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TISED IN THE TRIBUNE
en. we have' reached our quot a1?Secretary McA3oo
Vol. LXXVJII No. 26,091
The Tribune? As?Vn]
First to Last-the Tmth: News ? Editorials - Advertisements
TUESDAY, APRIL 23, 1918
Fair to-day and to-morrow; fresh
Full He-port on Pas? 9
*?* * m
TtrnrwK^1** Greater New York and | THREE CKS'Sli
TnoiB5Thiwlthh| commutln? distanc?e | XIm-where
It Would Put U. S. on
Level of Enemies, Says
Not Push Measure
Agitation in Senate Expect?
ed to Speed Up Prosecu?
tion of Seditionists
By C. W. Gilbert
WASHINGTON, April 22.?The Presi?
dent to-day pave the death blow to the
Chamberlain court martini bill, provid?
ing for the trial and punishment of
?spies by military authorities. He did
so by writing to Senator Overman,
chairman of the Judiciary Committee,
that he was "unalterably opposed" to
the measure as inconsistent with
/unerican institutions. His letter fol
"Thank you for your letter of yes?
terday. I am heartily obliged to you
for consulting me about the court
martial bill, as perhaps I may call it
for short. I am wholly and unalter?
ably opposed to such legislation and
rery much value the opportunity you
?jive me to say so. I think it is not
only unconstitutional, but that in
tharacter it would put us nearly upon
the level of the very people we are
fighting and affecting to despise. Jt
would be altogether inconsistent
with the spirit and practice of Amer?
ica, and in view of recent legisla?
tion, the espionage bill, the sabotage
bill and the woman spy bill. I think
it unnecessary and uncalled for.
"1 take the liberty, my dear Sena?
tor, of expressing myself in this em?
phatic way because my feeling is
very deep about the matter, as I
gather your own is.
Tt is admirable the way you have
?been handling these important billa,
and I thank you with all my heart
for standing by the bill which bears
' your name without any compromise
of any kind.
"It gives me the greatest satisfac?
tion to tell how much I have appre?
ciated what you have been doing."
Will Kill Measure
This bill had its origin in the gen?
eral discontent felt among military
tad naval officers charged with obtain?
ing information regarding enemy
activities in this country over the in?
effectiveness of the prosecution of per?
sons suspected of espionage under
civil laws and by the agents of the
Department of Justice. The heads of
the army and navy intelligence bureaus
both appeared before the S?nate Mili?
tary Affairs Committee in behalf of
tne proposal. The bill, moreover, ob?
tained part of its inspiration within
the Department of Justice itself. Mr.
Warren, one of the Assistant Attor?
neys General, had written a brief
pointing out the difficulties of proceed?
ing against spies before our civil
eourts. This brief reached Senator
(-hamber'ain's hands an! led to Mr.
Warten being asked to draft a court
?artial bill. For his brief and for
drifting the bill Mr. Warren was
forced out of the Department of Jus?
In view of the President's opposi?
tion it was said to-day that there
would be no effort to press-, the bill. It
?* predicted, however, that the intro?
duction of the biii and the circum?
stances attending it will ?stimulate the
^epartrnen: of Justice te. greater ef?
forts against persons charged with
espionage. Just as the war cabinet and
munitit>n bills were followed by a great
??organization of the war machine, so
,|? expected the court martial bill
?111 speed up the prosecutions of Ger
Bill Will Pass
t.T",e reference of the President to
tarn ?Overman bill shows the confidence
Aa?:? v'':'n r<i?ard to that measure,
fi j .J? wofidence appears to be justi
?*<1. The bill evidently will pasB on ?
inurs?iay aru] probably unamended in!
?oy Msential particular. The plan to ;
?uostitute the war cabinet bill for it i
* dead. \0 one wishes to raise the \
??sue ?gainst the President. The rea- ?
?on ?H that the advocates of the war ?
cabine? bill and the munitions bill were,1
???irou? only of obtaining a more ef
?lent organization for carrying on the !
"**? They believe that their main I
Purpoxe? have been accomplished by !
'!"*.wangen which the President has!
