "According to the estimates of con? servative students of the phenomenon, a very small percentage of the 1. W. W. are really understanding followers of subversive doctrine. The I. W. W. is seeking results by dramatizing evils and by romantic promises of relief. The hold of the I. W. W. is riveted in? stead of weakened by unimaginative opposition on the part of the employ? ers to the correction of real grievances ?an opposition based upon academic fear that granting just demands will lead to unjust demands. ' "With specific grievances removed, destructive propaganda extensively preached in the Pacific Northwest will lose its strongest advocate. Counter propaganda and positive education will then have an easy opportunity to sup? plant fanatical doctrines." The settlements of all the situations taken up previously have been an? nounced. While the commission in? vestigated tho celebrated Mooney case in San Francisco and has recommended that President Wilson use his influence with the State of California to get Mooney a new trial, the case is not touched upon in the summary of the report made public here to-day. The commission's recommendation on that subject previously had been published. Cost of Copper Strikes The commission found that ^the strikes in the early summer of 1017 of! the copper miners of Arizona resulted in a loss of 100,000.000 pounds of cop? per. Discussing the "occasions for such shocking dislocations of a basic war industry," the report reveals un? derlying local labor conditions which "were devoid of safeguards against strikes and, in fact, provocative of them." Distant ownership was a bar? rier to an understanding of human problems. Solidarity of interest among the owners checked the views of any liberal owner from prevailing against "the autocratic policy of the major? ity." Resident managers failed to under? stand and reach the mind and heart of labor. There was no one whose sole function was to deal with labor prob? lems, and the report comments: "It has hardly begun to be realized that labor questions call for the same sys? tematic attention and understanding and skill as do engineering problems." The commission found the labor turnover appallingly large and with consequent economic and social evils. This, it is asserted, may be substan? tially reduced or eliminated, "a duty confronting both the industry and the government." In one camp the commission found twenty-six nationalities represented and in another thirty-two. The move? ment toward Americanization had hardly penetrated these outposts of in? dustry and next to nothing was done to integrate non-English-speaking la? bor into American social life. Trades Union Movement The trades union movement is de? clared to have been the most promising unifying spirit among the workers. It] was, however, impeded by the opposi- j tion of the companies, by difficulties due to racial diversities and internal dissensions. ; The report says: "As is generally! true of a community serving a single l industry, th?rp. was not the cooling at-? mosphcre of outsiders to the conflict. The entire community was embroiled. Such agencies of the 'public' as the so-called 'loyalty leagues' only served to intensify bitterness and, more un-1 fo.tunately, to the minds of workers in the West nerved to associate all loyalty movements with partisan and anti-union aims." Factors created by the war compli- ? cated labor difficulties. Particularly in the Globe district, doctrines of inter? nationalism and the conviction that all wars are capitalistic marked the labor I leadership and led to resolutions of opposition to the war by the miners' local at the outbreak of the war. j "Th'e uncritical opinion of the men that all wars are capitalistic, and therefore that ours must be such, was encouraged by the heavy profits of the copper companies resulting from the European war before our entrance into it. The limitation of profiteering through price fixing and taxation had been only too recently accomplished to have made itself felt either in its act? ual operations or in the understand? ing of the workmen." The commission declared that to such underlying conditions and to the ab? sence of processes of orderly govern? ment in industry the strikes of 1917 must, fundamentally, be attributed. "These conditions may not have been left unavailed of by enemies of our war policy nor by exponents of syndicalist industrialism, but neither sinister in? fluences nor the I. W. W. can account for these strikes. The explanation is to be found in unremedied and remedi? able industrial disorders," the report says. The