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Kaiser's Man Hunters Lure
Reformers From Holland Kidnap Propagandists From Netherlands Cities and Take Them Across Frontiers To Be Court-Martialled and Shot?Many Vainly Seek Protection of Courts Tks .Ve?? Vori: Tribun h ?'oreign Vn-ss Bureau SWISS newspapers which recently arrived in this country carry an ~" article whose author, rhilipp Ber .;., (lu?s describes the bold and crim? inal activities of German agenta in the Netherlands: The recent news that Minster, editor f "Der Kampf." a magazine published it Amsterdam, has been "spurlos ?- .rscnkt'' has b'eeii, confirmed. Minster ?ras arrested by the German authori? ties?. 11? who is versed in the condi tions prevailing in Holland, especially ?i the system of spying carried on by Germany, was not at all surprised at this -irrest, or kidnapping, from Dutch territory. To understand what part the Ger? man spy system plays in the Nether? lands one must have made direct ob? servations and have been watched by German spies. Holland is crowded with German de se.r'tcrs who probably number more than 80,000. Of course, these deserters, even by their mere presence, carry on ?j continuous anti-war and anti-German propaganda. Thanks to its spies, the German gov? ernment is very, well informed about all events in Holland. A special branch of I the spy eervico has been established i_ to watch and kidnap German deserters. I came to the Netherlands in Sep? tember, 1915, and first used to live at Rotterdam. I had not yet been ten days in Holland when I was located und watched by spies. Deserters Whisked Away in Autos An editor of the Dutch Socialist newspaper "Hct Volk," whom I hap? pened to meet at Rotterdam, asked me to write some articles on my experi? ences during the war. When I called ut his editorial office, Kair.ergracht, Amsterdam, the managing editor of "?lot Volk" warned me not to come often to the editorial office, and told mc that eomo German deserters had n ysteriously disappeared. But then I didn't believe what I was told. Also ; did not take serious warnings from others. For the next day I had an appoint ment to be at the editorial office o? ?' ?- "Rotterdamscbe Nieuwsblad," Rot? terdam. I called there at 4 o'clock it the afternoon. There 1 was received bj Mr. .Martin, one of the editors, and Mr Syffert, the publisher of the paper Both gentlemen deemed it their first duty to warn mo against spies, and enumerated many instances?they had af idavita relating to every one of them hi :i passersby had teen that an itomobilc was driven close to the sidi ?valk, tl .- door of the car opened, a young man seized, pushed into the car and whisked away. That all seemed ridiculous to me. But I changed my mind within a very short period. A young Saxon nial I had a room to? gether. He had voluntarily joined the German army and fought in Belgium. Like so many uf his comrades, lie soon understood that lie would do well to dec to Holland. At the Belgian boun? dary line he entered the Netherlands, where he mado a mistake by looking for work with German business men. lie obtained a position with the crock? ery firm of Paul Kaiser, a German. This man. Paul Kaiser, a:ul his "friend " (they were on the payroll of the German government) again and again urged the young man to report to the Gi rman Consulate so as to be k ent back to Germany. He Was. also ;r?kcd to induce other German desert? ers to do likewise; at the same time all were promised unconditional "immu '.'?.'' But my friend grew suspicious, for tl?c wishes of his protector degen? erated into covert and overt threats. "yierefore, the young man left his posi? tion without even asking for the wages ?lue to him. And he- was without work while he and 1 lived together. But lie was lo cated, very ?-oou by the agents of the German Legation, and shadowed wher? ever he went. These men asked him without any formalities to give up his propaganda. At that time he happened to write articles, which appeared in the "AniBtcrdammer Handelsblad," on the German --'.stem of waging war. He continued writing articles, in spite of the warnings. But when ho could not stand : "-. longer the molestations by the German agents he asked the Dutch police for protection. Police Could Offer Little Protection That was an unfortunate tact, i ac , ?ompanied him to police headquarters | Wau-.- I talked better Dutch than he aid. When sve had reached the Rotter lam Police Headquarters, Delftsche ?sari, and I had explained my friend's } vOtnplaint against the bothersome Ger I !iy!;"' l?"' police president replied: **s, v. know what part the German j Wes [day in Holland, and we also i?now that young Germans disappeai ?ery day; but furnish us with the proofs we must have the proofs and *e will be only too glad to put an end to the impertinence of the German ?Mats. But these fellows are too clever.'' yhen 1 asked for protection from '.''V"'1' the police president said no ,-<-'u>:u measures could be taken; my 10':?! could do no better than to dis? appear and quiutly live ?wmewhere ?v>>nout attracting the attention of the ..;';'"? /Tor," added the police official, ino deserters are ?n> much feared by ?'0 German government because they ?ypo.-c, without any consideration, thu mi ry thc P?wera that b? in Ger? ts? y" 1 can give you but one advice: ?? cautious; the German Secret Ser? pee is willing to commit even thc most ?nramoua acta." we left; my friend was determined . icave Rotterdam on thc evening of w nest day, and to move to Delftzvl, ,?i c extr?mo northern part of Hoi ?