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j England's Food Blunders
[^Charted for U.S. Guidance Annoyance of Petty Privations Among the Poor lasps British Nerves?Extension of Rationing n Force with Army and Munition Workers Suggested as Solution By P. W. Wilson. Of The London Daily Netvs 1~\\[[< WEEK 1 will deal with th? question o'~ food. In the history of the world. 1 doubt if ther? ;., 3 been a more impressive spcctacl? : an the obedience of American citizen: to the shut-down order of Dr. Garfield backed, as it was. by the President, bj v;hich the entire industries of this country east of the Mississippi witl: few exceptions were laid under a com mcrcial interdict more rigid and imme diato than any ecclesiastical interdict! in the Middle Ages, in order that th? way through snow and ice and rail-jan might be cleared for food ships to b< bunkered with coal and released foi Europe. So Etiddcn was the amazinj command that, obviously, there was nc time for the government to arrange en forcement thereo/, or for powerful in tcrcsts to organize resistance. And, or the whole, the ukase was obeyed. The people, of every class and racial origin submitted. The food ships set forth and a crisis which might havo shaker to its foundations the alliance agains* Germany was averted. I bavo a wife?an American wife? snd a family in London. Last week, foi the twentieth time or more, the Ger? man aeroplanes were round and above my bouse. From personal experience 1 know what is the nerve strain on Euro? peans of this war. I know how im? portant it is that the whole population, civil as weil as military, shall have adequate sustenance with which to bear up against war weariness. I travelled over hero with a man who had lost thirty-six pounds through restricted diet. And I can assure you that your sacrifices?still continuing -will never be forgotten by the Old World, now staggering under tremendous burdens. No Favoritism !n Distribution Wherever those food ships went, one tiling is certain -there was no favorit? ism in distribution. For years there has not been a ton of consumable cargc which Great Britain has not shared .airly and gladly, with France ant Italy. Quite early in the war we har? nessed the machinery of tonnage and credit, on which our trade depends, to the task of purchasing and transport? ing supplies for others as well as our? selves. That was why we bought up the "icat exported from a great part of South America and Australia, and grain wherever it could be had. To-day there '.vould b* no shortage at all in England ?" it were not for this equitable distri? bution throughout other lands than our own. When, therefore, you in America ~o meatless, wheatless, heatless and eatlcss you are assisting your .-recial friends in France as well as ourselves ??r.d Italy. And, to an increasing cx tei t, you will be supplying your own armies. England is merely a trustee for the whole alliance a channel S'.<v transportation. Three Expeditions I'scd Up Ships Next, it cannot really be argued that .'?our allies are now in need through hick of foresight. It is true enough 'r,nt at the beginning of the war Mr. Churchill, in his enthusiasm for the ?'4j:avy, wasted a good ?leal of mercan? til?^ tonnage and overbuilt dread? noughts. It is al.o true that the three ?istant expeditionary forces in Meso? potamia, Palestine and Sal?nica are very expensive in shipping. But while ?he deadly work of the submarine against battleships was recognised be ;ore the war by Sir Percy Scott, one (,r our admirals, it was not believed 'hat Germany would bring in the whole "or!?! against herself by using torpe noc'i against merchantmen on the high se?M. That was the only miscalcula? tion which has to be confessed, an?! it 'vas merely an underestimate of Ger? many's criminal folly, which has in every direction exceeded human imagi? nation of the possible. For the rest, you should remember that one main object of the Dardanelles attempt was lo open the strait for Russian food "?dps and so equalize the Russian ex? change. Over Constantinople or. as 't then was called, Byzantium Sparta "ul Athens fought thousands of years a8o, and for this same reason which 'o-day concerns us namely, that the hoyporus commanded the Russian ?'heat fields. This also is the motive "?'ich makes Germany so anxious to conclude peace with whatever the Bol ?heviki bave left of the Ukraine. And, speaking broadly, what America has to :?ce\ with the rest of us, is, first, a ?hort harvest throughout the world; a?d, secondly, a harvest not wholly availablo for free transportation. Wheat in Chicago And in Australia N'ot only is Russin cut oil", but in a Measure s0 is Australia, whore mill 0i"J of tons of food of many kinds are :n the call of the Allies when ships can be found to traverse so Ion?? a r?ute. In fact, a bushel of wheat in Chicago is worth five times a bushel ?f wheat in New Zealand, because ;ts shipment occupies tonnage for only one-fifth the time on voyage. That is *?y your voluntary privations are so \Ua| for the success of the war. You a(,e so much nearer than others to the a'?a where food is most needed. N?Xt, let mo say a -0rd about the imitation of other cargo than food. ';? Plan for you seems to be that non war cargoes, on non-hazardous zone: of travel, must bo carried in neutra vessels only, so releasing all America! 