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PAKT V KIGHT PAGES SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 10, 1918 PART V EIGHT PAGES The Week Wl; have learned that our failure to sec beyond the ends of our noses has prolonged this ghastly war and postponed that day when mankind shall be released from its terrors. _Senator Wadsworth, before the Senate. THE big news of the week is war anticipate the growing demand for a news. Shipping is particularly war council with something of his own prominent, together with the construction. Two more arraignments of announcement of the existence Secretary Baker, however, interrupt the of an American sector in President's nrnnress lYance and the reply of the Supreme War Council to the German and Austrian ? peace notes. Slips, Ships, Ships /-UlPl'lNC? '> the centre of interest this 5 week. The transport Tuscania is sunk off Ireland by a submarine, with the loss of about 100 men from more than 2,100 American soldiers and a large crew. Mostly "Wisconsin and Michigan contin? gents were an board. Tins calamity, happily less-serious than at first appeared, caps an optimistic sum? mary of the U-boat's, toll since February 1,1917. In that time some 6,500,000 toas of shipping have been sunk, approx? imately half British. Last July England had 15,000,000 tons of shipping afloat, and since then has probably produced as many ships as were sunk. The United States lost 171,000 tons, and expects to build from :"!.000,000 to 0.000.000 tons in 1918. While the January shipping losses are the lowest of any month yet recorded, in the last week a large number of grim re? minders appear. With England on ra? tions, 300,000,000 bushels of wheat lie useless in Australia. The British Ad? miralty asserts that the U-boat is being held, but a^ain calls for more ships. The Unite?! States plans to halve its imports. An American shipbuilder says that this country's limit is 3,000,000 of new ton? nage in 1018. Henry Ford turns to mul? tiplying U-boat, chasers. At the same time another Argentine vessel is torpedoed, while Spain sends a strong protest to Germany for the samo reason. A British waTship is sunk, with the loss of 22 1 In es. The War Council Race ODDLY enough, shipping is also the centre of the "War Cabinet situa? tion at Washington this week. This un? expected turn appears after two other openings bail appar v \ i j / / ently been found in Mr. Baker success? fully parrie i these thrusts, however, while '.he President shows signs of intending to In one Senator ?Hitchcock renews the I agitation for a war council ministry of munitions, framing the "breakdown" on the present system rather than on Secre? tary Bitker and the President. Senator W'adsworth then shows by diagram how .Mr. Baker is overloaded with responsibil? ity. As a result Secretary Baker's fig? ures ion shipping troops to France are seriously questioned and Mr. Baker again! , goes upon the stand in his own defence; At this point the President personally ; attacks the shipping problem. Secretary | i Baker, testifying, meanwhile demurs ! against telling in open session the basis of his hope of landing 1.500,000 troops in ; France this year. He indicates, however, : that the Allies will help, and that Amcri ! can troops may train in England and | ! fight in Flanders with the British. The game of give and take progresses ; with lightning rapidity. Even while Mr ' Baker is being cross-examined the Presi ' dent asks blanket powers from Congress to reorganize and coordinate all Federal departments, bureaus, agencies, officials and personnel. This sweeping request may be viewed in the light of the past. ! At this writing one wonders whether 3Ir. Wilson, with the reputation of a mastei at disarming his critics by incorporating and capitalizing their thunder, has not countered with a broader constructive programme than that being urged upon . him. The A mer ?can Sector HP HE week on the battle fronts is ?*? heavy with significance for Ameri? cans. What has been suspected since No ? vember .13, when Ger tfek. mans first captured lttgm American troops, is offi I~^_*nE\ t.'n i ted ?states troops are J>C|?|fS8p'^ 'I oui and near the Phine The work of American artillery in shell? ing German trenches and supporting in? fantry under attack received high praise. In several minor actions a score of casual? ties resulted. Otherwise the fronts record only aerial activity, and trench raids, particularly in the West, where the German blow is con? juren tly awaited. Hindenburg is quoted ?as saying that he will be in Paris by April. Fickle Weather r^ APRICIOUS weaibr--- flirts with the ^?