"?de ?n this war machine. They look
if** *?a appointment of Mr. Baruch
??A**?. W? ln?lu?trifcK Board a? in ef
?? the creation of a minister of mu
??iions. And they are impressed favor
Ex W1.th th(i "ay Mr. Baruch has
undertaker? his tank.
A war cabinet they feel is Jacking,!
?* .meeting of the various war ad
?????trator? not, in their opinion,1
P*?* adequate to the planning and !
??Biuct of the war. Th;? conference;
tiwA nori- ?' dsatiag house of war ac
jffut* inst-tad ot a directing agency. |
'Re rr-cri above all of a planning board
?i some kind |? certain to be felt, but
??????tat? are willing to trust the Presi?
dent u> work out a real war executive !
?>m**!f.? They are impressed by the |
Purpo??? ?hown in the Baruch appoint-j
B*-8*? tot Schwab appoint?rent and the j
?Prompt step? taken to reorganize the!
Aircraft Production Board. While that ?
purf'OKe :? manifest there wii! not be!
W* fligStamt disposition to force the!
Tp*i6*nt'n hand, The war cabinet bill I
? dea-1. th? Overman bill, because it
*r*?t th* President authority to carry j
?*r*?rd his reorganizations, will pa??\
??th little rea! opposition, considering
*n? storm which aros? when it was
The fight over th-e Overman hill
iMPuge 4, CoMmn 2.
Richthofen, Foe's Best
Hier, Killed; Rival
Pays Him Tribute
(Copyright by International Film Service.)
By One Who Fought Him
(Tribuno Cable Service)
LONDON, April 22.
Captain Baron von Richtofen, who
was killed on the Somme battlefield
yesterday, was the finest airman the
world had ever seen. I fought sev?
eral battles with him and I have rea?
son to know that he was not only a
Rood fighter but that he was the best
sportsman on the German side. He
had the reputation of never killing
an etremy when he had him cold.
From a military point of view, I
am glad he is gone, but he was a
good sportsman. After driving his
opponent down, he often landed be?
side him, helped him from,his ma?
chine, and saw that he was comfort?
Richtofen'a shooting was not as
good as might have been expected
from a man of his reputation?at
least I tHougnt his shooting was not
very good?but what he lacked in
shooting, he made up in judgment.
His judgment was amazing. He
seemed to divine the enemy's next
Richthofen was such a big man
that his death is bound to make an
enormous difference in the German
air service. He was far above the
other German airmen, whom he in?
spired and held together. They are I
bound to hold back a bit now that
he is gone.
To my mind, by killing Richthofen, |
it is not too much to say that we !
have blotted out the greatest obstacle j
to Allied supremacy in the air. It
has been said that he was credited I
with all the victories of his circus, |
but I think he personally accounted j
?for the total number of opponents ?
to his credit.
Richthofen buried with full mili?
tary honors?On Page 3.
Barred From L and
Ward & Gow Issue Sweep?
ing Order at Request of
Mrs. O. C. Field
German language newspapers and |
magazines were barred yesterday from
all elevated and subway station news
stands in Greater New York and all '?
other newsstands owned by Ward & j
Gow, the largest distributers of news
papers in the city. The order, which j
was issued by Charles E. Atkirrson, j
manager, becomes effective at once.
Mr. Atkinson swept the enemy alien
language? press from the stalls of his
firm at the solicitation of Mrs. Oliver
Cromwell Field, of 601 West 110th
Street, member of the American De?
fence Society, who recently assumed
leadership in the campaign to suppress
German papers in this city.
Mrs. Field called ?t the Ward & Gow
office yesterday afternoon. She pointed
out that there were no papers pub?
lished in English in Germany and that
if any attempt were made to do so the
paper would be quickly suppressed.
"We are not displaying any German
papera on our stands now," said Mr.
Atkinson. "We carry them, but we
have not displayed chem for several
Order Promptly Written
"That-is not enough," said Mrs. Field.
"You should not sell them at all. I
should like to leave this ofTicc with the
assurance you will bar them from your
stands in the future. I should like to
tell that to other distributers.