3 tonnage, amounting to a million, fo: ' troops and supplies. Apparently tha measure will reeluce the affected com merco by 50 per cent. In passing, may remark that it is rather a fallac; ' to say that live million tons of ship [ ping are needed to convoy one millioi men to a port three thousand mile: i distant. If the soldiers were all em barked on the same day that would hi . true, but tiie shipping woulel be re t leased again when they were simul taneously disembarked. Hut this is no , what happens. The million men'ar . proceeding on their mission at so man: , a week or month. Assuming that i . ?moss at the number were possible, .should not hazard it, but if we call i . ' X, then tho tonnage continuously em , ployed would be only 5X for each em j barkation. As the transportation o 11 the original force was completed s ( would tonnage be released for draft i to make good casualties and for re i newal of supplies. I make this point i ? passing because it arises out of imnc - diate discussions nt Washington, whic! i : greatly interest, more than one conti - nent. i : Shipping Cut Nearly in Half But?to resume my main argument? i we have, for years, submitted to dra.% I tic limitationn of cargo. A cuttin; J down to one-half of any import i , generous. You are lucky if you ge ! that half. Let me mention the pape trade, on which my own profession o journalist depends. I am not fa wrong when I say that on any give Sunday the leading journals in Nc\ York use as much wood pulp on a con of each issue as would furnish a iil of my own paper, "The Daily News, for a whole year. Literary, financia artistic, theatrical and sporting criti ; cism is simply stamped out. And ad . vertisers fight for bare inches. Paper ? which furnished ten or twelve page ? now give four or an occasional six I this at double the price. And the air nowadays is not to build up circulo tions, but to keep them down. 1 met; tien this in order to show you ho foreign trade is slowly but surely bein entrated on war purposes. I ha a book published recently, both in you country and in England. My Lon lo ; publisher tells me that the third cd lion will cost him 12 pence a pottn for paper instead of four pence pound, whic!; was the price during th earlier period of the war. Armies and Workers Are Still Well Fed Next, let me make it clear that, wha ; ever privations be suffered, by othei ample food is provided for men ser ing in the armies. Never in the hi lory ?>f the three nations aff.ecti chiefly has manhood been better nou ?shed and clothed. Even sons of wc to-do parents put on weight und I training, and home rations of the arr ? in England, even though now reduce j arc as large ss field rations of oth armies abroad. Indeed, it is a cynie reflection on our idea?; of civilizati i that in Europe we only realized t . importance of providing necessaries life i'or the poor when the poor we needed, not for production, but for < struction, of human wealth. Soldic j thus fed on meat every day for the ?i time in their lives will never retu after the war to a slice of bre scraped with a liainmy knife. The tru is that feir some time the armies act alls- wasted food. Rations, when s portioned, wer? thrown away as rr bish if left uneaten, and it has tak the military mind some time to lea that in this, if in no previous war, and the civilian?as General Pcrshi recognizes?stand in together. All : sources must be carefully conserv' because nM resources equally ass toward victory. State Helps Out Munition Workers Next, the munition workers arc gi\ ample food. Here again, for the fi time, the state has come in and co pelled employers to provide for wl you have called "welfare" In their f, tories. All the methods of physi culture, entertainment and meal p viding which Lord Leverhulme . ranges at his soap works in Port Si light, near Liverpool, or Mr. Cadbt has developed at Bourncville, m Birmingham; are now spread throughout British industry. V.'h men and girls work long shifts, < and night, they must have substanl rations, and, on the whole, they them. This means that the shortage f? on what is left of the population, i therefore falls with the greater scv ity. The professional classes, clerks, the miner?, the railway m shipbuilders, and so on, who are provided with special canteens, inspc eel by the government, have to scr? ble for food surpluses, after oth have eaten their fill. I have been asi why we do not close down all brewi I agree that we ought to do so. A n in England is now actually tin prosecution because he refuse's to > his barley at 60%d a quarter to brewers, "for human consumption," i prefers to feed it to pigs, which, bacon, have, in his opinion, the su > distine! ion. But to give us our duc 1 wc bave stopp?e! distilling consumabl i spirits and we have; reduced beer ' r one-third. 