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Zionism Welds Spirit of Democracy
f In World-Sundered Jewish People I World War Burning Away Old Prejudices and Oppressions That Cumbered the Road to the Restoration By Bernard G. Richards Author of "The l>i-vcou.rsrs of Koidansky," l.<t;rary I'ditur of "The Alaccabaean Maga? sin*," and Vxecittivc Secretary of the American Jewish Coni/rct-v. ARTICLE V M'upjrljht, 1013, tj Ttie Tribune AsjocULIcli] THERE uerc eminent and dis tinguished men, Jewish leaders and spokesmen, playing im portant r?l"S in world affairs, who were either indifferent or entirely opposed to Zionism; favored by fortune or gift? ed by nature or endowed with a heri? tage of unquenchable Jewish genius, they sat in high pluces and had free access to the great organs of public ex? pression and to the discussions in in? ner ruling or guiding circles. Their views were widely iiuoted and the bur? den of their message was that the Jews l.ad better leave ill enough alone; th^t they should not raise the question of nationalism, lest it do them barm, and that they content themselves with re? maining scattered among the peoples cf the earth. There were influential preachers and exponents of a new Judaism who gave spiritual sanction to tbo policy of ne? gation, propounding a:i imposing, if ponderous, theory to the effect that the mission of Israel requtretl Israel to re? main in misery, to continue to be scat? tered among the nations of the world without a centre of its own; and con? ferences of rabbis and congregations in impressive session adopted official resolutions emphasizing chiefly the re? ligious identity of the Jews and em? bodying the belief that Israel now rep resenU.'(l a spiritual sect only and did not seek to have a future as a nation? ality. The Great Mass Was Inarticulate The great masses of the Jewish peo? ple remained inarticulate, living in the largest numbers under the iron rule of oppression, their societies pro? hibited, their newspapers suppressed, their activities restricto'!. Up to the time of the first Zionist Congress, in 1897, they had no effective public means of making their national aspira? tions known to the world. Only occa? sionally d;d a writer or spokesman having access to the organs of publica? tion of the larger world voice their yearning for a restored Judea. For centuries the elesire of millions of Jewish men and women remained smouldering, unknown, their prayers unheard, their songs sounding like far off; dying echoes in waste places. And vet the busy, distracted, con? fused world bas heard and barkened to the call of the Jewish people, the Jcoll shofar, the great sounding of the trumpet summoning a nation to a new life. Amid war's alarms, amid deafen? ing and overwhelming roaring and boom of cannon, amid the cata? clysmic tumult of the world in up? heaval was heard the muffled cry of an oppressed and struggling people, and over the clangor of battle rose that faint cry until it reached the highest forums and council chambers of the world. Do you ask how this has come to pass? The answer is that it was the rry of an oppressed people, and that it was for the cause of this people and of other nationalities which, in viola? tion of Israel's law, had been subjected and disenfranchised, that the great na? tions were now engaged in the throes of a life and death struggle. The great principio first laid down in Biblical law and then enforced in the pronouncements of the Hebrew prophets, the principle of democracy now assuming new depth and meaning was perhaps for the last time beint fought out on the field of battle; thou sands of Jewish communities had beet devastated and destroyed and theii millions of inhabitants had gon< through all the agony of the great up heaval; hundreds of thousands of Jews sons of the common people, wero shed ding their blood on nil battle fronts The future of a whole, long-sutTerint people hallowed by new martyrdon was hanging in the balance, and win should have decided its fate? Was i for some well meaning but shor sighted Jewish magnate in London o Petrograd or Paris or New York; wa, it for some prosperous, safely en sconced, select group distinctly de tached from the living source of Jew? ish life to tsay as to what disposition shoulei bo mRdc of the vexing Jewisl problem? No. that could not be. Th voice of the ghettos of Russia and Ru mania, Galicia, Sal?nica, England, Can ada and the United States, in the fac of tho great struggle for democracj lould neither be Mipprcsscd nor super seded; it had to be heard, and wa heard, above the din of the world con flict. Old Dream Now A State Document Justice demanded that the crea masses of the Jews, the millions i Israel, decide their own destiny, an thanks to tho epoch-making unfoldmen of events the saving word of sclf-dc termination, long ago heard in Jewis conferences, in time became the moa significant term in state papers. Tbo day of deliverance bavin dawned, the fate of all subject pee pies having become a world issue, tli most grievously wronged of these poo pies at last had the. opportunity o f tating its case; and Zionism, speak ing. and Laboring in behalf of the larj; ".Sound the Trumpet of Zion," from thc "Ajnsterdammer," Amsterdam est and most activo forces in Jewish I life, had previously formulated the1 demands of Jewry. The programme ; laid down in Basle was but another phrasing of the term of self-determi? nation which had become a slogan of the movement. The Jews were thc first among the oppressed nationalities to have clearly S enunciated this democratic, and just. formula of self-d?termin?t ion, and in the wider acceptance