^ Eastern coal and transportation situation this week. After a '?-rtcipitate wo-day cold snap of almost unprece lented severity, the worst railroad tie-up n history is followed by melting weather. The welcome relief, as sudden as was the cold, linds New York's coal bins at ;heir lowest. Reports that fuelless Mon? days will be rescinded are quickly dis ?redited. To Give Back or to Keep ? V?7"HEN the government took over the '* railroads late in 1917. railroad owners were perturbed by a clause in the governing aet which left the roads under ?~??????a??_?iiMl?i?M__??__? government control until Congress should order otherwise by specific legislation. Two bills to settle that question imme? diately appear in Congress this week. The Senate bill would return the roads eigh? teen months after the end of the war. the House bill two years after. At this juncture Warren ti. Lee, presi? dent of the Broihei'hood of Trainmen, be? fore the Railroad Wage Commission charged that the managements of the na? tion's railway systems are deliberately ?perating their roads inefficiently in order ,o discredit the eight-hour law and to nake a failure of government control. Labor Articulate R. LEE'S charges, which naturally evoke astonishment and wrath, may ic read in the light of other developments, tailroad men this week make clear their lemands for an average increase of 40 )er cent in wages. Difficulty is being ex lerienecd with riveters working on Amei - can shipping. The President himself ;akes a hand in the problem of housing abor for shipyards. In this connection one may also recall die heckling last month of Premier Lloyd jeorgc by British workers, and the speech )f President Wilson before labor at Buf? falo last fall. The recent statement of Charles M. Schwab that workingmen are going to rule the world of the future is still echoing. Divided Russia HP HE Bolsheviki largely spend the week -*- mending fences at home, but ac? counts differ as to the results at? tained. On one hand the Bolshevik tide ap? parently is going out rapidly. The Bolsheviki lose Kishinev, an anti Bolshevik congress is called to meet at Mos? cow, the Finnish ?'white guard" is re? ported triumphing over the "red guard." and Ensign Krylenko is r-ei/.ed by Polish troops. But an equal mass of evidence seems to indicate the continued success of the Bol? sheviki. Odessa and Orenburg succumb to the Bolsheviki, Trotzky goes to Hel singfors to aid the revolt in Finland, and the Bolshevik Soviet separates the Rus? sian church from the state, seizing all church property. Perhaps the most significant event ol the week in Russia, however, is Trotzky's declaration that Mr. Wilson's peace for? mula, while "academically" attempting tc meet the Bolshevik programme, wouk really result similarly to German dipl?m acy. Otherwise, he says, England an? America would have participated in th? Brest-Litovsk negotiations. The Paris Reply YtHIENEVER the Allies have a seriou *' pronouncement to make they jour ney tu Paris. This week the Supreme Wa Council answers tn German and Austria peace notes, finding i them "'no real npprox imation of the moder ate conditions lai? down by the Allies governments." T h ? United States ?s no represented, but Washington dispatche hint that America does not feel commit te? to the reply. It is reported thai a higi American official will, lor political reasons attend similar conferences in the future This, "war to the end" reply meets ap proval in the United States, stirs up dis? sent in England, and is viewed in Gei many as are about all Allied replies. M Internal Germany I^WO events give the key to dcvclop ? ments of the past week in Germany, in which the strike and threat of rcvolu . tion vanish before the \ \.. / mailed fist. One of ^P^ll?. these is the sentencing /jd-f? ^hfT_y^ ' Socialist Deputy !rllo^?iv!- 'n P'''son ^or ?nc'1-''n? 