1 Perhaps I may here remark withou - impropriety that in America also th I ' President, with all his power and in fluenco, is not "prohibiting by ukase - , flic sole of litjuor, but is leaving th i Federal amendment in Congress to !> ; ratified in the usual way by the states ?Mr. Wilson is, 1 suppose, in touch wi ! ? | labor leaders like Mr. Gompers, whes I opinion may not bo dissimilar fron ! labor views on our side, which are tha .(total prohibition might involve a ris! i i o? discontent. Still, I notice that, on? ! English brewery, at least, has beet prosecuted for overuse of sugar, an? it is certainly bard that the childrei should go without their "sweets" be cause the father must have his ha! pint. ?Sugar was Their Firsl Difficulty Hero began our difficulties. Sugai was the only food for which we de pended to some extent on Germany With sugar, therefore, wc commenc?e rationing, and in December the cart system was fully in force. Within th? ration?it 5s about twelve ounces i week per head, if I remember aright? you can get what you want, but th? price is 5:!4d and Od a pound, instcac of half that amount before the war Marmalade has risen from 5d to 12d while currants, raisins and Sultanas are not to be had. Before the war or inges were eight to twenty-four for tilt shilling. They now stand at three foi a shilling. A banana used to cost one cent. The price is now 5 to 6 cents Eggs were Is 6d to 2s a dozen. Thej are now 4s to ?s a dor.en, and this is largely due to the? enormous demand: of the military hospitals. Moreover dairy produce from Denmark is not se j easy to obtain as it. used to be. Milk ; has risen from 4d a quart to Sd a quarl 'and no glasses of milk, hot or cold, arc ? now served in popular restaurants ?Cream is forbidden except to certified ! invalids and specified children. Cana | -lian and English cheeses have, rough ? ly, doubl?e! in price. Rice, which cost under ?! cents a pound before, the var, has risen to 12 cents. Vou used to get : twelve boxes of matches for 7 cents. m v Vou now pay 2 cents apiece, and recollection is that even at thai not many of the matches strike. Cost of Living More Than Double In fact, if the cost of living before the war is put at 100, that cost hael risen to 1ST by the beginning of 1917, and it is now -00, or more than double. Wages have also risen- on which I will say a word in a moment ?but for people of fixed incomes these figures mean, in themselves, a great restriction in food. . I. sometimes put it that wc are up to ; American prices, without American in? comes, which is true, except that our prices are, I think, higher. liaising wages was, after all, only a ] palliative. It meant inflating cur? rency. It meant promoting expend? ; tures. It meant still higher prices, ?? working against wages in a vicious circle. In cheap restaurants people were limited to Is 3d for a heavy meal like dinner, or Gd for a light meal like 1 tea. This latter meant, merely a slice or two of bread and butter, cut thin, or I one small piece of cake. | And here I must confess that 1 have little patience with American gcntlc ? men of anude means who visit London i on important business, stay at the Ritz and Savoy and then return, declaring that they could get all the foo?l they wanted. Money, if there ?s plenty available, will always help the favored few who can spend it; but whaj mat? ters in Britain are the million-- of average folk, flow do they get on? In the autumn of 1!>17 queues began to be noticed at first for rugar, then for tea, then for margerine, which sudden? ly ran short. People stood for hours in hope of a small purchase. The phenomenon was everywhere. The grocer would sometimes insist that other purchases be made with the re? quired article, but this form of black? mail was ultimately stopped by gov? ernment regulation. The trouble with tea was an official underestimate of tonnage required. The voyage from the Far East is a long one, and the au? thorities cut it too fine. Butter bad long since failed, except for the w -althy, and at Christmas the marge? rine factories had not got fully to work. Hence that type of famine. But the climax came with meat. Farmers Must Have Their Price Farmers are, I am sure, patriotic, nut they like to get their price. In war time they are always bound to make plenty of money. The wholesale figure for beef was fixed at 75 shillings a hundredweight for the civilian pop? ulation and 58 shillings for tho army, which, of course, commandeers at its ; own figure. Even allowing for higher cost of feeding stuffs, this seemed a! good r?mun?ration, especially as the number of cattle in the country was well maintained. But the farmers un? doubtedly held back their stock from \ sale. On a certain Friday in January. l'J!7. there were 1,313 tons of meat brought into Smithfield Market, Lon? don, This January ?he supply fell to | t ? 8?7 tons, and next week only roso to ?