"All right, you may," said Mr. Atkin?
son. Whereupon he wrote out the order
instructing all Ward & ^?ow agent? to
reject German language dailies and
periodical?. -, ,, , , ,,
Mr?. Field made an attempt to call
on Mayor Hylan yesterday to enlist hi?
aid in the light on the German press,
but the Mayor was not able to ?eo
her. She wa? advised to write him a
lattot n-ijuewting hi? cooperation. She
?aid ?he also would write to Colonel
Theodore Koosevelt. During the day
?h? received many letter? from patri
,otic organization? offering he!r> i" the
fight. Mr?. Helen Whitman Whitney,
president of the Professional Woman?
Uague, offered the aitU-f her organiza
1 Will Not Kill'
Business Manager Testifies
"Censor" Approved Mrs.
Used Fact to Help
Eastman Declares He Nowj
Believes This Is War
Mrs. J. Sergeant Cram, in promoting
an organization known as the World
Patriots last summer, published in the
1 June issue of "The Masses" a full-page
advertisement urging people to sign a
pledge, "I will not kill nor help kill
| my fellow men," and when the adver
j tisement was taken to Washington and
I submitted to George* Creel, chairman
of the Committee on Public Informa?
tion, he offered no objection to it.
'Merrill Rogers, business manager of
"The Masses," who, with Max Eastman,
Floyd Dell and Arthur Young, is on
trial on a charge of conspiring to ob?
struct enlistment and recruiting, so
testified yesterday before Federal
Judge Augustus C. Hand. He declared
that after the advertisement had gone
to press, Mrs. Cram had become "ex?
ercised" as to whether it might be
considered seditious. Thereupon, he
testified, he hurried to Washington to
obtain Mr. Creel's opinion.
Quotes Creel to News Company
Creel's opinion not being ad?
verse, the advertisement was allowed
to go through, and subsequently, ac?
cording to Mr. Rogers, Creel's fail?
ure to protest was used as an argu
j ment to the Interboro News Company,
406 West Forty-fifth 6treet, to promote
the circulation of later issues of "The
In a letter, dated June 1, last year,
v/hich was introduced as evidence by
Assistant District Attorney Earl
Barnes, Rogers urged the Interboro
News Company to put. the July issue
on the newsstands, and he added:
"I can easily imagine that you might
be worried regarding the matter it
contains in these hectic times. But I
can assure you that we have gone over
the whole matter pretty carefully with
George Creel, the head of the censor?
ship board at Washington,' %nd are
taking no chances. There wasn't a
word raised an-ainst the June issue and,
if anything, we were more frank in
our utterances there than we are in
this current issue. I hope sincerely
that you can cooperate with mo and
give me an ?, opportunity to take ad?
vantage of this special psychology."
Tells of Visit to Creel
Morris Hillquit, counsel for the de- i
fence, asked Rogers how it was he !
came to consult Creel.
"Well," replied Rogers, "we were
carrying a full-page advertisement for
Mrs. Cram of the World's Patriots in j
our June issue, and after the copy had i
gone to type and was locked in the j
forms Mrs. Cram became very much
exercised about some of the language I
in her advertisement, as to whether it ?
might not be interpreted as being trea- ;
sonable, and she urged me to go to j
Washington and bring it to the atten- '
tion of Mr. Creel, who was then called
the censor. Creel looked it over and i
said that while he thought the adver?
tisement was foolish he did not regard
it as objectionable."
Mrs. Cram's advertisement, was dated !
April 11, 1917, about two months before !
the conscription law went into effect. !
The pledge, "I will not kill nor help !
kill my fellow men," appeared at the
bottom of the advertisement as a l
coupon to bo detached, signed and seht j
to 32 Union Square. Rogers did not i
testify as to whether Creel road all the j
advertisement, which was headed "Per- i
petual Peace or Perpetual Battle."
Excerpts From the Ad
Outlining the beliefs held by the
members of the World's Patriots, the
They believe that bo lonpr as people are
willing* to kill their fellow men there can
be no end of war. That, to kill one person
even in order to save another is wron??
and that no Rood has ever resulted from
the u??e of violence.
They consider American Runs more of a
menace to our lives and liberties than those
of any foreign enemy ; for these ??uns, by
their presence, are an invitation that may
create an enemy. ?
Also, these same ??uns may any day be
turned on those who are endeavoring to
resist injustice? in their daily occupa?
tions. . .