of this principle democracy had made a new gain and the Jewish people, through Zionism, liad made a new spiritual contribu? tion to the social thought and con? sciousness of the time. For Zionism' is thc highest expression of Jewish , democracy, and when the voices of the ' peoples ?,'. ere heard more clearly in the councils of the nations the heirs ? of the prophets, though tire and sword i drove them from their homes, once more came into th??? ir own. A homeless, scattered, disorganized people had naturally to pay the pen-. alty of disingenuous, stray and dis- ? harmonious thinking; diversity of groups produced diversity of opinion , and gave rise to leadership which in? terpreted the wishes of the Jewish people in accordance with prccon-| ceived notions which were at variance with Jewish aspirations. An* entire! structure of philosophy was built up by a school of Jewish thought, which, to be sure, had rendered great service in religion and in scholarship, but which did not take into account the trend toward democracy, which was ; mainly solicitous about averting per-i sedition and did not recognize its chief source nor make an effective attempt to abolish it. V/ar Has Burned Away Old Prejudices Concentrating upon the spiritual possessions of Israel and emphasizing the mission of justice and brotherhood which the Jews were to carry to the peopler, of the world Reformed Judaism, at least in its extreme radical forms, rejected Zion, accepted the dispersion as the greater oppor? tunity for spreading the mission and denied the future of the Jews as a nationality. Thc grs?at changes of the war demol? ished many long cherished conceptions, and with them the theory of carrying the Jewish mission without having thc power to carry it sufficiently far, with 1 out, enjoying the dignified position among the nations, is also fast yield? ing to the newer conception of estab? lishing human brotherhood through the universal acceptance of democracy with the recognition of tho rights of all nationalities. This is not a time to be? come elated over the triumph of one's own particular view, nor should it be forgotten that the opposing reform i elements base by their continued ad i hesion to Judaism helped to preserve the Jewish people and thus indirectly j to assure national restoration. It ; should also be remembered that many j leading exponents of reform have to | gether with considerable numbers of ; followers throughout favored the Zi i onist ideal. "Our feelings and our af | fections are wiser than we are," said Stevenson, and notwithstanding their professions and opposition toward Zi? onism, many influential Jews of the reform school of thought have from I time to time given effective aid toward : the maintenance of Jewish institutions in Palestine, thus aiding also in keep? ing alive the interest in the Land of I Israel. They explained their acts by stating I that, they assisted Palestinian enter? prises on purely religious grounds, but | long after their explanations will be i read as recitals as curious incidents in Jewish history, the institutions which | they have established in the Holy Land ?will remain the cornerstones of th" New Zion. Perhaps the gravest error of reform teachers and preachers and of old-time Jewish leaders, acting in concert with them, was that in enunci? ating their individual opinions or the views of a comparatively small group . in Jewry they assumed the tone of ; spokesmen of tlie whole Jewish peo ' pie, numbering some 14,000,000 of ; .souls and from the great bulk of which ?these preachers and leaders were sep ? arated by oceans and distances of thousands of miles., "There is no Jew? ish nation," says a rabbi in Chicago, As far as Chicago is concerned thc Jewish nation is a mere abstraction; \ the newspaper reporter, at any rate, j cannot see ii, bul 'ne has a front seat in tin- temple and he can hear the so ! norous voice of the fashionable rabbi land his striking pronouncement sug gests a sensatioifil headline. The next day a large Jewish community feels outraged by this usurpation of powci to speak for the Jewish people, but the Jewish masses, though they ha\"< : already found new leaders to express i their feelings and thoughts, are still to a large extent, left inarticulate. Chief Principle Was Violated t The ?-. rong thai was doni ?. ?>n ~ i.-1 ?-?I chiefly in a violation <a^ Vac democratic principle which prohibits the misrepre? sentation of the feelings and belief ' of a pc"plf, but the founders of Reform Judaism sought a means for warding off the blows of the enemy, without striking at the root of oppression and persecution, and did not anticipate the 1 changes that would be wrought by the 1 'arger freedom of th" ncople, and de tnoct.'vv was not an important feature of their philosophy. Tho whole theory! of adjustment reckoned mainly with the conditions of things as they were and failed fo look sufficiently forward. But it is futile now to cavil at ob? stacles which were previously placed I on the way to Zionism, and the con- ; troversy is ccasin_ to be timely, though it will undoubtedly in the fut? ure add dramatic effect to the story e?l' the struggle. But. as a matter of ? record it should bo set down that the Mcndelsohnian conception of a dona- I tionalizeel Judaism was born in an era of cosmopolitanism when it was thought that national boundaries would ulti? mately be abolished, and when the Jews became intoxicated with the first fruits : of civil emancipation, which, while solving the problem of individuals. I never solved the problems of groups, and even as far as giving political rights to the Jews failed to extend