miners urged three basip claims which were resisted by the companies: (1) The right to obtain industrial jus? tice. They protested against industry conducted upon an autocratic basis. They did not have representation in determining conditions affecting their lives as well as the company's output. The existing grievance committees were believed to be subject to company con? trol. (2) The right to organize for equality of bargaining and protection against abuses. There was no demand for a closed shop. Security against dis? crimination directed at union member- ! ship was demanded. (3) There were grievances as to wages, hours and work? ing conditions, but these were of rel? atively minor importance, the crux of the conflict beine; the demand of the men to just treatment as their right and not enforced dependence on the btnevolence or uncontrolled will of the employers. The commission made four specific local adjustments. In asking labor for the war period to forego its ultimate weapon, the strike, a compensatory means of redressing grievances was supplied through the establishment of United States administrators to decide disputes. Grievance Committees Formed Channels of communication between management and men were created through grievance committees free from company influence*. The right of the men to organize was made effective by providing enforcement of the pro? hibition against discrimination because of union affiliation.' R?employaient of strikers before employing newcomers was assured. Administration under this settlement has proceeded for over two months with encouraging results, the report says, but adds: "Conditions are by.no means fully normal; old feelings an?! old bit? ternesses still smoulder, but new habits and new hopes of cooperation between management and men are steadily beine built." The commission .acted to pr?ven* a strike in the oil fields of Southern Cal? ifornia, which produce about one-thira o? the oil of the country. The men de? manded the eight-hour day, hig.'ier ?vages, improved conditions and pro? tection against discrimination because of union membership. The commission adopted the vanic eight-hour-day principle. A' minimum wage of $4. effective December I, 1917, wa introduced. The company, - - .-? Gompers Using War to Advance Union Labor, Writer Charges Vast Campaign to Win the Closed Shop Being Waged Throughout the Country by American Federation, Burton Hendrick Declares In "World's Work" for February1-* Burton J. Hendrick in the course of an elaborate analysis of the presen union labor situation under "The Leao ership of Samuel Gompers" -comes I the conclusion that the American Fed eiation of Labor is engaged in a vast campaign to win the closed shop in this country under the pressure of war exigencies. How closely the labor pvo trri?mme, as Mr. Hendrick sees it, ties with the recommendations of President Wilson's mediation commission is shown in his summing up, which fol? lows : No Industrial Truce "Clearly, therefore, according to the highest authority on the labor side, there is no 'industrial truce.' Each trade union is the judge of the prin ciples which should prevail in its ac? tion. But has Mr. Gompers any posi? tive policy in tho existing crisis? lie certainly has. "What are the terms upon which his federation will cooperate in arming and equipping our men, in building ships and cantonments? "A few extracts from his recent writ? ings --and these extracts could be ex? tended indefinitely?make the whole thing plain. " 'Cooperation of the workers can. with justice only, be asked when tha1 movement (organised labor) is recog? nized as the organism through which all workers express their will. The government . . . must recognize and . deal with the organized labor move | ment in all matteis which concern i labor. ... It is the opportunity for j labor, conscious of the dignity of its j service, assured of the justice of its cause, to demand the right lo partici p?te as a distinct entity in national af fairs. ' "What government and employers must recognize is that there is no definite, tangible way to deal with un organized workers and that our suc- j ctss in winning the war depends upon! our ability to organize our men and ; our resources. The only practical policy is to lay upon the union labor j movement the responsibility for deal ing with the labor side and then give it | an opportunity to make good. Labor! organizations desire to enter into ? agreements so that they can give loyal service. The metal trades have offered I to furnish the government with neces- j sary workers for war contracts