-1,050 tons. The result was that tens 3 j of thousands of? families went without 1 , meat over the week end. Babbits rose 'to. ;><i lid an animal, or even 4s, which j is six times the pre-war price, and "pathetic incident? abounded. One of ! these I will give as reported: A DESPERATE WOMAN A farm laborer's wife, charged at i Athcrstone yesterday with stealing a i piece of beef from a stall in the mar r *ket, pleaded that she had seven chil . dren, who had had nothing to cat for . several days but dry bread. She waited I in a queue, and was then refused. In 1 a fit of desperation, as her children ? were starving, sho picked up the meat i j and informed the police of what she - had elonc. %The bench held that there ! was n>> felonious intent, and acquitted I ' 'he woman. Date, January 15, LOIS. The position will doubtless be reg? ularized by all round rations, and at Gravcscnd, near London, an interesting .scheme is to ration meat by value, 2s del per week for each adnll and Is 3d ; per week for each child between three ' years and thirteen years of age. This would work out at 1'?.: pounds a week i for adults and half that quantity per ; child. "Meat'' would not,, I imagine, include bacon. In the meantime the ' King sent- stocks of cat tie and birds 1 to whip up the market at Slough, near Windsor, and other people, like the Duke of Marlborough, did the same in their own district -. There are prosecutions of all kinds. ? Mario Corelli was ?fined, I thin!; AT>0, ! for hoarding, and she has, I under? stand, appealed against the sentence. Retail store men are constantly pun? ched ft r selling above scheduled prices, bul Hi" real remedy is importa? tion and ploughing the land. There arc a million allotments now in I-mg ' land and Wale ? Everybody who can : is nut ashamed to dig. The ''.foil, has much relieved the vegetable demand, ', potatoes particularly, and we arc be? ing urged to cultivate another 500,000 allotments this spring. Soldiers Help in Raising I'ood Sparc idols near cities are being handled in this way. With the help , of soldiers Devonshire has put under cultivation no less an area than 125,000 acres. T'te troops who helped were 1.700 in number, of whom 900 pro? fessed to know about horses, while 800 were a purely miscellaneous lot .jewellers, furniture polishers, clerks, bakers, anything! anil the result is most remarkable. But even with S00, 000 acres of new arable land cultivated in Ireland wo shall be very short of tiie three million acres which we need >?;' fresh ploughed soil if we are to fee'1, ourselves. Under these eireum .-lances we mill flour up to a far [higher percentage than formerly and our bread is less white. Indeed, a ! proportion of petatees and other in? gredients is now included, with dis? astrous results f'.tr the sensitive in? terior until you become used l o the .diet. Pure bread is "nly supplied under strictly scrutinizcel tloctors' orders. Yet with every such care we .-hall need large cargoes of grain this year, and this means ships. Mr. Lambert, one ? f our front bench men, who scrvod for years at the Admiralty and speaks the inner mind of Lord Fisher, has slated that in 1917 the submarines sank three Hnd a half times more I British tonnage than we were aide to I replace. That, if ?ruc, ns I fen'- it. ? must, be, is a serious fact on which to I reflect. Alight Well Adopt Rationing Now A more complete scheme ?>;' rationing probably ii.'s ahead of us, and I am by . no means certain that it woubl not be well for you to avoid our shifts and . ?utilices by frankly adopting food ra . linns here and now, as you adopted ) selective military service. The or? ganizing genius o?' America, when it has an objective, stands second to none, and this problem of food, if taken in time, might be? solved with much less hard? ship than may ultimately fail on the people if it be allowed, ns it were, to j s'>lve itself by stages. He that as it : may, there are in the BritisH* press ' abundant evidences that anxiety over ? food i.s telling on public opinion. The fact that women went em deputation to Downing Street may not be much in il ' self, but the unrest among workers in Lancashire and the Clyele cannot be en ! tircly ignored. Petty Privations . Foment Discontent ' As far as I ran judge at this distance, ; ??. genuine desire to realize a world? wide brotherhood of labor and so tc get even with capital is fortified, as it were, by discontent over petty priva? tions. If to-day Germany were herseli amply supplied with every luxury ol the dinner table the position would be ; serious indeed. It i?? no real cure foi it to have mea: less and wheatless ane porkless days at ?east, that has been our experience for in the end the i thing averages itself out, and what yot save on one item you lose on anothei | equally essential. No, the proper anr: : adequate course is to let people eat ? when they like, what they like, but not i more than so much per week. With large dependence, as in New York, or restaurants, it is undoubtedly hard te arrange, hi our case, when things are worst at the butchers' and bakers "shops," people flock to cafes and eat ing houses. But :<vtch rationing is the only way, at any rate, for countries a? hard pressed as Britain. Happily, Ger? many and Austria-Hungary, though riot starving, are still worse <?fT cighteer months worse off, ?ban the Allies. It the race I verily believe that we are well ahead. God grant that oui mu: c?es do nut fail us! __ .