to the larger Jewish populations, in Rus sia, Rumania, Galicia, etc. The fear of the ugly apparition of German anti Semitism and the hope of ultimately overcoming it had no small part in the work of those who advocated the modi? fications of Jewish rites and ceremonies with a view of becoming more accept- . able to the non-Jewish neighbors. What stronger motive could have' been in tho mind of Dr. David Fried lander, who, in 1812, published a pamphlet urging the elimination from the prayer boon of all references to Zion and the abolition of the Hebrew language? Government authorities te?ok note of the pamphlet, and Hardenberg, Prussian Chancellor, in presenting the booklet to King Frederick Wilhelm III wrote a long memorandum in its favor. "It is not surprising," says the Chan? cellor, "that the Jews long for a re? storation to Palestine, since they are so much oppressed by the peoples among -whom they live. But when equal rights have been granted to thenr they will po longer pray for their rc nationalization in Palestine, but rather for the peace and prosperity of the Prussian government; they will give up the hope of the coming of a Mes? siah, and will pray for the welfare of the king whom they love and respect with all their souls." But. the Jews were never one whit less loyal to.their ailopted country or sovereign because of their attachment to Zion and Ju? daism, which, indeed, enjoined such loyalty. Emancipation and ' Religious Reform Samson Raphael Hirsch, the strong? est champion of orthodox Judaism of the nineteenth century, in his "Nine? teen Letters of Ben U/.x.iel." pub? lished in 1S:U'>, discussed tho two ! questions of the day ? emancipation ?and religious reform?from a stand? point entirely new in those days. I Hirsch explains bis position with 1 regard to emancipation and its rela ! tion to the national status of the Jews. i He suggests a compromise between I these two apparently conflicting ideas. ; arguing that the Jews never had been ' a nation in the political sense of the word. Since it is not the land that united Israel, but, the Torah, the Law, ! "therefore, it still forms a united body ? though separated from a national soil; ' i.or tioes this unity lose its reality, ! though Israel accept everywhere the citizenship of the nations amongst 1 which it is dispersed." When God shall unite His scattered people such a j union will have only the spiritual sig ) nificance of showing the whole world ' the greatness of God and the glory of ? til?; Torah as a guiding principle of state. "The entire purpose of the Messianic age is that we may, in prosperity, ex? hibit to mankind a better example of 'Israel' than did our ancestors of'thc ; first time, while, hand in hand wilh us, the entire race will be joined in uni ? versal brotherhood through the recog j nition of God, the All-One. "On account of this purely spiritual : nature of the national character of ! Israel it. is capable of the most inti i mate union with states, with, perhaps, i this difference, that while others seek in the state only the material benefits ? which it secures, considering possession and enjoyment as the highest good, ? Israel can regard it only as a means vi fulfilling the mission of humanity.'' This exposition of the idea at the root of the great controversy raging in ! German Jewry found few adherents at that, period, although to-day it is ac I eepted by both orthoilox anil reform Jews, each party interpreting it in its own way. Discussion Ran 1 1 hrough Generations The discussion ?va? carried on for many years and in the course of tune took various forms, lloldheim, Geiger, Einhorn, Franklin, Salomon ami others [ of note, ail great scholars and men of : extraordinary talent, continuing simul? taneously their seiende studies of Judaism an?! the gradual motlification ??f religious observances an?! cere? monies to bring them into greater har? mony with the environment, elaborated ?a! h great skill apd intellectual ?u-ci' upon various aspects of ?he relationi between the Jews and (lit other na , lions; and it, shall be to their eternal credit that they !ai?I so much stress upon the things of the soul, upon the spiritual message of Judaism. In grappling, however, with the per? plexed problem presented by the per ? sistence of the Jewish nationality with I out possessing a soil upon which to \ i flourish they were, it appears through? out, consciously or unconsciously, haunted by the fear of prejudice and persecution, which, despite German emancipation and thanks to class dis? tinctions created by autocratic rule, was ever present; and a philosophy so perceptibly influenced by dread is a philosophy to be dreaded. Even in their own day these men who were so fascinated by the will-o-the-wisp of an impossible cosmopolitanism as to be re.'idy to renounce the Jdvvish nation? ality saw a reversion to earlier and more wholesome ideas, though the creed of democracy among national? ities, anticipated by Jewish seers of tdd, was net to be formulated in mod? ern terms until later time. Surope was gradually discarding thc theories that had been instrumental in bringing ?bout the Kreuch Revolu? tion. Cosmopolitan ideals were re? jected as opposed to thc nature of man, and national solidarity became the watchword of many European na tions. In 1832 Greece, after a hare struggle, wrested her independence from Turkey. Italy threw off the yoki of Austria, rind tho Pope and tin Italian nation were unified under Victo Emmanuel in 1870. Bismarck sue ceeded in uniting the various Germai principalities into a powerful nation After the Russo-Turkish War in LS7? by t!r> treaty of Berlin, Rumania, ?Ser