and to j arbitrate all differences without cessa tion of work. "The fight for industrial freedom goes on even in war time. The only way, therefore, for the government to enable the workers to be freo to give unreserved service is to protect them by recognizing and maintaining trade agreed not to discriminate against men : because of membership in any union j affiliated with the American Federatio i ; of Labor, administrators were named ? for handling disputes. On this agree? ment the men showed readiness '?o pro- j duce oil, and the operators placed their resources at government disposal, tr.e report declares. Details are given of the methods used to adjust a strike on the telephone sys? tem of the Pacific Coast in November. Some 3,200 men and 9,000 girl opera? tors were involved. Recognition of the ! girls' newly formed union became the i burning issue. There were o^ff'l'Ulsl for increase of wages and for-"lo.?'trf or preferential shop. Wages for the, men had not been increased sinc? 131?, i They demanded 25 per cent increase-, the company offered I2V2 per cent. j The report says a false issue of loy- j alty was raised, particularly agains* the striking girls, and adds, "Here, as elsewhere, the attempt of parties on one side of an economic controversy; to appropriate patriotism and stigma-! tize the other side with disloyalty on;y 1 served to intensify the bitterness of: the struggle and to weaken the foice; of unity in the country." i The commission took up a task of education regarding national interest.; A settlement was reached on the fol-, lowing basis: The girls' locals wavi! included in the trade agreement be- j tween th-3 company and the brother-? hood; wage increases were provided foy, further increase to be negotiated ! by an arbiter; recognition of tho girls' i union and the enforcement of all fu ture grievances was made effective by the appointment of United States ad? ministrators. ' The ?umber industry of the Pacific! Northwest, indispensable to the execu? tion of the aircraft and shipping pro-! grammes, suffered a breakdown of sev? eral months last summer, and accord? ing to the report is "still in a state of seething unrest, wofully short of its! productivity." The industry employs about 70,000 men. Tlie strike was broken, and while! "the men went back beaten for the mo-j ment, the conflict was ouly postponed."! The men practised the so-called "strike on the job," and the mediation commis- 1 sion declares that there is every ex? pectation that, unless present condi? tions are changed, a complete strike will occur in the spring. The commission describes social con? ditions as unhealthy, the unlivable con? dition of many lumber camps having! long demanded attention. A number i of employers arc credited with com-! mendable understanding of the impli? cations of operating camps unfit for men, but old abuses were so long con? tinued and widespread that, even after physical conditions were bettered, a sense of grievance remained. The migratory, drifting character of the workers is described, 00 per cent of those in the camps being called: "womanless, voteless and jobless." The work is intermittent, the annual I labor turnover reaching the extraordi-j nary figure of over 000 per cent. There; has been af failure to make of these camps communities. Dozen States Visited The President's mediation commis-1 sion was appointed last September by | President Wilson to investigate causes ! of labor unrest. The records of the j four men serving with Secretary Wil-1 son follow: Verner Reed, of Colorado, lead and zinc operator and ranch owner, with a | record as a successful conciliator in j miners' strikes at Leadville; Colonel J. L. Spangler, of Pennsylvania, retired j coal operator; John H. Walker, presi-1 dent of the Illinois Federation of La- ! bor. and F. P. Marsh, president of the Washington ?State Labor Federation. The commissioners visited a dozen ! states and went into their work in j great detail, holding public and private1 hearings, at which state governors and other officials, workmen and industrial leaders told of activities by the In-1 dustrial Workers of the World and j others which were hmmpering the gov? ernment's war preparations. Mr. Wilson and his conferrees first ; visited the Southwest, where the cop per mines had witnessed many violent; strike scenes, and then swung around through the Pacific Coast States toi look into the shipbuilding situation.' Later they spent some time in Minne- ! sota and other Northwestern states, in- ; ?cstigating the connections of pacifists,' pr^crmans and aliens with the con