-_-.-__._- _ Paris Hospital for American Officers Turned Over to Army Former Art Students' Club, Since Out? break of War, Under French Red Cross, Fitted to Accommodate Sixty Patients By Arthur S. Draper PARIS, Jan. 10.?Even before an American soldier saw a first line trencli the American Red Cross had patients to handle. Grippe, pneu? monia, bronchitis, appendicitis am even the mumps claimed victims a! moat, as soon as the first Americar transport began to unload. Thong! the sick rale among the Americar forces has been gratifyingly low, then are always a number of officers am men who fall victim.; to the change ir climate. Bcs:dcs these there is boutu to be a certain proportion of acciden cases. In modern warfare the army medica authorities travel with, not behind, th? flghtlig forces. Their job is not onl; to handle the wounded but ta see th? men go into action in the pink of con clition. A "seedy" soldier is little bet ter than none at ail; a soldier with ? slight attack of bronchitis may be abb to fake his piace in a trench, but be i not 100 per cent, efficient. And Gen era! Pershing wants his men h"i pe cent efficient. The wive?, mothers and sisters bac in New York, Chicago, San Francisce Galvcston and the thousand and on towns ami hamlets who have hus bands, sons and brothers over her need have little worry about the meo ieal attention they receive in ease o illness or accident. Whether lie is i the ranks or an officer, the husbant son or brother fa ?is into good hand the moment he becomes ill or injure?: No Danger of Medical Breakdown There are many hospitals ror Amei ?can soldiers in France, and the num Her will increase as the expeditionar; army grows. There ?^ no danger of medical breakdown, because the Ame; ?can Red Cross i- always a little i advance of the army. The army is new machine; the Red Cross has ha a lot of experience already in this wa: If is doing tilings in a big way: it ha enlisted men of big business, men wit imagina! ion and men with streng! and determination. At 't Rue de Chevrousc is America Red Cross Military Hospital No. ivhich lias been turned over to th American army by Mrs. Whitela Reid. It is intended exclusively f? the use of American officers. Rofoi the war it was the American Art Sti dents' Club. Soon after the outbrea ? f the ?war Mrs, Reid placed ?t at th disposal of the French Red Cros Early last Poccmbor. after being r? rlecorated and refitted, it was open? is an American officers' hospital. is now run under military rules ar regulations, but i:. has all the con forts of a private house. The building ?s a stone's throw fro he Jardin du Luxembourg. On tl ?ight as one enters is a huge receptie ?ooni, ami on the left the officers' di n'? hall. Tito head nurse and h. :welvc assistants and the matron ha' heir ofices and living rooms in tl ight wing, tin the first floor abo? be entrance Is a spacious officei ounge, containing a pianola, phon rraph, card t;:bles and magazines. Til room is far enough removed to prove my noise re/ching the patients in t vard and private rooms. To the !( s the office of the commanding offic? "optain Mant?n, and his assistai "aptain Carstons. The former is t ?irgeon of the hospital, and the ?at', he medical man. "reedom of Garden \nd Solarium Connecting the right and left wir s a glass inclosed passage, win ?erves as a sun parlor when the win! s too cold to permit the patients ?njoy sitting in the garden which jveriooks. This garden is one of t lelightful features of the hospit light here it should be mentioned tl ;very effort is made to have the m vho are convalescing feel that th ?an enjoy the same freedom and p ?acy they would have if they were heir own homes. In the sun par) ind garden are places for them to re vitkout fear of interruption by th 'ellow patients or the hospital ? horities. in the left wihg is a large, w tocked library, which has already ?oine very popular. Of necessity, it me of the quietest rooms in the h? uta!, as it overlooks the large v.a ontaining twenty beds. The ward ? brmerly the auditorium of the ; I Students' Club. Now its tapestried I walls arc covered with white. The only ? touch of color comes from the blue covers at the foot of each bed. There is another short passage leading to the private room?!, some of which contain ! two beds and the others onr-. As most. of the rooms were formerly the artists' studios, they arc unusually bright and cheery. Close'by aro the operating room, the : sterilizing room and the elispensary. ; The operating room is equipped with everything a surgeon could ask for, and : the natural lighting ?eaves nothing to be desired. As ihe hospital is intended to serve as a home for the convalescent officers the kitchen and the cool: aro higblj important parts of the establishment The food is as good as there is in tin 1 mark?t, and the dishes arc made as tempting as a clover French chef cai make them. Bathrooms with showers are hand to a'l the rooms. Any one who ha .