^ After we had left Police Hcad g*V"W8 and were awa/ about one !????? vC ?bs?rvod that wo were fol wweo by the same fellow who had asked H&?. Ti.,Vew da-V3 bcfore, to cease wE L * art!cIes- The next day we left W.??m5 t0 make Preparations for my ? i,11?8 departure, which was scheduled ? uL*a place in the evening. We sep \ ?rated at the Bcurs Plein (a large &rV"l front or t1le Rotterdam .?.f oExchanife.'- I went to the Ditt sit?, V?iTCBpon(,enco Bureau, which waf uuated on the same square; my friend went to the nearby Bcurs Railway Sta ????L * *er?T,? a ticket 1,or tl10 evening mS t0 P*l*W- We had agreed * tl,? raic^ other na,f an hour later in 1116 , lobby of the "Rotterdamschi ? Nieuwsblad" (opposite the lieurs Rail ! way Station), to talk over tho recent ? events with the publisher of the paper. . 1 waited in vain; I never again saw my friend, Richard Hertzog (this was , his name), who was born at Chemnitz. Tho e: ?minais proved to be quicker than ho was. His parents confirmed later to n rep? resentative of the Dittmar Correspond j once Bureau the report that he was i shot dead at Wesel, a German town ? near the Hutch frontier. | Ono trick often resorted to by the Cern?an government is the following: If a German deserter openly carries : on a strong anti-German propaganda, ns writer or public speaker, tho ngen'ts ! leave no stone unturned to silence the . man. First they resort to threats and I promises. If that does not bring about the desired results, nn attempt is made 1 to do away with or kidnap the man : If all other tricks are without results ; German authorities frame up the victim and request his extradition The German government bribes certaii persons who testify under oath tha the deserter committed a felony, whicl really was hatched by German agents The falsely accused man is doomed ii case he is extradited. The method employed in a case whicl was much discussed in the Dutch pros' ! was this: The German government asked fo ?' the extradition of a man for burglary ! this request wns granted by the Dutcl I authorities. The man was placed o: | trial at Dresden. From the outset th 1 Dutch government protested that th j man mu3t not be tried for descrtic I because his extradition had been grant ! cd for burglary, and the accused, there i fore, might not be tried for nny othe j act of his. The indicted man was foun? I not guilty, for lack of evidence, an? ' set free. According to a law passed since th i beginning of the war, the German gov i "rnment may restrict the period withi which nn indicted person who had bee found not guilty must leave German to thirty-six hours. Of course, th i persecuted man, who was withou | funds, was tillable to travel withi ' thirty-six hours from Dresden to th Dutch boundary Hne on account of th slowness of the railway service durin the war. Furthermore, the tools of th murderers accompanied him. The unfortunate man had just passe I the railroad station of Altenessen who the time limit of thirty-six hours o> pired. He was arrested for descrtioi j Four days later ho was suimmarily ex? j cuted at Calognc for desertion. He ha i no counsel. A new leaf was added t I the glorious crown of divine righ j German kultur had won a victory. ! Framed Up on ; Burglary Charge Another instance. The son of '. wealthy German who was a resident ? i Rotterdam was in Germany when tl j v.ar started and was conscripted in j the German army. The young nu 1 was thrice wounded. Alter he had be< wounded for the third time he wi . sent to the hospital at Crcfeld. Wh? he was pretty nearly well his une! who lived at Crcfeld, loaned him motorcycle to reach the Dutch boun ary line. There, still on German te ritory, the nephew left the motorcyc and crossed the frontier. Uncle ai nephew had failed to take the numb an ay from the motorcycle, and there! enabled the German police to find o the owner of the machine. To cva the very heavy penalty for aiding ai abetting a deserter the uncle pretcn cd that the motorcycle was stolen by burglar. Thereupon tho German a tiiorities demanded the extradition the deserter, who was tried at Crefc for burglary. The owner of the mole cycle admitted the truth and was sc tenced to twelve years in state prisoi The court had no choice but to fr the deserter, who was able to retu to Holland within the time limit thirty-six hours because, the Dutch g' ernment had an automobile ready 1 him. When the young man and ! father, three weeks later, walked fr? Scheveningen to The Hague (a distai of one rnilp). they were overtaken an auto. Tho son was hurled in ! machine by three men, and the ai had disappeared before the father 1 a true conception of what was go on. So the son was "sunk with? trace." and tho father never ag beard of him. Th?se arc a few. stances, every particular of whicl was able to investigate, as I was quainted with the persons concerne? How many crimes of which the p lie never becomes aware are commit by German agents in Holland? r; conditions were worse while Dr. Ri ard von Kuehlmann was Minister T!ie Hague. Then German agents w stationed on the platforms of the r way stations of The Hague, Amsterd; Rotterdam, Groningen, Arnheni i Utrecht, waited for the arrival of trains from Germany, and asked yo? men looking like German reservists produce their passports, and state ? they were, and where they int|nde( go. This practice was discontinued, account of the complaints by the ministration of the Dutch railroad To hand over the elements disagi able to the HerUn government to ( man "justice" the boats of the Colot Duesseldorf Rhine Steamship Comp? which plied between Cologne and I terdam, were made use of. The Ruse of the Frontier Guards A favorite trick was to shool victims near the