i-tantly recurring labor disturbances, j Recently the commission has been ictive in endeavoring to heal the dif? ferences between the Chicago packers iiid their employes. union standards in government work and contracts. , "These declarations certainly do not picture the Mr. Gompers who has be? come a familiar ligure in the popular mind since the outbreak of the war. They simply reveal once more the mili? tant fighter for unionization of Amen can industry, the fighter who will ev?n take advantage of this unexampled calamity to advance his cause. The editorials do not square with the state? ments which Mr. Gomners has made in private conversations. The explana? tion furnished by his' friends is that these clarion calls for unionization are merely nolitic. " ile's in a bad fix,' it is said. 'He is really doing the best he can with the material that he is working with. There is not the slightest question about Gompers's loyalty; there are large ele? ments in his ranks, however, who can-i not be persuaded to lay aside their old differences for the period of the war. Gompers has to hold these men in line, and can only do it by talking thi? way.' " Kaiser Declares "Good Peace" for Germany Is Near In Reply to Birthday Con? gratulations Says Sacri? fices Still Necessary AMSTERDAM, Feb. 1).-- Emperor William's decree, in which he thanks those who addressed congratulatory messages to him on his recent birth? day, is published in the Berlin "Reichs anzeiger." The Emperor dwells upon "the. relations of confidence between the Crown and the people," his "twen? ty-six years of peace efforts" and the progress of the German people. The following is the full text of his decree, addressed to the Imperial Chan? cellor, as published in the German papers: "The more serious the times and the greater the responsibility laid upon me by God, the more warmly and the more grateful do I feel for these tokens of the most faithful allegiance to me and my house. The intimate relationship between the crown and the people se? cured by my forefathers in long years of history has in the most .hard times been drawn most closely. It gleams upon me when I express the Father? land's thanks to our heroic warriors at the front. It touches me deeply when J stand at the bedsides of our wounded and dying. It meets me in a moving manner in all parts of the homeland, and even here, where it finds utterance in open expression of earnest anxiety concerning the future of the Fatherland. "Through twenty-six years A lias been my heart's desire to conso idate in peace the empire united ty the great Kaiser and his iron Chancellor and to promote economic life, science and technology, and, therewith, thft rise of the entire German people to tie. ever greater participation in the .intel? lectual and economic possessjons -;f tho Fatherlantl. "When the enemy of our enemies forced me to call up all the powers of our people for the defense of pur hone soil, with deep thankfulness 1 recall those proudest days of Germany's his? tory, when all classes and parties proved that our beloved Fatherland was worth to them every sacrifice Since then, thanks to the superioi gen? eralship of our great military leaders and the inspired deeds of our army and the aid of our allies standing faith? fully at our side, successes which will be historic in the world have been our.-. "With self-sacrificing perseverance, enormous labor and great achievements of the home land, we have also braved distress and hardship, so that our people, proved in field and country, can, with God's help, look forward with strong assurance to a good peace. ?'To this end, however, it now needs most serious self-discipline, internal unity and willing subordination to great aims, readiness to bear even the heaviest burdens, and confidence in our own invincibility and the putting forth of all out- powers for the one great aim ?the winning of a strong, secure fut? ure for the fatherland. "To this end I beg the loyal co? operation of all who love our people and will serve its future. Then will arise from the seed of these hard years and the blood of the fallen sons of Germany a strong empiic and a happy nation, blest with economic, intellect? ual and moral possessions. So help us God." The decree was addressed to the Im? perial Chancellor. It concluded as fol? lows: "We have defied distress and priva? tions, so that our people can look for? ward, with God's aid, and with the utmost confidence, to the accomplish? ment of a good peace. For this, how? ever, we must have serious discipline, internal unity, willing submission to the requirements