'A J l ./ strike. The other is cvi .V' *' dence showing that Count Czernin's recent reply to President Wilson was crudely distorted by the Aus? trian censor, making it falsely appear that Austria was ready to defend Germany's possession of Belgium rather than Ger? many's "pre-war" possessions. Yet there are other straws in the wind. Dr. Wekerle, Hungarian Premier, reiter? ates Hungary's sincere readiness for peace. it is reporte! that strikers threw a bomb at the Imperial Palace in Berlin last week. With negotiations at Brest-Litovsk at an uncertain stage, von K?hlmann returns to the conference, stiil hoping for a separate peace with the Ukraine. .Meanwhile, an? other weighty conference of German chiefs is held in Berlin. The Agile Mr. McAdoo VI r ITII the first sign of warm weather *' to aid the transportation situa? tion, Mr. McAdoo, like the first bird of spring, begins feathering the nest of the . third Liberty Loan. This will be done by raising three billion dollars in aci vance by the sale of certificates of in? debtedness under a plan looking to sys? tematic investment by every bank in these short-time securities. Mr. Hoover Pulls npHE world appreciably tightened its -*? belt in the past week, and no on" more actively assisted in that act than Food Administrator t Hoover. Wit h equal fed Belgium cuts the. bre_d ration in Ameri? can hotels and rcstati, rants to two ounces per meal: extends bakers' hotels, restaurants and clubs which do their own baking; sets gross profits on white flour at a maxi mum of one cent per pound; prohibits speculation in coffee on the New York Coffee and ?Sugar Exchange n:\d is in? vited to eat whale meat by the American Museuni of Natural History. Meantime food conditions abroad con? tinue very critical, even a member of the House of Commons being fined ?_,000 " and $170 costs for food hoarding. Aus 1 i ' tria is now dependent upon Hungary and ! Rumania for grain, it is reported, while c Holland abolishes ."> o'clock tea. Hoover's intention to put America m s meal rations in no wise quenches the ardor of Francis ?!. Heney's pursuit of 1 the packers, who seek to halt his search '? of their vaults by citing the espionage lave. '? At the same time it is hinted that the i- forthcoming report of the Senate Com - mittee on Manufactures will substantially - indorse the food adminishation, but not . the fuel administration. u TO BE A "WAR WITHOUT HATRE INHERE appears to be a slight dif? ference of opinion down in Washington ovrr this interest? ing and important phase of warf,i re. It has seemed to be the verd ? tory that hatred shall ko hand-in hand v ith war. But a new phi-1 bsophy was I up by President Wilson when In- declared "war without hatred" on Germany. in c is pulling it to the test. And lb?' process of testing brings out evi? dence on b ?' ;i - vies. For example, last week was made, public s new? bulletin of the Four-Minute Men, Published by the Committee on Public In? formation. The bulletin contained it - Swflctions to 2G,0U0 government speakers afldemphasized the importance of refrain to&from all indulgence in hymns of hate. In Part tliis document, which may be '^cd upon as an official Administration Utterance, reads as follows: natrcd, many ?say, is an emotion necessary iPf war. The soldier, they say, cannot fight ""/?i he hates. i l-et them ask the soldier; let. them talk tho veteran who has priven and received *?onds, and they will find that the greater ." rr''l is amont: civilians. Passivity make.-; ?*an emotion of hatred; a busy man think-, ??l'y of his job. Furthermore, the charac Wiitic of pood fighters is that they are 'good Port?. They know tho other men are or? la to light as they are ordered, and the *t aoldierg are often those mea who thor '?Wly respect their foe. Hatred has hern stirred up in civilian battt^011 1U ori'''r to ^neourace enlistment, i blanks to the draft, this debasing feature wari\ not necessary in order to secure and ??taln our army. - ?car, perhaps, is rather an important ole ?*M to ho bred in the civilian population. onl'H iffefcnt to unite a people by talking Ur 011 '''' "'K^est ethical plane. To fight tin 1 UUii]" PCTnaPs? mt>?t hp coupled with ?nn i ?f M?lf P"?ervation. So a truthful tho? ,n. tho fear of mcn? the recognition of ???** ? thi"g? that would happen if the lk_?? *ovornment were permitted to retain *lli?T^!?CC' may he nccc'ssary i" order that 9MM UnitC '" thc BU-"P?H of the needed WU4i.Wh0lhcr the aPP?al hr% to hatred or to w, tho fundamental o? all is that it be based on truth. Preparing ourselves to pour out the life blood of the nation on behalf of ideals, we must not besmirch these ideals by the vulgar methods to which the war lords for centuries have resorted. "Furthermore, as a matter of practical wis? dom we want abiding truth, for it make'? abiding conviction. Emotions may wave and surge. They are readily stirred by some story, some incident about some individual soldier. Frightful resolves thus are easily inspired. "But