frontier. A si notice, "A man who attempted to c the boundary line last night was ? by frontier guards," tells one sic!? the story. I personally met, for the first t German agents when I wrote arti for two Dutch newspapers, "Het V and the "Amsterdammer Handelsbl When one of the editors of "Handelsblad" and I had left the I delsblad Building one day we me tho lobby a man who was knowi my friend to be a "moff," as the noxious Germans are called ' by Dutch. We were going to the cditt office of "Het Volk." We turned n small street and stopped. And, deed, we were shadowed by the "ni My friend told the man in very i German: "It's of no use you cont ing following us. I frankly tell we are going to 'Het Volk.' " S mering, the "moff made an ex and went away. Two days later, when I had c back to Rotterdam, a man calle? niy home. I asked hiiu: "Who you?" But he refused to give name, or to say why he came, after I had promised him an ii view. Then he started. Ho told he knew my age, my name and r other things. I was surprised, 'tept my sentiments for myself. F ly he ?aid ho had come as my fi and to advise me not to write moro articles for newspapers. " if you are a deserter you ougb cease carrying on your propagai he shouted. "Either you cease ?ng articles and characterize your mer writings as lies or you will to take the consequences." German Kultur9s Poison Pen More Dangerous Than Her Sword By William English Walling THE German armies havo slain their thousands, the German propaganda has slain its tens of thousands. President Wilson has pointed out most emphatically that the enemy that menaces us is a power of "combined intrigue and force." Without, this intrigue and propa? ganda it is probable that Germany's a i mies would have been completely de? feated before now. The recent in? vasion of Italy was duo largely to propaganda; the collapse of Russia has been duo almost wholly to propa? ganda. Were it not fo* the German propaganda in the United States, com? bined with intrigue, it is almost cer? tain this country would have, entered the war either immediately after the sinking of the Lusitania,*after the ex? posure of Papen and Boy-Ed, or after the sinking of the Sussex. For it now appears that Germany at that time in? tended neither to relax her submarine warfure nor to cease her plotting aguinst the United States government on our own soil. The intimate connection be? tween those secret intrigues and the open propaganda carried on at the samo time is a vital point often over? looked. A large section of patriotic American opinion was thoroughly alarmed and deeply suspicious of Ger? many's futuro designs. If the propa? ganda had not been canned on simul? taneously, asserting Germany's good in? tentions and defaming the Entente, the public demand for war would have been overwhelming and decisive. All history shows no parallel of a great nation accepting such injuries repeated again and ?gain. This was the first and greatest victory of the propa? gandists, worth a dozen Tannenbergs to Germany. The Rumanian debacle also was due to the propaganda in Russia, as well as all the great defeats of the Allied armies that have followed this catas? trophe. Every Drive Has Diplomatic Aspect Democracies arc inexperienced in war. Because of our ignorance wc re? gard military operations and propa? ganda as two widely different things. Bismarck and all the great German statesmen view these two forms of attack on the enemy as parts of a singlo whole. Wo speak of the "mili? tary drive" nnd "peace drive," of the "military offensive" and "diplomatic offensive" of the Germans. Wc do not realize that every drive and offensive has its two aspects?military and dip? lomatic. The mental and moral collapse of Russia is thus* regarded by Ludendorff as the natural and inevitable result of the defeat of her armies. "Modern war,'* said Germany's greatest military authority, in a recent interview, "is a war of peoples, not of armies, and a war ends now when an enemy people is defeated. There are no decisive bat? tles, as in former wars. The battle? merely have an indirect influence on the whole national system, including decay and collapse." In Italy we saw this amazing propa? ganda leading to military defeat. I: Russia, according to Ludendorff, mili? tary defeat prepared the way for the propaganda. But we know that ir Russia also military defeat, both undci the Czar and under the present an? archy, has itself been brought about largely, if not chiefly, by the propa? ganda. The Germans understand war as it ir Ludendorff is not alono in his rccogn: tion of the decisive importance of <h? morale of the nation in war. The view of the chief of the British armies, Sii William Robertson, on this- matter it identical : The Policy of Decay and Collapse "Those Germans in high comman? know that this conflict is a struggle of national tenacities. They hope t< hold us off until the will of our people breaks, until the French people or the Italian people or the British people grow tired. That is their only hope Whether or not vast armies can be con ejuered in the field as they were con quered years ago, the will of nation; can be broken by hopelessness and de -pair." What, then, is the military objective Df Germany and of the Entente? Ger many aims at the "decay and collapse' of the whole national system of lie i enemies, the Entente at breaking the will of the German nation by "hope lessness and despair." In neither cast is there any hope of completing the .lefeat of the enemy by arms. The elif ference is that the Entente, being com posed of democracies, is obliged to relj .vholly upon her armies to