of our common aims, readiness to bear the heavy sacrifices, confidence in our invincibility and the uniting of all forces for the one graat aim the securing by our arms of a strong, safe future for our Father'.U'id. May God helj 1rs to attain this end!" Labor to Start Loyalty Drive Here To-night i Secretaries Baker and Wil? son Will Sound First Call at Mass Meeting Movement Nationwide Menace of Pacifists To Be An? swered by Democracy of Working Men With Secretary of War Newton D. .laker and Secretary of Labor Wilson coming on from Washington to sound he keynote, the great loyalty drive of he American Alliance for Labor and 'cmocracy will get under way to-night nth a monster mass meeting at the ? cntury Theatre. For a week, in more than one hun red cities from coast to coast, the ?nionstration. which will engage Gov rnors of states, representative labor ?aders and public-spirited men from !I walk? of lffe, will sound its war all to the working men of the United states. "There, is a special significance," said Robert Maisel. director of the alliance, last night, "in the appointment of a National "Labor Loyalty Week just now, as well as a special need for it. The insidious pacifist elements in this coun? try have never slackened their efforts. Latterly the agitation arising from the publication o? Russian peace formula^ and efforts has given them fresh hope. Most of their appeals are addressed to workingmen, and these poisonous preachings must be mot and put down if the war is to be succesesfully prose? cuted on itg industrial side." To Squelch Disloyalty Mr. Maisel likewise mentioned the forthcoming pacifist conference, which, has been announced to take place in this city on February 1(5. with the avowed purpose of sending peace dele? gates abroad. "Last summer at Minneapolis," he said, "we quashed just such an effort, fiy beginning our loyalty meetings this week we intend to quash it again. The American workingmen must take their :>tand, and the. line be clearly drawn between loyalists and anti-patriots." Resides Secretaries Baker and Wil? son, Hugh Frayne, labor member of the War Hoard and Eastern represent? ative of the American Federation of Labor, will speak and will read loyalty resolutions to be adopted by the meet? ing. Rabbi Stephen S. Wise; of the Free Synagogue, will preside at the gather? ing, and Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler, president of Columbia; Otto 11. Kahn, Francis Lynde Stetson and more than three hundred other prominent men and women will be on the platform. Music will be furnished by the famous "land slip" band fronv. the C S. S. Recruit in Union Square. Defence Society Aids ?! The. Brooklyn Chamber of Commerce, ! the National Civic Federation and the .' New York Peace Society have all sent i invitations to their complete member ! ship to attend this meeting, while the ? American Defence Society will co : operate with the Alliance for Labor ; and Democracy throughout the week i in the nation-wide campaign. Secretaries Baker and Wilson are ! scheduled to reach New York at 6 'o'clock this evening. They will be met ! at the station by u delegation of labor i and business men. Mr. Baker is expected to speak on ? labor from the standpoint of the War , Department, and Secretary Wilson to ! elaborate and explain the big labor pro ? gramme now in process of launching ; from his department. Circling the country, the drive will culminate in meetings at Cleveland ! and Milwaukee on February IT. "Unsinkable" Device May Be Reason for Confidence of Baker [By The Associated Press] WASHINGTON. Feb. 9.?Announce? ment by Vice-Chairman Saunders of the Naval Consulting Board that means bad been found to make troop ships practically unsinkable lends new mean? ing to the air of confidence with which both American and British naval au? thorities are facing their task of clear? ing the seas of U-boats. Recent state? ments by Admiral Jcllicoe. formerly First Sea Lord of the British Ad? miralty, by Secretary Daniels and other officials have indicated that a campaign has been mapped out and the instru mentalities developed which are ex? pected to curb, |f not to eliminate, the submarines entirely within the next few months. Discussion of the devices developed is deplored by officials here. Investi? gations and experiments have been guarded closely. High officials have been free to assert privately, however, their belief that the U-boats would be checked sufficiently by early summer to insure a steady flof ow American troops and supplies to Europe, with few incidents such as tht of the Tus cania to be