hia. Montenegro and Bulgaria wer made independent of Turkish rub Everywhere national feeling wa strengthened, and even in Poland an Hungary it was only partially subdue ; by the hand of tyrants. There was never any real conflict b< tween Zionism and the allegianc which the Jews everywhere owed t their adopted countries, and the rei ords of all lands, sustained by the mo: authoritative non - Jewish tcstimon ; proves this beyond the shadow of doubt. Centuries of history tell an ui mistakablc story, and if any furth? proof were required the great wi came, and Jewish loyalty was tested 1 fire and sword and, according to a true accounts, not found wanting. And the great, conflagration whi has burned away many old prejudice misconceptions and even cherish . ideas, has by its flames also light | the path to a new future, has reveal a new vision of the part to be play by nationalities in the regeneration humanity. Zionism, the right of : people to its national home and fre dorn to live its own life, is what a larger sense the Allies are fighti for, and among them America has I come the greatest champion of libel : for all peoples, great and small, so tl discussion of any possible conflict 1 tween Zionism and patriotism has 1 : come one of thc discarded futilities ; the age. i The Voice of Woman Was Also Respected Maintaining from ancient days dc ; ocratic forms of religious life and cc munal organizations, thc Jews In throughout their history been thc ! holders and harbingers of democn 1 principles. The history of Jewish 1 ganization is largely the history of i attempt to attain self-rule, to di\ equally the rights and obligations thc individuals to the group. Zion ! being the most potent expression Jewish democracy Jews have in h times found in the Zionist organiza! the most democratic institution of kind ever created. By the small f ' ment of one shekel, equivalent : twenty-live cents, every Jew could ? I for dc!eg?-?tes to thc Zionist congt and Zionism anticipated by many y> the woman suffrage movement in gr i ing the same privileges to the wo as to the men with regard to all ticipation in-the organization of Z ist work. According to Justice Louis D. B do:--, "Theodore Herzl's contribu? to our understanding of the Je? | problem are these: First, the reco tion of the fundamental fact that i Jews arc a people one people; sec the recognition of the political t ' that thc emancipation of the Jews c only come through themselves: tha by democratic means. That the , are a people was a well-known lo'ig before Herzl's finie;' but it been submerged by the multiform vidual struggle for Jewish exist? That emancipation could come j through thc ?lews themselves had been clearly stated before Herzl's t j but if ??vas Herzl who made cleat essential democratic means whei called the first congress." in this country (he Zionists liai the organization of Jewish affair: ercised immense influence in the d tion of democracy, and thc im] which the Zionist organization has I to the movement for the convenu an American Jewish Congress to with the crisis created by the war hi suited in the introduction of me of organizaticn which are unique . in a long history of self-rule in j munal, r?digions and philanthropi ! fairs. The election of delegates system of universal suffrage, wit proximately one hundred and thousand Jewish men and women ing their votes to choose three hit representatives,was an incident c parelleled interest among current ish events. It was in the course e organization cf the movement fo American Jewish Congress tha Jewish people made a distinct c bution to American thought in cr lining the new conception of d racy as applied to nationalities. Speaking at Carnegie Hall on ary 4, 1916, Mr. Brand?is said: "Bui. o war brings ?midst its horrors at east one compensation to I ho wholu orld and particularly to tho Jews. I. forces the world to lay aside make? hifts; to seek ultimnfo truths; t?> deal ?ith fundamentals. Wo long for peace, >ut we begin to see that neither irrtejr latioual congresses and courts nor dis irmamcnt can secure p?aee. Peace can xist only in a world where justice1 ltd good'will reign. Justice and good ?il! involve not merely tidenrOon of ?[Terences, but the grant of full rights, lespite differences. There must be jus ,ice nnd good will, not only between ?n ividuals, but between different peo? ples. All peoples must have equal rights." Thus ?lid a leader of Zionism pro poun.l the question of the rights of na ti nalities a considerable time before the entrance of this country into war. But few public men then considere? the question in exactly this light ami none stated it so clearly. It was, how? ever, the vital and vibrant thought of the new time, and soon the principle underlying (he great, new ideal, which has inspired the whole American peo? ple, was promulgated by our Highest official authority and?we took up arms to defend it. New Control To Stop Waste In Rifle Fire Would Prevent Soldiers Un? der Battle Stress From Shooting Over the Meads of the Enemy Mechanical Device Easily Put On Said to Prevent Discharge If the Piece Is Held Too High THE inefficiency of massed rifle fire at fairly close range has been a matter of observation and comment ever since battles were j first fought with bullets. It seems that no amount of preliminary training, no [possible adjustment of battle sights, , ran eradicate the irborn tendency of | the race to hold a rifle too high when | vorking under the ??lightest stress. The i disintegrating effects of battle condi? tions are widespread; nowhere are ' '.hey more real ot more disastrous than I in their influence