They believe, as it has been proved by
the world tragedy bctosb the sea, that war
cannot conquer war. nor can militarism be
conquered by more militarism, and the real
issue is permanent liberty or permanent
bondage, perpetual peace or perpetual
They deny the privilege of parents to
visit their ?ins on their children and to
mortgage the minds, bodies and souls of
coming venerations for the empty title of
"National Honor." . . .
Men und women, will you sinn a pledge
in the name of humanity not U, kill and
help in killinir any human beings?
Help to conquer war with peace.
Hillquit elicited from Rogers repeat?
ed assertions that the magazine's op?
position to conscription was published j
before conscription became a law, and
that no attempt was ever made to cir?
culate the publication with a view of
inducing men not to enlist or to evade
His War Views Changed
That his views on the war hnd un?
dergone a change since last summer
was asserted by Eastman in his con?
cluding testimony. An article pub?
lished in the magazine last summer, in
which he said: "We do not stand up
when the national anthem is played,
wa? brought to hi? attention.
"My opinions have changed since I
wrote that," ?aid Eastmnn. "I be'ieye
now that .this war i? a war for liberty
and freedom, which I did not believe
HaigPrepares to Meet New Blow;
Americans Lost 200, Enemy 400;
Allies Open Attack in Balkans
"- ?--?_:_ *,
In Toul Fight
General Reports to Baker
That Foe's Losses Were
Heavier Than His
To Shatter Line
Resistance of Our Troops
WASHINGTON, April 22. ? General
Perehing's first report on the German
assault upon the American and French
forces in the Toul sector Saturday is
understood to indicate that the Amer?
icans sustained more than 200 casual?
ties and to estimate the German losses
at between 300 and 400.
-It was learned to-night that the re?
port had been received, but War De?
partment officials refused to make it
public or to comment upon persistent
reports about the department concern?
ing its contents. Secretary Baker is
understood to be awa?uiig more details
before making an announcement,
though he probably will lay the infor?
mation received before the House Mil?
itary Committee when he appears to?
morrow to tell of his trip abroad.
?io Official U. S. Report
The Germans claim to have captured
183 Americans and to have killed and
wounded many more, and so far there
has been no official American answer
to the claim.
This situation may result in a re?
vival of consideration at the War De?
partment of the proposal that a daily
statement be issued from the head?
quarters of the American expeditionary
The explanation heretofore given for
the refusal to accede to the proposals
was that American troops are part and
are cooperating with larger French and
British units, and that an independent
American communiqu? would neces?
sarily duplicate British and French
Enemy Leaves 300 Dead
Reports coming in to-day relative
to the fight in the Toul ?sector show j
that the losses sustained were no j
larger than what could reasonably be
expected from such an engagement,
which was the mpst severe of any in
which American troops have taken part.
The losses of the enemy, on the other
hand, were much greater than he had
anticipated, as is evidenced by more
than 300 dead Germans in the Ameri?
can trenches and in No Man's Land.
His losses in wounded are unoknown,
as disabled men were dragged back to i
the German trenches.
An American officer to-day brought j
in a new German revolver. It is a j
rapid-fircr, resembling a miniature ma- j
chine gun, and made its first appear- j
anee against the Americans.
Not far from the scene of the Amer- j
?can first big fight against the enemy I
is the village "where Joan of Arc was j
born. From the hill where the market
girl saw the vision which called her
to the defence of France one can now
see fine young Americans marching
toward the front. They are cheered
by the French, who remain in their |
homes, despite the roar of the German
guns, confident in their defenders.
Outnumbered, but ?
Fought to a Finish \
[liy Tim Associated Pre-iB]
WITH THE AMERICAN ARMY IN
FRANCE, April 22.?"Our troops were
overwhelmed by a superiority of num?
bers, but fought to a finish."
This was the official characterization ?
by a field commander of the American |
troops, who successfully repulsed an
enemy onslaught in the Toul sector, in
this report to headquarters.
Details of the engagement, which
the correspondent pieced together
from interviews with Officers and men
Continued on next page, Column 6
NOW THAT WE ARE OVER THAT HILL WE CAN MAKE TIME
U. S. Charters
Of Norse Ships
Sailing Vessels Will Be
Put Into Non-Hazard?