-?peni part of the fourth war win'c in Paris can appreciate what a luxur; it is to have a ho?, bath at any f,im land a. warm room in which to sit. Tl.i hospital will be sure of plenty of bo 'water and heat this winter, becaur its coal bins are full. Within a short time an elevator f taking stretcher cases to 'the secor. ;!oor will be in op?rai ion. Great difl culty has been experienced in gettiii an elevator and finally it wa ; four ? necessary to have one brought ov< 'from London. The army authority ; have supplied the hospitaf with an an bulancc and an automobile. Can Accommodate Sixty Patients Sixty patients can be? accommodate comfortably, but in an emergency would be possible to take as many , eighty. Besides the house staff"?.! consulting and visiting staff ;nc!u?i Major Joseph Blake, T'C. Alexand Lambert. Dr. Briggs, Dr. Hutchinso Dr. Powers and Dr. Worcester, all wc known in American medical circles. Thougn intended primarily for Ame ican army officer.--, the hospital is op< ? to the American Cd! Cross and Y. ! C. A. workers. (?encrai Bradley ami Colonel Wint have visited the hospital and express* their complete satisfaction with i equipment and arrangement. The officer patients call it the Si Club, and Captain Carstons i?* authc ?ty for the statement that it is seid? any one desires to terminale his me bership. But. no club could offer qui I the attractions of this hospital 1 cause the womanly touch is nppare ii. every room. It, has all the order ness of a hospital, but the indivi, alily of a private house, and no s dier could ask for more thr.n II; When the war ?3 over a good ma Americans will have pleasant memor of the days they spent at Ameri< Bed Cross .Military Hospital .\o. 3 Americans in Lorraine Because France Need Help Most, Says Expe [Staff Correspondence] WASHINGTON, Feb. 8. A m il it expert discussing the reason why Lorraine sector baa been sclccte 1 the present at least, for the Ameri front in Europe, said: "That is peculiarly the French ; of the line, and the French most w cd our troops. The sector littei best, too, with ?dans for supplying American forces without confu? The British part of the line prot the jioints vital to Britain, Engla protection and convenience wor happily together. "To have started out on the f closest to the English would meant interference with the Br supply because it would have ca such a concentration on the Cha coast as would amount to conges So, naturally, another coast of Er was selected for the United S transport service. This left the ish unmolested in their defence o; positions they are most sensitive a "To have chosen a more central iion for the American army would meant interference with the Frene tensive system. The French arn so disposed as to constitute the defence of Paris. It can be said both the British and the French f are anchored to defensive posit Of course, offensives are talked ot the consideration of foremost coi in both armies is the defence. "The easiest part of the fron which to conduct an offensive i: British, because they would ad' against defences which have been stmcted only since the war began. French and Americans are up as the old German line '<?cv wach Rhine'- -which the Germans have fortifying ever since the war of and for whose better defence stri railway systems have been constr by Germany. "Therefore, the British have tin opportunity of conducting a suee offensive, as Hie advance throug] gium and into Germany can be easily effected from the British than any other." Rumanian Monarchy Curbed By Threats of Bolsheviki L?nine Bent on Forcing Abdication Of Ferdinand?Takes Country s Help in War Merely as Pact Between Rulers, Not Peoples By D. M. I-lermalin Tho Bolshevik government of Rus? sia is threatening the King of Rumania and tho Rumanian government with all sorts of dire punishment. This action is tho culmination of a feud betweep tho new Russian revo? lutionary government and the ?Id Ru- '? i manian conservative monarchy. In order adcejuately to understand the situation we must look back into Rumanian affairs previous to the sign? ing of tho declaration of war against Austria-Hungary by King Ferdinand. A3 soon as the great world war broke out Rumanian statesmen- understood i that their country would have to par j ticipate in it, but they could not make j up their mfhds which sido they would j have to take. Old King Was Prussian At that juncture? old King Charles von Honenzo?ern, ruler of Rumania, was still alive. He was true to the traditions of his family that a Hohen ::o!l?'rn. right or wrong, would always have to stand with the Prussian dynasty. It was he who induced his adopted country to conclude a treaty with the Central Powers, promising aid whenever such would be demanded. It was King Charles who never stopped telling the Rumanian people that were j it not for the grace of Germany Ru 1 mania would long since have been an ; nihilated. King Charles was respon? sible for keeping alive Rumanian 1 hatred against Russia for the latter's ' betrayal of Rumania after the Russo Turkish war of 1877. t Rumania