anticipated. Secretary Baker has insisted before the Senate committee that 1,500,000 American troops would be taken to France and kept supplied during 1918. His replies to the questions as to where the tonnage for the task was to come from have indicted that there was some information at hand -which he did not care to disclose. Without disclosing any of the new i implement* that may have been devel j oped to meet the submarine menace | navy officials have pointed out that all i of the lines of effort itrted when the i United States,entered the war are now j on the point of bearing fruit. | Germany Takes Control Of 4 American Firms Stee|, Smelting and Shoe Con? cerns Placed Under Gov? ernment Charge LONDON Feb. 9.?According to the "Norddeutsehe Allgemeine Zeifun?" four American firms have been placed under full government control. Thcv are the Crucible Steel Company of America the American Smelting & Refining Company, the American Shoe Stores and Stephen H. McFadden, agent for a number of manufacturers, includ? ing the Chesebrough Manufacturing Company and Colgate & Co. On January 22 the Singer Sewing Machine Company and the firm of Will mm A. Derrick, both of Berlin, were placed under government control. Free Energy Invention To Get Federal Test WASHINGTON, Feh. 0.- The gov? ernment, aftetr a delay of six months, has consented to test tho "free energy genorutor" of Garabec! T. K^Giragos sian, the Boston Armenian. President Wilson to-day signed the measure, calling for demonstrations of the device, under government guaran? tee, and the inventor is now arranging with Secretary Lane for a test before a committee of five scientists, to be selected by them in conference. In all probability experts from the Massachu? setts Institute of Technology, Harvard and Tufts, will be asked to witness tne demonstration. . Glragos3?'-in first exhibited a model of his generator in' Washington last ; fall, claiming that it would evolution I izo industry by generating heat, light i and power from the atmosphere, pay* ! eral successful tests were made of the machine, but none under! government I -upervision, although different mem j hers of Congress strongly urged the I government to give the device a trial. May End Dispute Over Man Power Engineers' Claim for Ex? emption Resented by Other Unions LONDON, Feb. 0. A private confer? ence Friday between Sir Auckland Geddes, Minister of National Service, and trafile union representatives with reference to the government's man power proposals failed to enij the dis? pute about the position of the engi? neers, who have thus far refused to submit to the act of Parliament, but elicited a clear statement from the other unions that the engineers were not entitled to any exceptional treat? ment and that a combing out scheme must apply equally to all. The Amalgamated Society of Engi? neers refused to send delegates to the conference. The labor leaders at the conference, after rejecting the various proposals, condemned tne ?engineers for their aloofness and resolved to invite the amalgamated society to meet tho other unions in a conference at which the government would not be repre? sented. Individual memoers of the conference? say that Sir Auckland and his govern? ment colleagues intervened as little as possible with the proceedings. The delgates' were asked to decide among themselves whether the demand of the. engineers for a separate consultation with the government should be con? ceded or refused. . Several labor delegates are said to have shown much resentment over the attitude of the engineers and to have ! demanded that an end be brought to i the situation bv which young men are i enabled to join the engineers' orgamza ! tion for the purpose of avoiding milt ! tarv service. An invitation to a fresh conference I already has gone to the engineers, ! whose attitude is unknown. It now 1 seems that the government has been ? eliminated from the dispute, and th..t i if the engineers maintain their position ! they will antagonize the other unions. U-Boat War Fails, Tirpitz to Blame, Says Reichstag Member LONDON, Feb. 9.