lcl. the next man come with a better -lory, let a superior orator appear a few days , later, and there is a reaction. The emotion subsides or even turns the other way. "On the other hand, feelings built on bo? lt t- f. beliefs that are founded on profound convictions, and convictions dug deep into the rock of fundamental fact these are not swayed and stirred like waves in a storm. Xol an appeal to emotionalism, but an appeal tu the emotions through conviction by state? ment of facts, secures true ?'ouverts, converts who when once convinced remain convinced.'' G "^ol. 1 Iarvey Says America's First Duty Is to Kill Germans But now for the other side, l-'or hatred has champions. One of its champions is Colonel George Harvey, editor of "The North American Review," who has estab? lished headquarters at Washington for thc purpose of editing a war weekly in addi? tion to the magazine. Colonel Harvey be? lieves that America's first duty is to kill Germans. "We are fighting," he says, "to protect our homes from a beast who knows no mercy, a beast whose lust is destruc? tion." And this beast, he contends, ?Iocs not stand symbol alone for the German government. It represents the whole Ger? man people. "You cannot." he points out, "separate the bite of the mad dog from his blood." But the article, which appears in the February number of "The North. American Review," is worth quoting more fully: "For three years ami a half Europe lias been drenched in blood. For three years and a half the manhood of Europe youth in the glery of its gallantry, in the splendor of its promise-has been fed to the furnace of war. Europe is a temple of sorrow, and Rachel mourns for her children because they arc not. "Soon, all too soon. France, hitherto the playground of the Western world, will bn sacred soil to Americans. There our dead will rest. Rude wooden crosses will dot thc The Committee on Public Information Galls Hatred "Debasing," but Colonel Harvey Says It's No Time for Rhetoric, Since the Foe Is "a Beast Whose Lust Is Destruction" shell scarred battlefields, each simple cross marking the grave of an American soldier who (.lied m France in defence of the Amer? ica he loved and those dear to him. America has yet to suffer her spiritual agony, but she cannot, be spared. She, like Europe must toil painfully the weary road to Calvary. "lias not the time come for America to take stock, to ask itself if it knows the meaning oi this war, to face facts instead of feed? ing on illusion? Millions of men have been slaughtered, more millions have gone forth in the pride of then' strength to come back broken. Shall America swell the ever mounting toll, giving and yet giving the youth on whom its future centres, or shall thc guiding hand of America lead the world to peace? "Rhetoric is a spiritual stimulant, and like i's grosser counterpart often valuable when a sudden hurst of moral or physical energy is required, but alter the effect wears off there conies reaction, exaltation gives way lo depression, reality takes the place of imagination and truth is grim. It is un? fortunate that the American people entered this war with two alluring rhetorical phrases i inging in their ears?unfortunate because, it has obscured the real meaning of the war and diminished its importance to them. o Make War for the Defence of a Political System Is Indefensible T "We were told that we went to war to make the world safe for democracy. If this were all there is of it, clearly in the long catalogue of immoral and wanton wars that blacken the page of history there would be no war more immoral or more wanton than this. Wo believe in democracy; \vc know its blessings; in the streng?h of our conviction we see that through democracy the world marches to progress; but if we should try by force of arms to make peoples embrace democracy who are wedded to autocracy, morally we should be as guilty as Louis XVI. who slew his thousands in the name of the gentle Christ who taught charity ami love. It is what every bigot and zealot has don?. Believing ' with sincerity that there was only one way to gain salvation, that every other way led lo eternal damnai ion. with clear conscience and the frenzy ?if the fanatic he consigned, t?i the rack and tho stake the misguided, because better for them death or torture than torment without end. Our boasted civ? ilization is back in the Middle Ages if in : this enlightened day we are willing to make war to spread the political system of which we