WASHINGTON, April 22.?The Ship?
ping Board has chartered 400,000 tons !
of Norwegian sailing ships. They will
be put into non-hazardous trades,
principally with South America, re?
leasing ships for war trades.
The sailing vessels will supplant
about one-third as much steam ton?
nage, the difference being due to
slower speed. Some of the chartered
ships are as large as 5,000 tons ca?
pacity and all of them are of steel.
The chartered ships will be permit?
ted to fulfil* existing contracts, most
of which expire soon, after which they !
will be directed in their trade accord- j
ing to war needs. Control by the ?
Shipping Board will resuit in lower
rates to shippers and more cifective
handling of the snips through the
abandonment of the "tramp" method
of obtaining cargoes. Most of the
vessels are in the Atlantic, rut a few
in the Pacific will be permitted to
remain there for trade with Australia
and the Orient.
The addition of the Norwegian sail?
ing ships is one of the most substan?
tial increases which the American
controlled merchant fleet has received. ?
Previously all available steamers fly- j
ing the Norwegian, Swedish, Dutch and
Danish flags had been chartered. While j
control of the vessels has been j
prompted by war needs, it was indi?
cated that to as great an extent as
possible they will be permitted to I
tarry the ordinary merchandise of
peace times, no that economic unset
tlement will be minimized.
Germans to Abandon
Their Massed Attacks
LONDON, April 23.?The enormous
losses inflicted by the British have
caused General LudendoHf to change |
his tactics, and he has ordered that !
no more massed attacks be made by i
the Germans. The correspondent of \
"The Daily Mail" at British Headquar?
ters in France reports that General Lu
dendorlf, in an order dated March 30,
"The idea of forcing success by the
employment of masses must be abol?
ished absolutely. It only leads to ?un?
necessary losses. The efTettive use of
weapons, not of numbjp***, gives the de?
Ireland to Stop
Work To-day as
Railroads and Tramways To
Be Tied Up; Action Taken
by Trades Unions
DUBLIN, April 22. ? Following the
decision of the Trades Congress here
on Saturday, various trades unions have
met and have generally accepted the
decision and have determined to ab-ei
stain from all work to-morrow as a
protest against conscription and as evi?
dence of their purpose to resist it.
Dublin householders were this morn?
ing told by bakers and milkmen that
there would be no deliveries to-mor?
row. Tramway and transport workers'
organizations have decided to stop
work, as well as engineers, carpenters,
tailors, drapers' assistants, black?
smiths, etc. Railway men's organiza?
tions, said to number 20,000, including
station masters and clerks, have come
to the same decision.
So far as trades union labor is con?
cerned, to prove its able influence over
its members, to-morrow will be a gen?
eral holiday. No previous attempt to
stop tramways and trains has ever
completely succeeded in Ireland, but
this is the first time any such move
has been able to rely on high eccle?
siastical and political approval. The
event ?3 not a strike in any ordinary
sense, but is a demonstration with a j
The Dublin corporation to-day ex?
pressed approval of the decision of its
employes to abstain from all work to?
morrow. The city is lighted by mu- j
nicipal electricity, so the idle day may
mean that there will be no electric !
lights until after midnight to-morrow j
night. The fact that no trains will bo j
run to-morrow is expected to mar tho
Punchestown races, tho great Irish i
spring social fur.etion. t
Military Takes Control of
Irish Railways and 'Phones
LONDON, April 22.?The military au- j
thorities have taken over control of j
the principal Irish railways, the post- j
oiTice and telephone exchani**es, accord- i
ing to the correspondent at Cork of j
the "Daily Chronicle."
It is added that the poli?*o on Satur
doy removed all arms and ammunition
from gunsmith shops in Dublin, where
it is reported that similar action will
be taken throughout Ireland.
I With Holland
London Hears Ultimatum
Has Been Delivered
to The Hague
LONDON, April 22. ? The "Daily
I News" says that the Foreign 0|fice has
! learned that the relations between Hol
| land and Germany are very strained.
j The chief cause of the ?juanel appar
j ently is*an old dispute about the supply ;
j o:* gravel from Holland to Germany. I
? The situation is regarded with anxiety
; in official and diplomatic circles.