upon rifle fire. It is at tho short ranges that the ! fiercest fighting occurs, and it is here that battle.; are won and lost. Former ; ly one of the first requisites for a good [ 'nfantry position was an open field of 1 lire, several hundred yards in depth. ' Hut ?he searching power of high ex I plosive shells fired in great volume I 'ias forced infantry to seek cover from ! risioti in order to gain cover from tire; I It must hide during the terrific shelling I in el bo ready to repel the assault that | follows. Often a hundred yards, or j tven iess, is the greatest depth of lire ?? attainable; and since an assault will i :ross so short a sp&ce in a very brief '.ime, it is obvious that the defence must make, every shot count. The ? failure to do this with the rille has led | to the new vogue of grenade and bayo j net -the one to give a tire etfect cer I lain to lie close to the ground, the j other as a necessary last result in view I of the uncertainty of lire. Control Is Tool Proof Colonel Frank D. Ely, of our army, I has for years been engaged in a con I Etant but losing endeavor to interest ! the ordnance officials in a device which ! be claims will control rifle fire. Its ! mechanical features are of no great im j port here; enough to say that it is an ! attachment to be put on the rifle, which '. will add but two ounces to its weight, | which is fool proof in every respect ! and which makes it impossible for the ' rifle to be discharged when held higher j than a given angle. It is not rigid; i that is to say. the angle at which it permits lire is controlled at will by , adjusting the device. Accordingly it ! can be used at any range, and even for i shooting uphill or downhill. This ad j justment is the work of but a moment, | and so simple that any man who can ; learn to shoot a rifle at all can cer ; tainly learn to do this also. Colonel Fly calls his invention the ? battle control, ami he lias got out a 1 little pamphlet in its behalf, from which we borrow the diagram below. The normal cone of battle fire is as ] shown in Figure 1. The vertical dis? persion is enormous even greater i than ?ne would be led to suppose from I the bare facts already known as to the ' inaccuracy of battle fire. It was actual 1 ly demonstrated by Wolozkoi that the mean of fire - the average elevation at which the solaiers will hold their : rifles is about I degrees. For the modern ri!l* this elevation corre? sponds to a range t r some 2,200 yards. Any hostile force inside this range is comparatively safe the fire passing well ever it and beyond. The function of th" battle control is to flatten this .rone, bringing it close to the ground, , ?s in Figure 2. Every bullet in this flattened cone, has a continuous danger , tpace throughout its path'; it may not ' meet a hostile soh'.icr, but it can miss '. him only by going between him and | his neighbor, never by going over bis i head. It makes its strike on the battlc ! field, instead of a mile away. Easily But on Rifle The battle control is a simple me? chanical improvement in the lock of the rifle which absolutely prevents dis? charge if th?' rifle is held too high - which is to say, if it is held above the , angle for which, the control is set after ; the range has been determined. The I rifle simply cannot be tired until the | aim is properly lowered ami the ?trigger pul!o?l again. When this cor? rection in aim r?as been made the con It rol causes not the ?lightest diminu ; tion in tho volume of lire that can be delivered. There is no change made in the existing methods of sighting and tiring; all the control does is to pre? vent 'he shots '.'.Inch would be wasted j and force 'he rill? ?nan to lire at the j proper range. Nor does the device in iterfero with the normal use of the ?? rifle, for it can be set "on" or "off" ?at will, an?l when "off" has no func? tion?the rifle is then the normal rifle. It is riot even necessary to take , Colonel Ely's word for it that the eon ; trol is mechanically satisfactory. Me : chanical experts, civilians and military, , including the present superintendent of ; one of our greatest arms factories, hava ! passed on it and pronounced it O. K. I in this respect. So the only questions , which can be considered as at all open ' are its performance in increasing tho | effect of tire and the desirability of ? incorporating it .in the army rifle. Scientific American. Close Friend Sheds New Light On Lafcadio Hearn's Character Irish-Greek Writer Left Liter? ary Tradition as Unique as That of America's Edgar Allan Poe j By Albert Mordell THE interest in T-afcadio Hcarn is constantly being renewed. Either new facts concerning bis life or new original material by him, like the lectures on literature to his Japanese students, appear, and the pub? lic again ponders on his fascinating personality and amazing genius. Elwood Ilendrick, of Philadelphia, who passed with him the last evening Hcarn spent in America, has just shed new light on the unique literary char? acter, who, as Stcdman prophesied, has become as much a tradition as our own i'oe. Mr. Ilendrick spoke of Hearn's incomprehensible shyness, bis love of seclusion, his sensitiveness and al3o the story of Hearn's reputed love for Miss Bisland. I took thc liberty of question? ing Mr. Hendrick bluntly in regard to Hearn's alleged love for Miss Bisland, his biographer, now Mrs. Wetmore. "A recent biographer asserts that Hcarn was madly in love with Miss Bis? land and that she did not reciprocate, and that the famous love letters at the end oT thc first volume of the Life, with the addressee's namo blank, were ad? dressed to her. Is this so?" I