could not forget the time when she sent her armies to fight Rus- i ! sia's battles and as a reward Russia annexed the fertile Rumanian province Bessarabia. All this tended to keep Rumania as an ally of the Teutonic powers, or, at least, to keep her neutral. In the midst of all those great even's King Charles died, and his nephew, Ferdinand, ascended the throne. The Queen Takes a Hand Ferdinand had never shown any brilliancy, either as a statesman or as a soldier, lie was known rather as n man of vacillating character. His wife, however, Queen Mary, a former English princess, bed manifested at different occasions considerable strength of mind, and when the great war came she had shown a fearless attitude toward the Central Powers. When she became Queen she under? took to sway the King to her side, and i! did not take her long before she ?ucceeded in her efforts. Incidentally, two strong war parties arose in Rumania. One advocated joining with the Central Powers in order to recover Bessarabia and its one million Rumanian inhabitants, and ; i'm1 other advocated joining with the Entente Powers in order to recover Transylvania and its three million Ru? manians. For .-;ome time it seemed questionable as to with whom Ru? mania would side in this war. Then something unexpected occurre?! which'? served as the deciding factor. Germany's Point of View We all remember that Germany in the beginning of the war did every- ? thing possible to court favor with her ? Social Democrats and other liberal- ' minded Germans. On different occa- . sions sbe declared that her -nain aim in this war was to crush ' zarism an?! thus bring about the liberation of many enslaved peoples and nations. Just then a Yiddish newspaper in New York City made an inquiry of Count von Bernstorff as to the inten? tion of Germany in reference to the Jewish question in Europe. PI elicited the reply that if Germany is the victor the Jews wiil have lo be emancipat.eei everywhere. This was in? tended as a blow against Russia, a*, a flattery to the Social Democrats and as a patting on the- back of Jewish finan? ciers. We may : t?te as a fact that Ger? many did not intend then to pick a quarrel with Rumania. The Rumanian press, however, reprinted the e?<:cur rer.ee and commented on it extensively. The Rumanian Bojars, inveterate ene? mies of Jews and reforms, became ver.; much incensed and openly expressed their fear that if Russian autocracy is vanquished. Rumania, as well as Rus? sia, will have to emancipate her Jews. They considered it a great catastrophe. Bulgars Bet on Both Sides Just then Bulgaria was negotiating with both war factions and ultimately joined the Central Powers. One condi? tion vas that, if victorious, her e?M 'Historical borders be restored to her. This natural!;.- included Dobrudja, which was held by Rumania. If Germany had any advocates left in Rumania the entrance of Bulgaria on her side silenced them, and the con? sensus in Rumania was that she would have to light alongside of conservative Russia in order to preserve her own institutions. The press of a country usually mir? rors a nation's frame of mind. Tha press of Rumania at that critical mo? ment made very little mention of freo England, of republican France or of" liberal lta!y. All tho rejoicing was be? cause Rumania would tight alongside of the Czar'.s troop*?/. Since then many things have taken place. More than half of Rumania w,i ? conquered and occupied by the Ger? mans, but the greatest event whs the fall of Czarisrn and Russia's becoming a *ree country, with very pronounced principles of liberty Russia Forces Concessions Russian revolutionists communicate?! with Rumanian revolutionary elements, and several outbreaks totii place. King Ferdinand's government! suppressed a!! uprisings. However, the Rumanian parliament was forced ?to enfranchise more than two million Bsmanian peas? ants, and pror.ojrad them a division of land after the termination of the war. The Rumanian government was even rorce?! to promise the emancipation of her Jewish subjects. Still, tin's did not stop tho revolu? tionary movement and frequent upris? ings. Russian revolutionists simplv demanded that the Rumanian monarchy be done away with and a republic re? sembling that of Russia be established. King Ferdinand and the Bojars have therefore eieci?!ed to side with the con? servative factions of Russia, hoping that this might at least save the Ru? manian monarchy for the future. The Bolshevik government, on the other hand, is . eriously engaged in re? moving not. only King Ferdinand, but also all who helped maintain tha old regime in Rumania. Premier L?nine is so far bent on his purpose that he decided to either com? pel the abdication of King Ferdinand ar remove him by incarcerating him in the Peter and Paul Fortress, where others of the old regime are pining away. The fact that King Ferdinand's gov? ernment saw fit to explain matters and even disavow certain accusations proves the seriousness of the situation for Rumania. Earthquakes F. H. IL L Aie earthquakes of great frequency? -. What causes earth? quakes ? 