reduce the :nemy nation to a moral and menta -?ollapse, while Germany and her auto :ratic allies rely largely upon propa jahefa within the enemy countries. As against the tremendous propa randa successes of Germany the Alliei lave accomplished absolutely nothing in enemy countries. We have heare mich of the superiority of the Germ..r armies, but this superiority?in tin 'ase of France at least?is relativelj -light, while the superiority of the _erman propaganda is overwhelming riiis is not due to any mental or mora iefect in the democratic nations, but te the very fact that they are democracies.; 'The President says: "The Russian peo j pie have been poisoned by the very '. same falsehoods that have kept thc j German people in the dark, and the j poison has been administered by thc I very same hands.'' It is obvious that j we cannot compete with an absolutely unprincipled despotism in poisoning the I minds and corrupting the morals of ; great peoples. In tho ease of Germany we are not | allowed access to the country at all. i Even if our aeroplanes were to brine , the President','; speeches to every Ger? man citizen, these would be as noth? ing against the counter propaganda ? and distortions that the German gov? ernment can elaborate in a single day. . to say nothing of the forty years of I preparedness culminating in the three I years of intensive propaganda since ! the war. Resting upon this invio I lability of her own soil, together with her ability successfully to invade America, the German ruling class is undoubtedly relying upon propaganda finally to win tho war. An American correspondent has recently expressed the Junker view as follows: "If the men hold out we shall have | all our enemies' countries so much dis I organized that at the psychological j moment we shall be able'to step in and dictate peace on our own terms." ! Kaiser's Offensive In America The present war situation is judged I too much by the physical war map. A \ corrected or psychological war map | would not only show the black parts representing the German armies ex 1 tended over vast territory in Russia. Rumania, Italy and France, but it would show many countries of thc world, including America, consider? ably shaded to represent the invasion of German intrigue and propaganda. If we take these gray portions of thc i map into account, the position of Ger? many at the present moment repre? sents a double scries o\~ stupendous victories. She is wholly in possession of certain territories and she has very considerable minorities standing for s German peace in all thc neutral coun tries and in most of her enemies'. Germany's superiority in thc tield of propaganda is due to two causes; one of these causes, the ability of despotism to control the public opinion of its subject, peoples and to prevent (he invasion of its territory by a coun? ter-propaganda?especially in war time has been mentioned. The othci cause is the inability of a democracj to protect itiolf from foreign propa? ganda even in war time. It is onl\ necessary for those who wish to aid and abet the enemy to put on a thii cloak of loyalty in order to say any? thing they please and to go to anj length. Free speech, even when modi ?led by the very moderate interpreta lion of "military necessity" prevalen' in democracies, gives the foreigr propagandist, every opportunity he car desire. This doctrine puts a demo cratlc government upon the defensive Moreover, in a democracy the individ ual is innocent until he is prove? guilty, even in war time. In autoc racies neither free speech nor the ne cessity of absolute proof of guilt, i held of any importance when the; come into conflict with "military ne cessity." Thus democracies necessarily leaw the door wide open for any form o German propaganda, provided onl, that it is willing to assume a subtl and insidious form. This thin cloak o loyalty only results :;i making i doubly effective and dangerous, fo then the ears of many uninformed 6 weak-minded loyalists can be obtained Democracies Lets; In Propaganda A democratic government must no only permit tho most dangerous form of enemy propaganda to continue dut ing war times, but it cannot evolv any effective counter-propaganda. Fo a propaganda to be effective it mus be unified and yet. must take ?man different forms and come from man different quarters. This is the secrc of German efficiency in this field. Th arman propaganda, it is true, lia created a spontaneous reaction in thi and other countries, but such a spot taneous reaction is no match for an organized propaganda. These spontt neous counter - arguments rcpresei every shade of opinion and are alnio. certain to contradict one anothe Some of the most, effective ruses c the enemy are not discovered for long time, and even then the answt given may not be the best one. It i hardly necessary to 'elaborate. In n tield of human endeavor can isolate individuals effectively resist an orgai izo?! movement. ?So far I have, mentioned only tl mechanical superiority of the Germi propaganda due to superior organiz tion. Public opinion in a democrat has a further disadvantage. It has conscience. In our futile effort to g democratic ideas into Germany we a limited to the truth, and we will not i. dorse anything that we believe won ultimately work against the intere of the German people. The Kaisei propagandists in this country have i such scruples. They can afford to i dorse anything or anybody -outside i Germany -the wilder the better. F example, nothing is so abhorrent to tl German nature as anarchism, yet the was no valid reason why the Germi propagandists in Russia should not gi their uid to the anarchistic moveme there. This is why tens of thousan of German agents are supporting t Bolsheviki. Again, we are not ready to stir racial and religious animosities in Ge many, while the Germans are ready stir up racial and religious anime ities in every country that is tighti them or may light them in the futu' In this field they have neglected no opportunity. It is only necessary to refer to our own country, where they have endeavored to stir up the Mexi? cans, Japanese and negroes against us. But many persons have not noticed th.'