-?An article at tacking the submarine warfare, which was suppressed by the German censor last October, has now been published, "with the sanction of War Minister ?von Stein" (of Prussia), by the Kiel "Zeitung." The article was written by ! Dr. tStruve, a progressive member of j the 'Reichstag. He declares that the submarine war is a failure, and dis I cusses at considerable length "who was responsible for the unrestricted | submarine warfare agitation and for I the statement that England could be ! forced to her knees within six months." j Dr. Struve asserts, after quoting a 1 variety of witnesses, that the whole i agitation was conducted and engi j neered by Admiral von Tirpitz after ! the latter's retirement. The article I then attacks von Tirpitz and the new | Fatherland party for "getting Ger? many into this difficulty." and closes ! with the assertion that the submarine i warfare might have been a success ex ! cept for the fact that von Tirpitz, while in office, had neglected to build sub ? marines in sufficient numbers to in I sure success. I "That was the reason," adds the j writer, "that unrestricted submarine I warfare was always opposed by von I ('apelle (Minister of the Navy) and the I Imperial Chancellor (von Bethmann ! Hollweg)." -Q-_____ Pershing Sees Victory | If Line Holds Till May I If the French can hold their Unos j until May 1 the Allies will bring Gcr ' many to her knees. This is the prediction of no less an' authority than General Pershing, and was relayed to those who attended the dinner of the University of Pennsyl? vania Club, in Delmonico's last night, by Dr. Allan MacHossie, of the led Cross, who has just returned from I France. General Pershing said: j "If the French line holds tho G.r 1 mans back until April, or May 1, my prediction is that nothing can stop the Allies from breaking through the Ger? man lines and bringing the Kaiser to : his knees." War Must End in 1918, Says Gen. von Liebert AMSTERDAM, Feb. 9..General von Liebert, writing in the "Taeglische Kundschau," of Berlin, praises the achievevments of German arms ?:nil accomplishments of German generals, and then point.; out that the German battle line in the West is now occu? pied by the latest classes. He con? cludes by saying: "Every German soldier now is cer? tain that an end must be made in 1918." ibePied Tipen^^dmerica VERMIN SCIfNTIfCAlLY EXTERMINATED NO CHARGE IF WE FAIL to nd you ol Mrs.RCACHES BED BUCS iMOTIIS. FLEAS rats & mice Qt/i ot ia?n ?or* So?xj GUARANTEE EXTERMINATING C0MPAN? 500 FIFTH AVRNX Phon? VANBLT 271&-7-8 WMTTEMGVAftANTEE f OH ONE YEAR Immediate Peace, Demand Of American Socialists Proclamation to People by Party's Executives, Dedu?. War Has Threatened Political Freedom of U. S.?Sty? Worker* Must Have Voice in Conference i _j_ CHICAGO. Feb. 9. In a proclamation j ?ddressed to the people of the United States to-day, the National Kxecutive Committee of the Socialist party de ' clared that two problems should row i engage the energy and ability of the : working class. "First- An immediate and demo cratic peace with full representation i of the working class at the peace con ! ftrence. "Second?The reconstruction which must immediately follow upon the close of hostilities." The declaration of President Wilson in favor of open covenants of peace 'was approved and the making public 01 nil existing treaties was demanded. The proclamation also urged racial independence for large and small na? tions, freedom of the seas, neutraliza tion of the greater bodies of water and Pacifist Meeting To Be Watched By Government United States Attorney and Federal Agents Will Attend i _:_ I WASHINGTON, Feb. 9.?Department I of Justice agents and the United Ltate: j District Attorney at New York will b< ! present at the proposed peace conven , tion in New York, February lt?: an ; take immediate action if disloyal utter anees are made by speakers, the De partment of Justice male kr.ov.-n to night. No effort will be made by th> : Federal authorities to preven-, th ? peace meeting, it was said, but pre caution will be taken to record all tn? speeches, and arrests are to folljv should violations of any Federal la\ take place. Should the convention name a dele gate to attend the proposed labor; con ference in London, difficulty may b met in procuring passports, n w.-i pointed out at the State Departmen' where careful scrutiny is mad'1 of a applications for permits to go abroad. In this connection it was recalled ti? night that Samuel Gompers, presiden of the American Federation of Labo: early in January declined an inviii tion to attend, and asserted in a ietc made public that the federation woul not be represented at the meeting. Socialists Will Fight Kate O'Hare's Sentence Hope to Raise Fund i Pacifist activities are growing?als j coordinating. Close upon the announcement of | convention designed to appoint peac : delegates for immediate dispafe ; abroad comes word now from the S? cialist party headquarters that a giai meeting for "referendum purposes" : to be held in this city at Carnegie Ha on the evening of February 20. According to announcements made ; the local Socialist headquarters yeste ' day, this meeting is desigi.ed to cry tallize public sentiment for peace. S multaneously it will '"inaugurate ? campaign to aid Kate Richards O'Hare Kate Received Five Years ; Kate O'Hare is in trouble just no i Last July she was in Bowman, N. 1 | explaining to the townsmen there w'l ! the war should not, go en. The town ! men listened quietly for some tirr, ; rl hen they decided that what Ka j needed was opportunity for further r i search work on this topic. So th caused her to be arrested under t I espionage act for seditious utteranc< In December her trial took place ! Bismarck, and the court allowed th the destruction of fortresse? ?t. threaten navigation. ' " "Within a few months," the ?rwi mation added, "the war ha? tkreiten i the civil and political freedom of fc country. In violation of the conjfit* tien free assemblage has been deciJ meetings have been dissolved, (r speech has been encouraged, mob ?i lence has been encouraged, and tr army of paid secret service agents _?' erating as detectives and spjei v? been foisted upon us. ** "It is of special concern to m jl. our own country, which purport? X* fighting for democracy, should ?tJ? become democratic. At present ?t ' one of the 'east democrat.; m S countries." ?* The proclematiaon urped public o??, ership of railroads, express, telem?* and telephone lines, steamship 1?-? coal mines, metalliverous mines <*&' ing houses, flour mills, the 8tee??d? tries, the oil industry and of all truiU five years would be sufficient far Mrs O'Hare to pursue hor studies of de mocracy in solitude. ' ' That however wasn't the kind cf peace Kate was looking.for, and she has appealed the case and the sentit? And now she is coming on to New Yorli to tell this Carnegie Hall ?udienee all about it, and a fund 13 to be taken tin ?not for peace?but to fight the sec tence. Peace Comes Second In a general way. though, pMce ?, in no wise to be neglected. Those geo? old reliable standbys, Morris Biflon? ?ind Charles W. Ervin. editor of "The Call." will attend to that part of ih? programme. * 'v? They will indorse a "negotiate! peace on the lines laid down by the Bolshevik government of Uussia," j?^ will strive to demonstrate to tie at 1 semblage that no one will be haDovtii; they get it. "** Having secured a referendum aiosj these lines, they are prepared to get is touch with the international bureau ?; the Socialist party in Holland and see if something can't be done about thi? matter right away. And their inten? tion is to keep right at it ui\til they have lined up the "entire working class in protest with them." ? Bertrand Russell Sent to Jail for Libel on U. S. Army Gets Six Months f?r Predict? ing Troops Will Sup press Strikes LONDON, Feb. 9.?The Hon. Bertnvj Arthur Russell, late lecturer and felloi of Trinity College, Cambridge, and he; presumptive to the seco'i.d Earl Rm sell, was to-day sentenced to s months' imprisonment by a Bow Stre magistrate for making certain gut menta in a publication called "Tl Tribunal" which were likely to prej dice Great Britain's relations with ti United States. The statement CM plained of, and which the attorney.! the prosecution read, follows: "The American garrison, which ' that time will be occupying Engl? and France, whether they prova el cient against the ?ermans, will i doubt be capable of intimidating stp ers, an occupation to which the Ami! can army is accustomed at home." John Beauchamp, who was a cens wi?ii Russell, was fined ?"0 and cas amounting to ?15 additional. Padua Hit by Fifty Bomb WASHINGTON'. Feb. 9.?A ?tyi mat.ic dispatch from Rome to-day Mfi "Particulars of the aerial att? upon Pa^lua discloses that the enea dropped'fifty bombs on the city, li of which' fell on the penitentiary,??? ing great panic among the inmate'*n resulting in casualties. A to?? ( the fourteenth century, a rare eWf?' of architectural beauty, was complet ly demolished. "Tho Boito Opera House, which ? awarded the gold medal in a compel tion for public birilding construf|io was badly damaged. Three bospi? also were damaged, and an elect! streetcar was destroyed. A bomb ? dropped on the institution for } blind, demolishing a part of the W Continuing Pre-Inventory ale of Furs TUESDAY AND BALANCE OF WEEK INCLUDING COATS $200 UP STOLES $30 UP COATEES $ 125 UP SCARFS $8 UP EVENING WRAPS $ 100 UP MUFFS $ 10 UP FUR TRIMMED CLOTH COATS FOR WOMEN $40 UP FUR LINED MEN'S COATS $75 UP MOTOR COATS FOR MEN AND WOMEN ROBES $35 UP RUGS $25 UP Many Bargains Below Cost of Manufacture, Offering &n Exceptional Opportunity. <J ^Furriers **! 384<T??Kc^ven?A