It is rumored that something in the -
i nature of an ultimatum has been de- j
! livered to Holland by Gerr-any.
| AMSTERDAM, April 22.?The Dutch ]
i press expresses anxiety regarding Ger- j
' many's intention toward Holland. The ?
"Handelsblad" considers that Ger- ?
: many's policy will be determined pure- ;
; iy by what promises to pay best and
believes that Germany would not hesi
t?te to use communication through
Holland even at the risk of war, if she j
believed victory could thus be achieved
on the Western front.
The "Handelsblaad" regrets that, as
far as known, the Entente powers have
begun nothing in the direction of fa?
cilitating the movement of provisions
and war material to help make the
Dutch army strong enough if it should
be menaced by ar. invasion, and com- !
plains generally about the British pol- j
icy toward Holland.
Commenting on a Rotterdam dis?
patch to the London "Telegraph" yes?
terday, which was cabled here, the I
"Handelsblad" says that it is rumored
Germany has attempted to obtain con?
cessions from Holland concerning the
transit of sand and gravel and trans?
portation by rail through Limbourg
of various necessities not intended for
military purposes. Relative to a set?
tlement regarding traffic on the Rhine,
the "Handelsblad" learns that an
agreement has been reached.
The Rotterdam correspondent of
"The London Daily* Telegraph" report?
ed Sunday that Germany was engaged
in a plot to embroil Holland in the
war on one side or the other, and
would force tho issue in g. few weeks,
or even within a few days. .
Allies Strengthen Posi
' tions in Northern Sec?
tor and Capture
Up Heavy Guns
Artillery Fire Increases
Along Whole Line
in Preparation for
The period of feverish preparation
for a resumption of the great bat?
tle in the West which began fol?
lowing the battles of last Thurs?
day still continues. Both sides
are making strong raids and im?
proving their linea by local opera?
tions, while heavy artillery duels
are going on in many sectors.'
Military observers see signs that the
next great hostile effort may be an
attempt to cut in behind the for?
midable defences of Arras and
Vimy Ridge, now jutting out into
the German lines, by attacks on
According to this hypothesis, the foe
will lounch a new attack in the
north ? on the Givenchy-Robecq
line, where he failed dismally on
Thursday, and at the same time
in the south assail the stanch
army of General Byng somewhere
between Arras and Albert.
Both sides have been noticeably ac?
tive along these sectors in the last
twenty-four hours reported. Th?
enemy attacked near Mesnil, north
of Albert, and captured a British
On the north the British continues
to improve their positions in th<
Robecq sector. The enemy capt?
ured an advanced post northwesi
of Festubert that had chang?e
hands several times. Later th?
British again advanced their lin<
near Robecq, taking sixty-eigh'
There were also thrusts for the pur
pose of gaining information bj
both sides between La Basse:
Canal and Arras?that is, on th<
front of this Allied salient.
Berlin announced the British wen
thrown back in an attempt to cros;
La Bass?e Canal.
General Pershing reported yester
day that American casualties ii
the fighting at Seicheprey Satur
day and Sunday were about 200
while the foe lost between? 30'
Fighting activity has broken out al
along the Balkan front, Paris an
nounced. It appears that th?
Allies are harrassing the enem;
here to prevent reinforcements be
ing sent to France.
Enemy Is Expected
To Centre New Blow
By Arthur S. Draper
[Tribune Cable Service]
LONDON, April 22.?There is a bi
battle brewing. Every sign of mili
tary significance points in that direc
tion. The question is, Where and whei
will Ludendorff persevere in his al
tempt to reach the Ypres plain and th
Channel points beyond? Or, havin;
forced the British off Passchendael
and Messines ridges, which in Britis
hands would serve as jumping-ol
places for strong counter offensive!
will the Germans resume their effor
to reach Amiens to split the Angle
French armies and to move on towar
TheVe are many strong support?t
for the latter theory. They think tha
there may be a new thrust at Arra
pribr to a drive on Amiens, because o
the belief that Ludendorff is anxious t
throw the whole British; army off It
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