asked. "Hearn's love for Miss Bisland was really idealistic worship. She was one or thc most beautiful girls in America at the time. They were alway-3 friendly and he dedicated a book to her many years afterward, when both were mar? ried, and he always had a picture of her in his home. I don't think he ever dreamed he could marry her." "Didn't he unconsciously put his love for her into thc story of 'Karma,' in which he speaks of an idealistic love of a man for a girl who asked him to write down all about his past life, espe? cially what he didn't want her to know? Thc story, you remember, was written in 1889, about the time he saw her often in New York." "Well, I know that he sent her the story and also that he afterward did not like thc story. But, after all, Miss Bisland is living, and the fact of Hearn's love for her is a matter that rests with her alone to give forth or to keep." ! Hearn Worked Here I In Dire Poverty As many readers are aware, Lafcadio 1 Hearn was the son of an Irish officer, ? Surgeon Major Charles Hearn, and a Greek mother, and came to America ? penniless when he was about nineteen i years old. He suffered the most horri | ble privations both in Cincinnati and ! Xcw Orleans, in both of which cities he ! did newspaper work. He travelled in i the West Indies for two years and in ; 1M?0, at the age of forty, he went to ; Japan, where he taught literature and elied in 190-1. There he married a Jap? anese woman, became a Japanese citi i zen and left four children. Contrary i to the general impression, Hearn had ? never been an American citizen, though he liveel here twenty-one years. His ; first five books, though written before he went to Japan, consisted of two ! novels in beautiful prose poetry, two ' collections of adaptations of foreign i tales, and a volume of travels in the West Indies in superb prose. About a dozen volumes on Japan were published ' later, and in recent years Captain j Mitchell McDonald, Hearn's literary ; executor, has published his lectures to Japanese students on English literature. "How did you meet Hearn?" I asked i Mr. Ilendrick. "I do not think there ta j any mention of this circumstance in the ; biegraphy." Mr. Hendrick leaned back in his 1 chair and proceeded to entertain me i with his fascinating reminiscences. "I met him through Miss Bisland in the fall of 1889, after _ he had come I back from the West Indies. ?The Effect of Society on Him "?She had been connected with 'The > Xew Orleans Times-Democrat' and was ! at this time literary editor of a month ; ly magazine. Lafcadio had worked ; with her on the same newspaper in : Xcw Orleans, and she knew well how i to describe her friend so as to arouse I the lively interest and curiosity of the : listener. She brought him with her to j luncheon one day when Mrs. Rollins ! had them to herself, and this resulted in his acceptance of an invitation to dinner on the following Saturday even ! ing, provided, as he stipulated, that i there be no strangers present. I was : living with the Rollinses then in one ; of the Spanish apartments on Central ' Park South. Mrs. Rollins was so ' thrilled by his talk during luncheon that she could not resist, the tempta 1 tion to invite'a few, just a very few, I really appreciative souls in to meet j him after dinner. This was a grave j mistake, as you will sec. Thc dinner was to begin at 0:30 o'clock, but it was j nearly 8 when the shyest little man i you ever saw came in from the ; kitchen! ? "lie had lost his way; he could not I remember the monotonously numbered j streets and avenues; he was so very | shortsighted; and the noises bewildered , him. He was clean in appearance, but ? his dress was not the conventional j evening wear for gentlemen in New ? York. He wore rather tight trousers j of a fashion of some years back of that j date 'spring bottoms' they were I called?a blue pea jacket, his linen was i immaculate, his collar was cut raPher i low and he wore a narrow, black string tic. For a bat he wore a great fawn ? colored sombrero. The man at the door of the apartment evidently had looked him over and concluded that he was not carriage company, and so bad seat, him up the back elevator. He was embarrassed at being late, embarrassed at what he feared was due to his un Igainly appearance, and thc dinner was not a success. He had neither appe ! pite nor desire to talk; indeed, he suf : fered keenly. "As soon as we left the dining room Hie invited guests began to arrive, and he took a seat in a corner of thc par? lor, his knees tight together, his arms tolded across his breast -the very pict? ure of misery and distress. So after a little while I took a seat beside him and told him in confidence that I had an engagement that evening to meet some old German corps students, but not at all pressing as to time. Since he had difficulty in finding his way about the city and I was going his di? rection, I suggested that we make thc ^??j^L??