.t this is only the minor part of this branch of the propaganda. The chief part of this effort has been to stir up American prejudice against the Jap? anese, Mexicans and negroes, as we can see in the columns of those yellow journals which have most persistency advocated the German cans? and at? tacked our allies in this country. Propaganda of Lies and of Truth ' The propaganda of lies carried on by a despotism lias another stupendous advantage over any propaganda of truth that can be carried on by a democracy. It can appeal to timid, weak or base in? dividuals in the enemy country, another policy to which no democratic people will descend. As Elihu Root has point? ed out, sordid individuals have been purchased all over the world by Ger? many. Even if such individuals were purchased by us inside of Germany it would be to no purpose, because of the cast iron unity of their system of gov? ernment. Germany has frightened timid indi? viduals all over the world. "Fright fulness" or a reign of terror is one oi her basic policies. She seeks to spread tiie idea that German armies arc in wincible. A very large part of our pacifists, if closely questioned,will all? ait that this German invincibility seems to them to be a fact. After this admission their further denial that it is not tliis .fact that has made them pacifists has little weight. There is another type of individual tlie born anarchist, who is especiallj useful to til?' German propagandist ii the present situation. Now, this is the man who, with the best intentions will betray any cause whatever .witr which he is connected by always goin: to greater and greater extremes', 'flu recklessness of the German propagan ??is?, in backing every dangerous move ment appeals to this type of man. It i: ?rue that lie will <lo no ultimate goot to any movement with which he is con nected- -not even when it is pro-Ger man- but in the meantime the purpos? of Germany may have been accom ;?!ished?before the movement has gon? !o piece.:. Vague Doctrines r'avorable to Germany The propaganda of an autocrac; ?iocs not limit itself either to section or to individuals in the, enemy countrj It sets afloat cr supports certain vagu general ideas which appeal to th population in general and especially t the thoughtless, vacillating, and ill informed. All the favorite principle, of a democratic, nation are thus ?li? te? rted and worked up in a new fon until they come to mean the precise op posite of their original intention. S? ?'or example, socialism and pacifisi have come to mean doctrines that ar more or loss favorable to the Kaiser i the present war. The word "democ racy" is perverted in a similar fash ion. We are toi el that Germany i democratic and that England is ne democratic. If these two statement are true we must conclude that de niocracy means practically the revers of v. hat, we thought it meant. The iv o are reproached because subjec races like tho.se of Africa are ne given a democratic form of govei'i ment, as if it were ever pretended tht democratic government should b given to children or half-civilize peoples. Ono of the most importai of these et?orts to pervert one of eu most cherished principles has been th attempt te- Germanizo the idea of con promise or negotiation, a favoril Anglo-Saxon principle. When wc a: guc in favor of compromise we mea that it is sometimes wise to make coi cessions in order to <?to?) a conflict an to prevent aggression en either sid The Germans now appeal to us to con promise the war or to enter into nog? tintions. Such a compromise coui only serve the purpose of eneouragin oppression and bringing abou.1 furtlu confdets. When the Anglo-Saxon a? vocates tho policy of compromise 1 means tho policy of bargaining b Lween equals. When the Teuton us? the word he means a policy of sit render to blackmail and to crim Here again it is impossible for us I lind any adequate method of repl We cannot go into Germany and pr -ont a new interpretation of any ? the favorite principles of Cermi civilization, for the simple reason th; ?ve would not receive any hearingwha soever. Our liberality makes our people list? o any new idea that is put before the vithout looking closely for the orig ;f the idea. The German governmoi ?ver on the lookout, has only to label tew idea trying to enter Germany ting British, French or American dose German minds against it; t Jcrmans have been prepared for tl y generations of, aggressive natiom sin in their schools, not to speak lewspapers and the pulpit. Dn the Nature ol ?erman Kultur Another reason why we cannot ? 'ectivcly combat the Germans in tl ield is that it is almost impossible t is to grasp the nature? of German ci\ zation or Kultur. It is not only t ?/ord Kultur that is strange, but a he thing. After more than three yet ,f explanation the meaning of Kult s just beginning to sink into our mir ind consciences. Yet without knowi he thing we are fighting against it impossible that we should be able >tfer arguments against it that wo? >o effective in Germany or aimjng G -.