approve. "But, as we have said over ami over again, what we aro fighting for is not to make the world safe for democracy but to make the world safe for us. Forced into war by Germany, who violated our rights as ruth? lessly as she did those of Belgium, we are fighting a war of self-defence. We are to? day in peril. To avert that perit we have taken up arms. We are fighting to defend cur wives and children from the defiling hand of thc German. We are fighting to protect ? ur homes from a beast who knows no mercy, a beast whose lust is destruction; we are fighting to preserve the institutions we love, ' the liberty we cherish, the freedom dear to us. We are fighting in France because it is there we can strike the enemy, but if we are defeated in France we shall be conquered in America: no longer shall we he freemen hut the sieves of the most merciless and brutal taskmaster the world has known. Our danger is great, and only our courage and our determination can avert it. ' Nor is it true, rhetoric again to the con? trary, that we are lighting not the German people but. only the German Empire and the German government, and for the German people we have no feeling of hate. You can ; no more separate the German government from the German people than you can sepa? rate the bite of the mad dog from his blood. The wickedness and infamy of the German ', people are in their blood; it is the corrup? tion and poison of their blood that have made the German people not a small class i or a caste, not their rulers alone, but the . whole pcople--a nation of savages. Nor is it true that the Prussian alone is guilty. The brutality of the Prussian cannot be ex? ceeded, for that were impossible, by Bavarian or Saxon, but in the refinement of their . cruelty, their beastliness, their inhumanity, between North and South German there is ' little choice. Must Think in Terms of German Dead, Killed by American Rifles" "With this premise established our duty lies clear before us. "Our duty is to kill Germans. To thc kill- ' ing of Germans we must bend all our ener? gies. We must think in terms of German dead, killed by rifles, in American hands, by bombs thrown by American youths, by shells fired by American gunners. The more Ger? mans we kill, the fewer American graves there will be in Fiance; thc more Germans w* kill, the less danger to our wives and daughters; the more Germans we kill, the sooner we shall welcome homo our gallant lads. Nothing else now counts. There is no thought other than this, no activity apart from the duty forced upon us by Germany.: The most highly civilized nations are united as they never were before, actuated by ?he same impulse. In England, France and Italy, among the English speaking peoples of the new world, under the Southern Cross and : ?,p the torrid plains, they, like us. see their duty clear. It is, we repeat, to kill Germans. "We have no apologies to make, no ex? cuses to offer, no regret for having un? clothed the masquerade of rhetoric and put ! thc case in stark and naked words. Doubt? less we shall offend the overnice sensibilities of those well meaning but unbalanced per- ! sons who waste their sympathies over the sufferings of the lobster as his complexion turnj from dirty blue into delicate pink while they are unmoved by the knowledge of the misery and distress of the poor and un? fortunate. We hope so. We are endeavor? ing to arouse the millions of easy going, complacent Americans, unctuously flattering themselves they are good Christians because they feel no hate, to whom the war has as yet no meaning, to a realization of what this war means, not only to them but also to 'heir men; that it is the lives of their men against the lives of Germans. "We do not know how ninny Germans we have yet to kill, whether it is 500,000 or .3.000,000, but we do know that when the necessary number has been killed, when the German people lose heart and rebel against being led to the slaughter, this war will r?n!; but. that is the only way it will end. Wo may play at war and pay the cos? in the toll of blood, or we can make war with courage, resolution and intelligence., and oui reward shall be fewer oi" those pathetic crosses on the wayside of France. "Recognizing thc braverv of our all'es and in all history there has been nothing more superb than the heroism of that 'con? temptible little British army' fighting with bare hands against the onrushing German legions armed with machine guns and heavy artillery, who day after day