* ike**** ?journey downtown together. His re i sponso was as though some great goo' : news ha?l been brought to him. We en ' acted a little comedy then and there, i assuring him" that my time was wholl ! at his disposal and that I could easil I wait an hour longer before startini | while be insisted that he would nc : think of taking up my time and tha he was ready to go immediately Ready to go? Ho would have given a he possessed, even bis most cherishe books, to be out of that room. Mr Rollins understood, and within fi\ i minutes we were on our way dowi town. It was a lovely night, and v walked. On the corner of Twent; ; fourth Street and Sixth Avenue thei , was a none too reputable beer bous ; but the beer was good, and I lured hi : in. He was willing to conic, exec] ' for the fear of my other engagemer and as soon as I was able to set h ? mind at rest on that score he was : ease. Spiritually Reborn In a Beer Cellar "That was one of the great nigh of my life. T jlo not know whether \ drank much beer or little, for we we ' too busy talking to notice the rath unsavory people about us or what w before us. Often, indeed, have thought that on the night of the thi : Saturday in October, 1889, I was bo ? again in a beet* cellar at Twenty-four Street and Sixth Avenue. It was o ; of those nights that should never ha ; stoppe?!, but some time toward t ?witching hours we separated, resolv I to meet the following morning and cc 1 t i nue. Sometimes a young man kno I that the bell for the time of the t ' locking of the windows of his soul ringing, and I knew that night. "I guided him to the little house , Grove Street, back of the Jeffer? Market police court, where he had , noat, pleasant lodging, bade him ge night, and was there again on Sun? morning. I had a premonition that' time would not be long, and with much that I wanted to iearn, so mi opinions that I wanted to get, I \ jealous of every minute that he wo spare me. Sunday was a glorious d j and after a while in Central Pa ? where he found a beautiful skyline ? ( was overjoyed by it. he came he j with me to lunch, and all the ag< | of the dinner and surprise party night before was forgotten. And I the days passed. Often in the morn ! I would stop in on my way downte ? and rouse him out of bed; at ot : times I would find him writing, [ paper on a little Chinese tea box o ? table with his eye about two inc j from his script, and at other time j would call for him in the evening we would have dinner at a clean cheap restaurant near by. He was \ I poor, but he insisted upon paying . himself. lie had no desire to n ! people. Indeed. I should have fo myself in trouble if 1 liad brought I one along with me. "And yet one morning I asked j if he won!?! care to spend an evei I at Jay Gould's house. My sister ? Mrs. Shepard. then Helen Gould, \ ! school friends, and my sister was v I ing her. Involuntarily, he covered ' eye with his hand ami said be fe 1 there would be a great many fasb j able people there. I assured him t i would not, although it was just ! time when the newspapers were ? I commenting on the elder Gould's g wealth. ! tol'I him we should be e ?alone with the two young girl: ! whom one would be my sister, and we should spend the evening toge ; with them, alone in a nice, cosey 1 j room. 'Then I shall be very glad te said he. j An Evening ol Magic Discourse "We were ushered into a great s | brilliantly lighted, and by the w? j sat down on the edge of a chair, ' his knees together and his i folded, I knew that something ?wrong. The young ladies came in he greeted them politely, rela ?again into his sorrowful sil ? 'Girls,' I exclaimed, 'this room ?big as a church! If you want u i beaus this evening you must tal ! into some smaller place, where \ i not listen for echoes when we tal "'Oh, that would be very nice! | Lafcadio, with a sigh of relief, ; knew that I had guessed the tr? In a few minutes we were in a room, pleasantly lighted, and La' sat back in his chair, wholly a ease, an?! began : "'In the West Indies and in tr America they bave no legends of or fairies, such as Northern p? ; have. But instead they have inn ; able saints to take the place of I and there are almost as many c ? stories and legends of them as arc of fairies. Some of them, an ?beautiful and some are odd, ant are, I' think, interesting. The of ; "Why, oh why. did I make no that evening'.' They were won .stories, full of loveliness and gri sweet pity and gentle thought have forgotten them all. We ; never know them, for no on?' cist tell them with the lender sympa ! Lafcadio Hearn." "Is there anything in these t tions," I asked Mr. Hendrick, Hearn dropping his friends?" "Yes, but he did so when he t ! he bad cause. I'll admit al tin cause whs slight. But it was | while trying to make an effort ; tain his friendship. Our corre lenco at times lapsed, but 1 mi ways an effort to renew it. I t hold on to Hearn, not let him "He was the most drastic mo his day. and he |,ad, a^ Michael i hatt says of him, a hair-trigge : per. He ?,va- also far more se j than it is good for any one to i tone of ?.nice that seemed cruel , ?as enough to break up a frie A word that indicated to him ir ?would send him off on his wane j But at this point, in Yokohama, a man with the genius for frie 'one whose sturdy honor and j never slept., who was destined ?come his guardian angel thr< I his life, to defend his name a! j passing, to conserve bis works 'protect his family. This was Worked Here in Poverty Be? fore Acquiring Interna? tional Fame for Japanese Studies Mitchell MacDonaid, of the United States navy. The record of his com? panionship with Lafcadio Hearn is ? golden page in thc history of friend? ship. He knew Japan well, and v.ithin a little? while he had secured for Laf? cadio a position as teacher of English in a normal school in far away Matsu?