--?I mnny's friends. -We simply cannot grasp the religion of state worship that j spells despotism within the nation and militarism without. We regard despot-; ism as a mediaeval thing and cannot con- ; ceive how it can exist in thc presence of other modern conditions. And it' wo could conceive militarism it is en? tirely beyond our power of imagination t?i see how it actually can take hold of the affections of the masses of any modern and civilized people. Though we are now at war we cannot grutp the psychology of a people which believes in war aa a permanent institution; nor are wo likely to succeed in the effort, since thc Germans have been able to do It only by generations of mental and moral preparation. Above all, we are unable to grasp the German doctrine of ''military necessity." The German people believe in a reign of terror over conquered territories and neutrals which to them is a perfectly simple and natural idea. Moral Atrocities ?^mong the Worst The worst of the German atrocities vre undoubtedly the mental and moral atrocities committed by its propaganda in poisoning the mind of whole nations by every conceivable mental and moral poison known ,to man. Vet, while we kr.ow and gladly acknowledge the abil? ity of the German "intellectual," we do not wish to believe that their philoso? phy, history, religion, art and science arc soaked throughout with the savage doctrines of Kultur. Wo do not wish to believe this enormity and therefore we do not believe it, but it is a fact never? theless. And even when our own "intellectuals" become aware of the fact that German civilization is im? pregnated and therefore vitiated throughout by this terrible doctrine, they arc necessarily ineffectual in their efforts to combat "it. Our honest and direct writers and college proft?S3ors are no match in this field for the subtle and disingenuous Germans. We arc self-critical; it ?is a characteristic espe? cially of Anglo-Saxon civilization. Thc moment the interest of Germany come?; \ into any question and this interest is never far away?the German professor or writer ceases all self-criticism ant becomes critical only of the other na? tion?. This is a habit, of mind which wc cannot and shall not attempt tc acquire. How. then, can we hope to comba! the German propaganda effectively' Only by a vast organized effort l?stinf o\er a long period of time and bas?e upon a careful study ?i the whole Ger man propaganda system anil of it achievements. It will be uphill work In every democracy the Germans hav< worked from underneath. Among tin masses of thc population, poorly in formed and little given to thinking ot these problems, they have planted thei tories first. If now we go among tin masses of our great cities, we find tha the German view of every great issu of the war was the first to reach them - at a time when they? were without sus tiicion that such a thing as Germai propaganda was in existence. Of cours? it is vastly more difficult to remove ? prejudice after it has become deepl; r< oted. Hence there is a vast structur of false facts and false logic that w ' hall have t?j remove stone by stone Nor shall we succeed until we are abl to replace each prejudice by a strikinj and convincing interpretation of th tyuth. Antidote?the Truth Spoken Plainly This stupendous task may indeei take almost as much effort as will b required by the German armies. Ou methods and measures must be equail; warlike, too. This is not a tield il which any violence whatever is re quired or is even permissible, bit there must be no compromise. We can not afford to compromise with a In any more than we can afford to com promise with a crime. The President has said that th? only possible antidote to the Germai poison is the truth, and that "it can not bn uttered too plainly or to? often." This is correct, but the sit nation can be brought out still mor strongly by stating the case in a posi tive instead of a negative mannei We have to enlighten public opinioi on each and. every phase of the xca and the inter notional situation from be ginning to end, including especially th nature of German Kultur, of thc Ger man government, and, above all, th psychology of the </erman people i, supporting their government and th war. This great campaign will have t have its thousands of ramification! and, as explained, a democratic gov ernmeiit can do comparatively little, i anything, in directing it?and th campaign will have to last at least a long as the war. It is a question o printing all the facts, and printin them in a vital manner, rather tha any vague abstract? appeal to love o country or hatred or fear of the encm; We are living in a newspaper agi which means that public opinion is bi ing formed on the basis of facts vitall presented. The first part of our task is to pre vent the further spread of such Gc; man,propaganda as is still going o: To do this we must tear away the cloa of loyalty under which it now hide trace it to its source, isolate it an brand its infamy. But this is only a emergency measure. For many year and especially since the beginning ?. the war, the Germans have been spreac ing their poison among the people, "ft must proceed systematically and tin lessly to root out these poisons, ar we must recognize from the outset th? it is a long and arduous task. The tirst step in the campaign < truth against Germany is clear. 