1. Y/es. it- has been calculated that there occur about 30,000 earthquakes within a year, or H.700 hours, hence, iii.it there are on the average three and one-half earthquakes in an hour. . Fortunately, not all earthquakes are of a violen! nature, like that of A. D. 526, that killed from 120,000 to '200,000 per ? in the region of the Mediterra? nean, or that of 1693, to which 60,000 persons fell victims in Sicily, or of i ?sbon in 1755, am! those that devas? tated Chile, Peru and Japan. Of great frequency are the minor earthquarkes. In fact, our so-called firm earth can be said to be in a state of perpetual agi-; tation. Our senses do not perceive the slight disturbances, 'but tin? seismo? graph, a very delicate and inc'enious apparatus devised to keep track of j them, furnishes all the information de nied to us by our natural insensibility. They often furnish us too much of it m ' ie c: cess of their /en!, recording sometimes as seismic phenomena vi brations that later proved to have been due t" Lo' ringing of church bells. ;.'. ?'ne cause is the shrinkage of '.he earth'., crust from cooling. This process < xort?, n powerful sKfevis'"* pressure? on certain rock strata, and at irregular intervals one stratum -lips a little over the other. Another causes is the sudden conversion of water into steam in or near volcanic districts. An explosion of greater or less vio? lence is thus produced, and the conse quent tremor is transmitted for many miles through tie rocks. Snakes I'. ,'!'. Why do pe!s?>n-' suffering from delirium tremens usually imagine > that they arc surrounded by snakes? An explanation of this hallucination is offered by the result of French ex? periments a few years ago. ?Sixteen alcoholic patients were examined with the ophthalmoscope, and it w-as found that the minute blood vessels in the retina of ?he eyes were congested. In ti?.., condition they appear black, and arc projected into the field of vision, where their movements' cesemblc the. squirming of serpent."". Gold Bonds S. P. (1) If 1 were to buy ? United States gold bond at the presen?, time, ' wouid I have te? pay for it with gold, or would th.> government accept any United States money for same? (2)1 Has this government ever issued any bond of any description th-y (ho pur-' ?: v had to pay for with gob! coin or ?old <?rt.; cate - only? | ;-; ) What United States money that is issued ? tl r >rese> : time, or heretofore ?s ? ? d, v oui?! I ? refused by this govern ; >nl in payment for a Cnitcd ."--Lates 1' An?, money. (2) Yes. ?.3) None, i Literary Psuedonymes W. G. Can you give nie t!>e real names of the following writers: ?1i Mme. Adam, (2) Miss M. B. Braddon, ? :'?.? "The Duchess," (4), Conan Doyle, ? ."? ? Marie Core'!?. G) Marquise de Fon tenoy, (7) Gyp, (8) Anatole Franco. ?' ) I Juliette Lambert, (2) Mrs. John Maxwell, (3) Mrs. Hungerford, (4) Sir Arthur ('. Doyle, (5) Eva Mary Maekay, (6) Margaret Cunliffe-Owcn, . 7 < Coun? tess Helen de Martel. (8) Anatole Thi? bault. Latin Countries O. F.?Why is tho word "Latin" ap? plied to South America;! countries? Latin is the language of ancient Rome, the language originally spoken in Latium, a.? ? <J afterward extended over all the integral parts of the ?loman Em? pire in Europe. The countries of South America are inhabited by races ethni cally and linguistically related to the ancient Romans en- Italians; hence they are called Latin countries. Christian Era Inquirer. -When, where ami by whom was the Christian era inaugurated? ?he Christian era was introduced in Italy in the sixth century by Dyouisius the Li* tie. a Roman abbot, and began to boused in Gaul in the eighth, though it was not followed in that country till a century later. In England it vas in use before the close of the eighth cen? tury. Income Tax M. A. D. I am a woman earning a salary of $20 n week and may lose my position and earn nothing for the rest of the. year. Am 1 obliged to pay an income tax ? If married, no. If : :ngle, vou will have to pay a tax on $40; e. g., 80 cents a year. Parliament of Women ?Women in parliament, as we aro going to ?have now in the United States, are by tio means new. The Roman Km peror Heliogabalus (218-222) even hael a ?Senate nude up entirely of women. It consisted of his mother, Svoemia.who acted as the presiding oilicer, an?) a number of distinguished Roman '?dies. To b<! sure, thou- authority ?as confined to tho decision ef questions referring only to female' dress, calls, etiquette, entertainment, and the like. But also in England women formerly sat in Par? lament. In the Witenagemot (the na? tional council? of the Anglo-Saxons women wore regular members. Thus. in the great council of ''?'??' women of high rank and Bbbesses participated, and tho decisions are, among others, signed by five female representatives. But even in the time of Henry III and Edward ! abb? " 11 occupied their seats in ;" English Parliament, and only a- lata und? r Edward HI the custom seems to lave been abandone?!, as the countesses entitled to -eats in the House of Lords we ?- then a ked to send male representatives.