were forced back and fiercely contested every foot with never a thought of surrender, and then at last turned and defeated the enemy; or the French lighting and feinting until they were in position to stop Kluck and save Paris from the barbarian; or the Italians inch l?y inch scaling the snow-capped mountains; or the Russians mowed down by thousands, stolidly waiting to take -from the dead a rifle, in the end to be betrayed by their leaders?knowing what they have suffered, the sacrifices they have made, the misery they have endured; knowing, what we have yet to know in this country, the devotion ot their women, who have offered their lives and sacrificed their health and abandoned their comfort as generously as their mer.. we are forced to ask ourselves, in view oi' this will to win among the peoples of thc Allied nations, and the resolution with which that will has made itself felt, why is it that the war has not yet been won. and why alter three and a half years of sanguinary warfare no decision has been reached. N o Nearer Victory than in the First Month of Hostilities "Crumps" On Page Three "tor now with half of the fourth year of combat spent not only have thc Allies not won, but. surveying the great theatre of war as a whole, we are no nearer victory than we were in the first month of hostili? ties; and, what is more disheartening, tier many is to-day the victor. Unwelcome as ir is to be forced to make that admission, we should be guilty of the same crass folly against which we have warned our read? ers were we to blink the truth and find comfort in the delusion of fatuous opti? mism. At the beginning of the new year Ger? many is stronger than she was twelve months earlier. Then, encircled by her ene ' mies, she was fighting on two fronts; to-day the ring is broken and only one front has to be defended. Russia has ceased to be a menace to Germany, and the vast Russian grain supplies will flow into Germany as soon as her-engineers put the railways in service, Germany has conquered Belgium and North? ern France; she has her foot firmly plant? ed on Italian soil; she has destroyed Serbia end Rumania; she has reduced Austria and Bulgaria and Turkey to the status of vas? sal states. Against this we (we link our? selves with the men who have braved ?lan? ger while America has stood id!?', because i while we have not yet fought, in spirit we are their brothers in arms) have ivrestcd from Germany lier colonies, great spaces on the man. but which she would gladly ac riiiee for the gain of that little ;i?|? of Belgian coast she ho!?!., -?? tenaciously; an?! we occupy Jerusalem. Th? success of thc Palestine campaign, Mr. Lloyd George told the House of Commons a few day :i;n, .would have a permanent effect <?n thc his? tory of the world. We are willing i?> be? lieve this, but that will not win thc war. Fhe war ^ ill ;??' won in France and Flanders; ?t is only when '.'"?? Germans arc driven out of France and their hold on ?: :;.;?:i broken that Germany will be defeated and compel!? d to accept th ? terms we shall im pose. Everything else mcrelj sideshow. ''The v.ai ought to have bee:- won by Ger? many before the close of the year 1914. Whib Franca was hastily organizing ami England was recruiting, Germany, organized as nc nation has ever been, reci lited to the last man, swept forward. Those first moi.i:--? were the crucial period of the wj<.r. lia?i the Fren ii wavered or the Eng:ish fal? tered, h3d the Germans possessed i little ?greater military _k-:i <?? a trifle .nor? resolu ? tion? ;o evenly <ii?i fate poise thc scale Germai y would have won. She did not. U?~ able to win then, she ? innol win now; nui she has not yet been defeated. Can we wiuT "When we speak of winning the war we <!o not mean a stalemate peace. We can Lave peace to-morrow av. the basis ?>f the map of August 1, 1914-, but that would b<% no real peace, it would b?- simply a tempo lary truce; it would be a breathing - pell to enable the exhausted belligerents '.?i re? cuperate and feverishly prepare for a re? newal of hostilities on an even greater scale; and ... reality it would be :> German vic? tory. Peace, a perdurable peace, will come enly when the fangs of the mud beast of Europe have been drawn, when the military pou ?-.- of Germany is broken; when the German people ;<:e under '.h0 harrow, sweat? ing to pay the indemnity that is the price of their crime, in their poverty and -suffer? ing made to realize the uffering they have ' Irought to the world."