'W cannot invade Germany psychological at present even with the aid of aer> planes, but we cannot afford to deh carrying our message of light in other countries which have recent been subjected to the poi?on gases i the Kaiser's propaganda. We have plenty of time to get r of the German poison in America? we begin at once and do not cease 01 efforts. The time has not yet arriv? when we can even begin a counter car paign in Germany, But we cann delay a single hour every possib measure to counteract German infi tract: in Russia, Italy and other cou tries now in mortal danger from tl deadly effects of the mental poisoi and moral disease germs spread I the Kaiser. Teutons Planned Vassalage For R?st of Europe Since 1871 Victory for Kaiser Now Would Trans? form Continent Into a Prison for Humanity, With a System Moving Tow? ard Asiatic Castes By Gordon Gordon-Smith F^OR two months past all eyes have ; been turned toward Russia. From day to ??ay the people of Europe and America watch anxiously the yv.ing of t'ne pendulum and ask themselves, "What will be the ultimate outcome : Will the new spirit of democracy in Russia find its level and establish i* stable, national government, one in which the Allies can put confidence, 01 will it allow itself to fall into the hands of extremists, intriguers aner German agents who will bring it to a state of anarchy such a3 will pave the way for a black reaction and the aboli? tion of all the liberties achieved?" On this point it was of great interest to have the views of Dr. Milenko Ves nitch, ?the distinguished head of the Serbian War Mission, at present 'r. tho Cnited States. There are few living diplomatists who have a clearer grasp of all the complications of the V irt> pean chessboard. He has a profound knowledge of Russian politics and policy under t'ne late Czar and has fol? lowed recent events in Russia with the closest and most intelligent interest. His long sojourn in Paris, where he is the doyen of the diplomatic corps, put him in constant communication with the representatives of the great powers in the French capital. The fact that he has been the representative of Ser? bia at all the war councils held in the French capital since the beginning o? the war has given him the opportunitj of meeting repeatedly with tho met who to-day guide the destinies ol France, Great Britain and Italy. Dr Vesnitch e?n, therefore, speak in ful "connaissance de cause." When, there fore, I addressed myself to him for hi: views on the present crisis in Russia . had the conviction that I was spcakin? with an authority on the subject. Germany Chose Her Time to Strike "The underlying cause of the prer-cn war," saiel Dr. Vesnitch, "lies in th Treaty of Frankfort anel in the tend ency of Germany, since 1871, to im pose its dictature on Europe. The di reel, cause was furnished by the Treat of Berlin, and the consequences v-'hic the Austro-Germans desired to dra' from it. by extending their hegetviou not only over the Balkan Peninsuh but also over all Asia Minor. The ir cidents In Zabern in Alsac" precede the events in Sarajevo. Lieutenar Foerster, in Alsace, and the Archdul Kranz Ferdinand in Austria, were it struments of the same policy. German desired to strike, the blow at the me nient she chose. But she thought hei self sure of her affair and she did ne desire to allow her adversaries to brin their military force to the level of he own. "She therefore attacked them at th moment she thought they were powci less to support the struggle. Victoi ious Germany would have imposetl o all of us- who can doubt it??-not on! a commercial vassalage, but she won] have forced on us her constitutions ar her laws, she would have mad.? i 'Polizeistaaten' like herself. "A new Melternich would have ii stalled himself in Europe and a cont nent with a civilization twenty ce turies old would have been transform? by the magician's wand in the hand ? a Iiohenzollern into an iranien prison for humanity, which would ha made us move backward toward a sy tern of Asiatic castes. In this ne ideal world of the Pan-German ist:.- ti Prussian Junkers would form the hea the other Germans the arms of t government, while all the rest of t old Europe would be the 'pariahs,' < as for a long time past the gentlcm* on the other side cf the Rhine ha ?leigned to call us, the human mater: (das Menschemnalerial). "Have the Germans abandoned th? programme? Who among us can dare have the least illusion on tl point? German Rulers Have Not Changed "The ruling men in Germany have i: changed a single comma or" their p gramme, and if William II recen promised reforms to his peoples men of good faith and the naif s bewa Even if it were frank and loyal (a we have every reason to doubt that is), this promise is only made to I Prussians and the Germans. Are i Poles and the Alsatians and Lorrain not there to prove to us what Gern liberties and constitutional guaran-t are worth? "The Russian Workmen's and Soldi? Committee has often insisted on its pugnance of conquests and annexati? and its reiterated declarations h created a certain confusion in the p lie opinion of the Allied countries, i even in certain governmental circ This confusion, nevertheless, was justified. One has only to understi exactly the real spirit of the Russ democracy. Whither does it tend? complete liberty founded on the eqi ity of the citizens of the Russian si and the same liberty and equality the peoples in the Society of Natie In what, on this point, does the j gramme of the Russian democracy fer from those programmes made August, 1914, by the official repreeei tives of the allied nations and thos? President Wilson? I do not besitat affirm, On no essential point. "Russian democracy has made revolution in the name of the gro principles of right, cf liberty anc justice. Will we dare to allow human suffering which waa the or of this war ?'suffering which was posed on the populations of Ala Lorraine and of Sch?eawig-Holsteh >n those of Prussian Poland, on ths habitants of Bosnia-Herzegovina and on those of all the Slav and Rumanian sections of thc Hapsburg monarchy), to continue to exist after the frightful cataclysm which thc German prepo tence lias imposed on the whole human r?.ce? All these misfortunes will con? tinue to dishonor humanity in th< twentieth century if these peoples are left in the future under the yoke of their present oppressors. "The responsibility for this crime would fall on Russia. The Rudsisn revolutionaries did not desire this, the great sou! of Russia ?iid not desire it. Russian soldiers and workmen hav?s rather been led into error, on the point, by the most dangerous Pan-Ger manist agents, disguised as Socialists for the momentary necessity of 'heii cause. If, by misfortune, 'not to eksir?. annexations' should signify the main? tenance of the German domination by a return to thc status quo ante helium, this avowal of impotence would be the condemnation of thc revolution, ??rov? ing its factitious and empty character. "The only revolutions which did iyat desire annexations, which have been purely egotist, were those of Germany. Since wc meet it in history, the Ger? man people never had any care for the fr.te or the well-being of other nations; it never even made a moral annexa? tion. It only increased in powc? to the detriment of the Gauls, the Ital? ians and the Slavs, by means of con? quests. "The present world war may br summed up as the absolute opposition of those two principles which arc, at one and the same time, judicial and moral. By annexation (which, in the mouth of thc Teutons, the Mao-yars, the Bulgarians and the Turks signifies conquest-) wc mean redemption from slavery, liberation from a foreign yoke, the emancipation and association of the liberated peoples. This task, which docs great honor to the great free na? tions of thc West, cannot be repugnant to the new democracy. "That thc Russian democracy is op? posed to conquesta and to oppressions by foreign nations, on that I congratu? late ?t. On this point we arc ail with it. Schleswig ? Holstein, Alsace-Lor? raine and Boi'iiia-llericgo^ ma have been conquered by the Austro-Germans, Venice and Lombardy, Nice and Savoy were annexed by Piedmont and Franc;-. "When :.he peoples under the Teuton and .Magyar yoke, which i i y;i .1 level v. itli that of the Turks, desire to It? erate themselves and 'annex' them? selves to (that is to say unite with 1 their brothers in.race, when the Aisa tians-Lurrviincra v ish to return to France, /Tom which they were torn by brutal force; when the Italians and thc Rum atria?* s desire to detach themselves from Austro-H?ngary and unite them? selves with Italy an?l Rumania; when iho Czechs-Slovaks demand their liber? ation from :he grip of the Teuton Magyar vise; -..hen the Croat?, the Serba an?! the Slovenes, who have struggled for their national existence for ten centuries past, continually threatened, and without mercy, by Ger? manizaron and Magyarization, desire to unite themselves to ?Serbia and con? stitute with her a prosperous state under a r?gime of liberty and progress, would the Russian democracy oppose those 'annexations'? I will not and 1 cannot believe it for, in my opinion. ?1 would be the greatest insult I could offsr ?t. Have Cursed Whole of Humanity "And the indemnities? We are as? sured that the most advanced groups in thc New Russia oppose a:iy in? demnity being demanded from our ad versaries. ? cannot believe it; the most simple common sense revolts against such a pr?tention. What! Thc Cen? tral Empires, with their associates, Bulgaria and Turkey, without a:.y nec? essity, have let loose on the whole of humanity the curse oJ." a catastrophe unparalleled in tho history of the world, their armies have deliberately violated the rights and conventions. regulating war, they have devastated entire countries, ravaged town and countryside, destroyed private a;s well us public property, bombarded unforti fied town-, demolished churches and buna libraries, transformed fertile valleys into deserts, and if they were victors they would bleed us white us they have always done. "And we would terminate thit. war, which has been forced upon us, with? out indemnifying those who have suf? fered so horribly and without seeking to obtain the means of repairing the ruin and alleviating, as far as possible, the immense martyrdom supported by all the Allies; we would content our selves with appealing to an imminent justice which will come one day. Where, then, would be justice, where would be right? "When Mr. Sebeko tried to make Count Berchtold understand that the crushing of Serbia by Austria v,ou'.d bring about a general conflagration, the latter, who had just left Herr von Tehirsky , the German ambassador, replied to him cynically, 'Before that the revolution will have broken out In St. Petersburg. The reports of Count Pourtales are categorical on that poin'. Ard you know if he is well informed.' "Count Pourtales invoked the revolu? tion at that moment and he believed it, as h? went to ell his friends, on the eve of his departure from Petrograd, to try to induce thorn to leave with hin by painting all the horrors of thc com? ing revolution. "The Russian revolution came at th? hcur chosen by it, and after the Rus sian mujik had fought like a Titan against the Germans, the Bulgarians, the Magyars and the Turks. In no fashion and under no fortn should th-;.-. revolution turn to the profit of these peoples of prey. The Russian workmen and soldiers must not shed thair blood for the King cf Prussia, the most r? actionarjr of all the sovereign*."