* in Izumo. \h-rv l\p;irn found himseif, her?? was the mystery of t'tie blue and gray of old Japan revealed t<, him, and here he married bis lovely ?wile, g Samurai lady. Here he was no more undersized; here he was no more ugly-, here he was thc lord of his little es? tablishment, and all gracious and kind? ly and lovely things were done for his ' pleasure." In a letter from Japan to Hendrick ' Hearn shows that he had become more ; disillusioned and more reserved than ever. Ho wrote : "I can't feel toward men generally any longer as I used to I feel, in i short, a little misanthropic. The gen? eral facts seem to be that all realities of relations between men are of self | interest in the main; that the pleas? ures of those relations arc illusions---' dependent upon youth, power, position, ; etc.. for degree of intensity." "May I interrupt you, Mr. Hendrick." i I asked, "to inquire if in spite of all that Hearn says about Japan there is i a danger of war with her?" "There is no peril in Japan for us," . (?ame the reply, no doubt inspired by the Hearn influence, "either yellow, white or envious green, if only we ?earn to love the golden radiance of i her light. There is no people so ready, : so willing, so an:;ions to meet us in j full accord with thc Golden Rule as the j men and women of Japan." "To come back to Hearn," I con? tinued, "was he as unattractive as he ; fancied himself?" I He Was Not an ' Unattractive Man "No, he was not unattractive. He was well built, something like the la'.e Jacob Wendell, jr., the actor, save that he did not carry himself so well; he had nothing of Wendell's buoyant, 'springy step. His head was well set on his shoulders, and his hair, which, later in life became very gray, was then dark brown. He had a brown mustache somewhat lighter than his hair. He had an aeiuiline nose. ? broad, clear brow and a perfectly modelled chin and throat. He was then thirty-nine years old. In h game of tether-ball at school he had been injured in his left eye and hbd lost the sight of it. although it was not offensive in appearance. The iris remained intact, but the pupil vas somewhat irregular, so that while it was not surprising to learn that he could not see with it, I cannot under? stand how any one could have been distressed by looking at it. The right , eye protruded more than is usual and was exceedingly myopic. He had. he told me once, only about one-twen? tieth normal vision. Some dreadful fri"nd iiad once told him that he should avoid the society of -women be? cause they, with their greater tender | ness and elelicacy, would suffer dis? tress in looking at his blind eye. And I so, being one of the most sensitive of mortals, he usually spoke holding his left hand over his blind eye lest he, j offend. When some erne once asked ! Captain MacDonaid if be really was ' as uncanny in appearance as '? i de? tractors m ide him out to be. 'To inc.' 1 answered the captain, 'he was always 'beautiful.' I can say the same. His i voice was gentle and there ?vas a touch . of Irish brogue in his speech, just that little rounding out of word.--, the Celtic strain that seems to make them eom ; plete. "He was, moreover, a real. live, mas? culine man. There was nothing sissy or effeminate about him. In fact, he could anel would even tell a risque story [ There is no use of making an angel \ out of our hero. He was a man's man'' Quotations from the letters of Hearn | to Hendrick are always interesting,. j but. in one letter Hearn ?ays down the i coro of his system the idea that he i found both in Buddhism and modern ? science. Without a grasp of his no? tions on inherited memory and uncon? scious feelings, a knowleelgc or appre? ciation of Hearn is not complete. The passage follows: "The law that inherited men , becomes transmuted into intui ' tic-s or instincts is not absolute. ! Only some memories, or rather parts : of them, are so transformed. Others remain?will not. die. When you felt the charm of that tree and that lawn, ---many who would have- loved >ou i were they able to live a-^ in other days were looking through you and remembering happy things. At least 1 think it must have been - ". The different ways in which different I places and things thus make app??l : would be partly explained; the su prcme charm referring to reminis? cences reaching through the lonjP est chain of life and the i. ?<rp?---t. But no pleasure of this son ca? have so ghostly a sweetness a.- that which belongs to th? charm of an an? cestral home in which happy gencra ; tions have been. Then how much I dead love lives again, and hew many i ecstasies of the childhoods of a hundred years must, revive! We do , not all die, said the ancien? wise i man. How much of us dies is an un ; utterable mystery." The Hearn lelters to Hendrick, a* I well as those to other correspondents, iii." Captain Mitchell MacDonaid, H. E ?rehbiel, H. II. Chamberlain, Mrs. [ Elizabeth Wet more, will probably live as lemg as any other letters m Kl gii??"'? en- American literature. The master art ; ist and thinker is never absent from these personal communications. Hearn wrote to Ins friends without any sub? terfuge, hut. frankly an?! intimately. He p-Hircd forth his ideas and gave dc 1 scriptions of !,i methods of working? accounts ?>f his devotion to bis art. an?i ' reminiscences of his struggles. When I looked at the original of the letters - ;n Mr. Hendrick's horn?- on Kast rorti ' eth Street, New York, and saw the neat handwriting?the lines as they flowed '?? from Hearn's pen a sort of fetichistie ' feeling came over mo. These, then,were 1 tin- original of letters the publication of which .- rt-opt the literary world with eleep admiration. As the massive, I towering figure of Mr. Hendriek. brini ! ming with life and good nature, ben" over me, I mentally Pictured the slight stature of Hearn, .". fret :? inches, and thought of Hendrick. though e]evJ? i years younger, as of a physical guard Man of Hearn, thc rather diminutiv?? : timid writer. Hendrick was proud 0' ; having had Hearn's friendship, fur "" I shares with Captain MacDonaid the d'* j tinction of having retained it to the time of Hearn's death.